Organic Soil Amendments: Potential Source for Heavy Metal Accumulation
Treść / Zawartość
Effects of heavy metals on plants result in growth inhibition, structure damage, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities as well as of the function of plants. The effects and bioavailability of heavy metals depend on many factors, such as environmental conditions, pH, and species of element, organic substances of the media and fertilization, plant species. But, there are also studies on plant resistance mechanisms to protect plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals. The microorganisms act in synergism with the plants for effective phytoremediation. This synergistic relationship promotes the exchange of water and nutrients established between plant roots and specialized soil microorganisms thus, enhancing the plant growth. The application of microorganisms in phytoremediation helps to improve plant growth and survival rate. The microbial activity in the contaminated site acts as an indicator for the plant growth and bioremediation. So an attempt were made on the toxic effects of chromium in paddy plants growth and yield and thereby mitigating its toxicity by using microbial inoculants especially Azospirillum.
- Department of Botany, A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai, India
- Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, India
- Department of Botany, A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai, India
-  Alloway B.J., 1995. Heavy Metals in Soils. London: Blackie Academic & Professional.
-  Bashan Y. and H. Levanony, 1990. Current status of Azospirillum inoculation technology: Azospirillum as a challenge for agriculture. Can. J. Microbiol., 36: 591-608.
-  Bashan Y., 1991. Changes in membrane potential of intact soybean root elongation zone cells induced by Azospirillum brasilense. Can. J. Microbiol., 137: 958-963.
-  Behura, S. and N.K. Pradhan, 2001. Effect of lime amendment of chromite overburden soil on growth and oil yield of Cymbopogon martinii Wats. Indian J. Plant Physiol., 6: 295-299.
-  Becking J.H., 1985. Pleomorphism in Azospirillum spp. pp: 243-262. In: Azospirillum III Genetics, Physiology, Ecology, N. Klingmuller (Ed.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
-  Bloemberg, G.V., Wijfjes, A.H.M., Lamers, G.E.M., Stuurman, N. and Lugtenberg, B.J.J. 2000. Simultaneous imaging of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS3655 populations expressing three different auto fluorescent proteins in the rhizosphere: new perspective for studying microbial communities. Mol. Plant Mic. Inter, 13: 1170-1176.
-  Bolan N.S. and S. Thiyagarajan, 2001. Retention and plant availability of chromium in soils as affected by lime and organic amendments. Aust. J. Soil Res., 39: 1091-1103.
-  Bolan N.S., D.C. Adriano, R. Natesan and B.J. Koo, 2003. Effect of organic amendments on the reduction and phytoavailability of chromate in mineral soil. J. Environ. Qual., 32: 120-128.
-  Clemente R., D.J. Walker, A. Roig and M.P. Bernal, 2003. Heavy metal bioavailability in a soil affected by mineral sulphides contamination following the main spillage of Aznalcollar (Spain). Biodegradation, 14: 199-205.
-  Dushenkov V., P.B.A.N. Kumar, H. Motto and I. Raskin, 1995. Rhizofiltration: The use of plant to remove heavy metals from aqueous streams. Environ. Poll., 109: 69-74.
-  Finogenova L.A. 1977. Change in some agrochemical properties of sodpodzolic soil and the quality of the leningradka variety spring wheat grain in relation to nitrogen fertilizers and liming. Prysh. Podorodizya Dernovo-Podzol. Pochr. 183-191.
-  Garbisu C., Alkorta I. 2001. Phytoextraction: A cost effective plant-based technology for the removal of metals from the environment. Biores Technol. 77(3): 229-236.
-  Hasnain S. and A.N. Sabri, 1997. Growth stimulation of Triticum aestivum seedlings under Cr-stresses by non-rhizospheric pseudomonad strains. Environ. Poll, 97: 265-273.
-  Kabata-Pendias A. 2001.Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 3rd Ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
-  Kalra, G.S. and S.D. Dhiman, 1977. Determination of leaf area of wheat plants by a rapid method. J. Indian Bot. Soc., 56: 261-264.
-  Kannaiyan, S., 2002. Biofertilizers for sustainable crop production. In: Kannaiyan, S. (ed.), Biotechnology of Biofertilizers, Nerosha Publishing House, New Delhi, India.
-  Kidd P.S. and Monterroso C., 2005. Metal extraction by Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum on mine-spoil soils from Spain. Sci. Total Environ, 336(1-3): 1-11.
-  Knox A.S., Gamerdinger A.P. and Adriano D.C., 1999. Sources and Practices Contributing to Soil Contamination. In: Adriano D.C., Bollag J.M., Frankenberg W.T. Jr, et al., editors. Bioremediation of the Contaminated Soils. Madison, Wisconson, USA: ASA, CSSA, SSSA;. pp. 53-87. Agronomy Series No. 37.
-  Kozdroj J. and van Elsas J.D. 2001. Structural diversity of microbial communities in arable soils of a heavily industrialized area determined by PCR-DGGE finger printing and FAME profiling. Appl Soil Ecol. 17(1): 31-42.
