ON THE ONTOLOGICAL STATUS OF HUMAN LANGUAGES, THE FUNCTIONS, THE TASKS OF LINGUISTICS AND LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY (Zum ontologischen Status menschlicher Sprachen, zu ihren Funktionen, den Aufgaben der Sprachwissenschaft und des Sprachunterrichts)
As a first step, the author takes into consideration the ontological status of the phenomena called human languages. In terms of their status, the author divides these phenomena into two categories. One of them includes the phenomena denoted by such terms as the Polish language, the German language, the English language etc. These phenomena are not real languages. In fact, they are (more or less adequate) models of real languages. Such models are autonomous entities, existing outside concrete human brains (minds). In contrast, real languages do not exist outside concrete human brains (minds). They are parts of the mental spheres of concrete human brains (minds) that enable them to produce concrete expressions, to make them meaningful, to identify expressions and their meanings etc. The second part of the article is devoted to a discussion about the function of real languages and their functional correlation with relevant real cultures. The third part presents a view about the goals of linguistics. Like any other empirical science, linguistics is supposed to present not only descriptive and historical knowledge, but also applicative knowledge. The ultimate goal of linguistics is to help people to understand one another worldwide. In other words, linguistics should try not only to reconstruct the structures of real human languages, to describe their functions etc., but also to find out how people can improve their communication, achieve their communicative goals more effectively, develop their multilingual and multicultural communicative competence in a shorter time, etc.
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