THE INFLUENCE OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE ON THE VOCABULARY IN THE POLISH DIALECT OF THE INHABITANTS OF VERSHINA IN SIBERIA (Wplyw jezyka rosyjskiego na zasób leksykalny polskiej gwary mieszkanców Wierszyny na Syberii)
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Vershina is a Polish village in Siberia. It is situated 130 kilometres north of Irkutsk. The village was founded by the Polish settlers in 1910, and it was part of the planned voluntary colonisation of Siberia. The colonisers came from the territory that had formerly been annexed to Russia, namely Zaglebie and Malopolska. The inhabitants of Vershina are a bilingual community: they use the Polish dialect and the Russian language interchangeably, depending on the communicative context. The dialect in question is a unique insular dialect, as many inhabitants of Vershina are in contact with the Polish educated language, thanks to their visits to Poland. Some have even graduated from Polish universities. The interaction between the Polish dialect and the Russian language leads to the process of linguistic interference, which is noticeable especially in the sphere of vocabulary. The lexicon is the fastest-changing element of the language. With the appearance of new aspects of reality, there come into being new designations. The influence of the Russian language on the Polish dialect is equated with a variety of distinct phenomena. In the dialect studied there are a lot of borrowings, calques and hybrids. The words borrowed include mainly the vocabulary connected with health, jobs and professions, technical advancement, as well as the Siberian and Soviet reality.
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