-  Kurek E. and Bollag J.M., 2004. Microbial immobilization of cadmium released from CdO in the soil. Biogeochemistry; 69(2): 227-239.
-  Lindqvist O. 1991. Mercury in the Swedish environment. Water Air Soil Bull. 55(1): 23-32.
-  Liu X.M., Wu Q.T., Banks M.K., 2005. Effect of simultaneous establishment of Sedum alfridii and Zea mays on heavy metal accumulation in plants. Int. J Phytoremediation, 7(1): 43-53.
-  Liu Y., 2006. Shrinking Arable Lands Jeopardizing China’s Food Security.
-  Losi M.E., C. Amrhein and W.T. Frankenberger, 1994. Factors affecting chemical and biological reduction of Cr(VI) in soil. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 13: 1727-1735.
-  Mascarenhas H., G.A.A. Romano, P.B. Toshio and O.C. Bataglia, 1976. Effect of liming on the chemical characterization of the soil and nutrients of soybeans in latosolic dystrophic cerrado soil. Bragantia, 35: 273-278.
-  Nriagu J.O., Pacyna J.M., 1988. Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air water and soils by trace metals. Nature, 333(6169): 134-139.
-  Nriagu J.O., 1994. Arsenic in the Environment. 1. Cycling and Characterization. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
-  Perumal R. and P. Singaram, 1996. Chemical pollution of soil and irrigation water by tannery effluent. Indian J. Agr. Chem., 29: 1-8.
-  Ravichandran A.D. and M.S.D. Rajan, 2005. Effect of rhizobium and composted tannery sludge on the growth of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., Mysore J. Agr. Sci., 39: 348-354.
-  Ross S.M., 1994. Retention, transformation and mobility of toxic metals in soils. In: Ross, S.M. (ed.), Toxic Metals in Soil Plant System, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 63-152.
-  Saffaryazdi A., M. Lahouti, A. Ganjeali and H. Bayat, 2012. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Plants, Not Sci. Biol. 4(4): 95-100.
-  Saini V., R. Berwal, J. Sharma and A. Singh, 2004. Biofertilizers: Current status and perspectives in agriculture. Poll. Res., 23: 665-676.
-  Saleem F., A.N. Sabri and S. Hasnain, 1994. Growth stimulation of Triticum aestivum seedling under lead stress with non-rhizospheric bacteria. Sci. Int. 6: 181-185.
-  Salt D.E., Blaylock M., Kumar P.B.A.N., Dushenkov V., Ensley B.D., Chet L. and Raskin L., 1995. Phytoremediation: A novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants. Biotechnology; 13(2): 468-474.
-  Sankar Ganesh. K, 2009. Response of Paddy cultivars to chromium pollution, Ph.D., Thesis, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India.
-  Sankar Ganesh K., L. Baskaran, S. Rajasekaran, K. Sumathi, A.L.A. Chidambaram and P. Sundaramoorthy, 2008. Chromium induced alteration in biochemical and enzyme metabolism in aquatic and terrestrial plants. International J. of Colloids and surfaces – B, 63: 159-163.
-  Schalscha E. and Ahumada I., 1998. Heavy metals in rivers and soils of central chile. Water Sci. Technol. 37(8): 251-255.
-  Schwartz C., Echevarria G. and Morel J.L., 2003. Phytoextraction of cadmium with Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant Soil. 249(1): 27-35.
-  Seaward MRD and Richardson DHS,1990. Atmospheric Sources of Metal Pollution and Effects on Vegetation. In: Shaw AJ, editor. Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants: Evolutionary Aspects. Florida: CRC Press; pp. 75-92.
-  Sharma S.K., A. Tikkoo, A.K. Kapoor and S.S. Dahiya, 2003. Effect of sodic water, FYM and gypsum on soil properties and performance of tuberose. Haryana J. Hort. Sci., 32: 219-221.
-  Singh S. and S. Sinha, 2005. Accumulation of metals and its effects in Brassica juncea (L.) Czen cv. Rohini grown on various amendments of tannery waste. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safe., 62: 118-127
-  Thangavel P. 2004. Contamination of chromium in soil and its distribution in root and straw of maize crop irrigated with tannery effluent. J. Ecol. Physiol., 7: 109-113.
-  Walker, D.J., R. Clemente and M.P. Bernal, 2004. Contrasting effects of manure and compost on soil pH, heavy metal availability and growth of Chenopodium album L. in a soil contaminated by pyretic mine waste. Chemosphere, 57: 215-224.
-  Walker D.J., R. Clemente, A. Roig and M.P. Bernal, 2003. The effects of soil amendments of heavy metal bioavailability in two contaminated Mediterranean soils. Environ. Poll., 122: 303-312.
-  Walsh P.R., Duce R.A. and Finishing J.I., 1979. Consideration of the enrichment, sources, and flux of arsenic in the troposphere. J Geophysical Res, 84: 1719-1726.