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2009 | 31 | 4 |
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Osmoregulation and osmoprotection in the leaf cells of two olive cultivars subjected to severe water deficit

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In this study, we compared the efficacy of defense mechanisms against severe water deficit in the leaves of two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars, ‘Chemlali’ and ‘Meski’, reputed drought resistant and drought sensitive, respectively. Two-year old plants growing in sand filled 10-dm³ pots were not watered for 2 months. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and malondialdehyde content as leaf relative water content (RWC) decreased showed that ‘Chemlali’ was able to maintain functional and structural cell integrity longer than ‘Meski’. Mannitol started to accumulate later in the leaves of ‘Chemlali’ but reached higher levels than in the leaves of ‘Meski’. The latter accumulated several soluble sugars at lower dehydration. ‘Chemlali’ leaves also accumulated larger quantities of phenolic compounds which can improve its antioxidant response. Furthermore, the activity of three antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased as leaf RWC decreased. However, differences were observed between the two cultivars for CAT and POD but not for APX. The activity of the first two enzymes increased earlier in ‘Meski’, but reached higher levels in ‘Chemlali’. At low leaf hydration levels, ‘Chemlali’ leaves accumulated mannitol and phenolic compounds and had increased CAT and POD activities. These observations suggest that ‘Chemlali’ was more capable of maintaining its leaf cell integrity under severe water stress because of more efficient osmoprotection and antioxidation mechanisms.
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