PHOTOGRAPHY AND 'CADEM' VERSUS FILM AND 'EDEM'
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A filmologist Jan Bernard is distinguishing a camera shot (cadem), a shot edited by a cutting/clipping (edem) and a shot specified by its semantic function and a building boundary (semem). A method of handling the gadget (camera, film camera) decides upon a character of the resulting technical - iconic code. Camera shots (cadems) closely follow creative procedures related to photographic technique. Into this group belong films which consider photographic properties of camera shots determining for the method of creation of non-fiction films based on authenticity of the moment. Into this category are included films marked as found footage. There are singular cases of one- shot films in a staged production which prove this rule, for example the film by Alexander Sokurov 'Russian Ark'. The principle of photographicity of a camera shot is not possible to generalize and apply on the whole area of non- fiction creation. A specific film value is reached by shots only after having overcome a higher instance of organization. Shots are cut into the resulting shape of cut shots (edem) which are a specific material of a film 'language' on a higher level of organization. Edem changes traditional traits of cadem and leaves identity of a photography, because it is forcefully cut off from the machine and its direct functionary. The institute of an editor or clipper was originated alongside with film and a decisive revolution occured in the era of silent film. All three stages of shot (cadem, edem , semem) diffuse similarly like three kinds of iconic signs (icons, indexes, symbols) declared by Ch. S. Pierce. In digital worlds the problematization of the third type of shot is happening. The loss of 'ontological' reporter takes place, camera, editor as well as a horizon are disappearing. Shape similarities lose traditionally by senses recognizable form, and consciousness is confronted with a virtual world functioning by a real impression based on a numerical calculation of a computer.
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