Antyczne źródła renesansowej teorii afektów
Ancient origins of the Renaissance theory of affects
The article deals with the reception of the ancient humoral theory in Polish works of the Renaissance. The reconstruction of the humoral theory is analyzed from its roots – medical schools of Knidos and Kos, through activities of Hippocrates, and especially with the use of Galen’s “concept of tetrads”. Furthermore, following ideas are discussed: the isolation of four bodily fluids: blood, yellow bile, black bile and mucus with its qualities (dryness, moistness, coldness and warmth), the four elements, four seasons and four stages of life, up to the quattuor humores theory as “the theory of macrocosm – microcosm”. The presentation of the foundation of theories is to show the relations and interrelations between the flow of bodily fluids and the affects, additionally ‘contamination’ of moods is pointed out as a probable source of hysterias, with Vitello’s concept of visual sensation as caused by madness. Polemic reference to the humoral theory suggested by Paracelsus is also depicted, it outlines innovative and complex character of his work within the main premises of Renaissance medicine. An essential context of the article is the display of humanistic inclinations of Renaissance people of medicine, whose written works became the source-based work for Wojciech Oczko (among other things his staging of “The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys” by Jan Kochanowski), Józef Struś (with the special emphasis on his poetic works) or Wojciech Nowopolski (concentrating, among other things, on his translations of Erasmus of Rotterdam and Greek literature lectures) and medical fascinations of Renaissance writers, for example, Daniel Naborowski.