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EN
The aim of the study was to propose a range of interpretation of the results of qualitative groundwater monitoring by using geochemical indicators to assess the degree of anthropogenic groundwater pollution. The location, scope and frequency of groundwater testing dedicated to the possibility of indicating the degree of pressure resulting from the activity in the field of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation is proposed. On the basis of multistage monitoring research in the area of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, the qualitative groundwater base state was determined and change trends were characterized at each subsequent testing stage. Anthropogenic transformations of groundwater chemistry are the result of many overlapping factors, which is why the reason of water quality change is difficult to identify. The very statement of the presence of high values of physico-chemical parameters in waters does not have to prove the influence of the monitored object on their composition. It is proposed to use geochemical indicators: enrichment factor, pollution factor, geoaccumulation factor, and pollution load indicator to assess the degree of anthropogenic pollution of groundwater in the area of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. The geochemical indicators, which are proposed for use, enable the identification of substances of anthropogenic origin in waters and the detection of even the initial degree of anthropopressure on their composition in specific mining activities.
EN
The article presents a proposal of the classification of hydrogeological and environmental conditions in relation to different intensities of the impact of factors affecting groundwater threat in assessments of groundwater vulnerability to pollution. Due to the complexity and high degree of transformation of the natural environment, including aquatic, types of areas subjected to ordinary and strong anthropopressure, the so-called Area Geotypes (GO), are distinguished and discussed. The main factors characterizing the impact of mining activity on the water environment (typical and specific) are discussed, and the mine ’s characteristics are highlighted, emphasizing its role and importance as an influator constituting a large, multifactorial source threatening the groundwater environment. The role of the mine as an influator is presented against the background of the mine ’s "life cycle”(development phases) along with an indication of the desirability of carrying out assessments of groundwater vulnerability to pollution and groundwater threat assessments. The need to develop legal regulations regarding the preparation of vulnerability assessments is indicated.
EN
Approximately 80% of water extracted from oil and gas deposits in Poland is disposed of by injection into the rock matrix. The aim of the model research was to predict both the hydrochemical reactions of water injected into wells for its disposal and the hydrogeochemical processes in the reservoir formation. The purpose of hydrogeochemical modeling of the hydrocarbon formation was also to determine the potential of formation waters, injection waters, and their mixtures to precipitate and form mineral sediments, and to determine the corrosion risk to the well. In order to evaluate saturation indices and corrosion ratios, the geochemical programs PHREEQC and DownHole SAT were used. The results of hydrogeochemical modeling indicate the possible occurrence of clogging in the well and the near-well zone caused mainly by the precipitation of iron compounds (iron hydroxide Fe(OH)3 and siderite FeCO3) from the formation water due to the presence of high pressures and temperatures (HPHT). There is also a high certainty of the precipitation of carbonate sediments (calcite CaCO3, strontianite SrCO3, magnesite MgCO3, siderite FeCO3) from the injection water within the whole range of tested pressures and temperatures. The model simulations show that temperature increase has a much greater impact on the potential for precipitation of mineral phases than pressure increase.
EN
The progressive citification of urban spaces results in compacting buildings and deeper foundation of new objects, and even deepening of existing facilities - to obtain maximum use of underground space. This process significantly interferes with the geological environment, both in the local (single deep foundation objects) and district (linear objects such as subways, tunnels, sewage collectors, groups of deep foundation objects). In Warsaw, underground urbanization extends several dozen meters deep and reaches the upper parts of the Neogene deposits, often fully intersecting Quaternary deposits. The progressing urbanization, and in particular the cumulative influence of deep foundation structures, creates a new set of factors with a potentially significant impact on the hydrogeological conditions of the Quaternary aquifer, including also the deep-seated aquifer, so far not having placed under a direct hydrogeodynamic impact. This article presents an assessment of the impact of underground development on the groundwater flow structure, with a particular emphasis on the deformation of the filtration mesh as a permanent result of object built-in into the groundwater stream. The analysis is based on the real case study of the implementation of a building located in the area vulnerable to hydrogeodynamic changes, where additionally can occur a cumulative impact with underground subway tunnels. Model simulations of the building foundation impact on the hydrogeodynamic conditions of the environment were performed. The results of prognostic model calculations were compared with the observations of changes in the groundwater level during construction works. The results indicate slight, permanent changes in groundwater levels, an increase in hydraulic gradients and changes in water flow directions. The scope of the changes was considered safe for the environment and building objects, allowing even a deeper foundation, although not devoid of the need for a long-term observation of groundwater levels. The obtained results indicate the usefulness and utilitarianity of numerical modeling methods in the analysis of hydrogeological conditioning of deep foundations.
PL
Badania podatności wód podziemnych przeprowadzono w dolinie Wisły, na obszarze płytkiego występowania wód podziemnych. Wykonano analizę zmian stanów wód podziemnych w celu identyfikacji wartości średnich oraz wartości najniższych w wieloleciu 1999–2013. Na modelu hydrodynamicznym określono wartości zasilania infiltracyjnego odpowiadające stanom średnim w wieloleciu oraz stanom najniższym w warunkach suszy hydrogeologicznej. Przeprowadzono wariantową ocenę podatności wód podziemnych na zanieczyszczenia przy zastosowaniu metody DRASTIC, przyjmując do obliczeń średnie i najniższe stany wód podziemnych i odpowiadające im wartości zasilania infiltracyjnego. Mapy podatności dla obu wariantów podatności: podatności średniej (A) oraz w warunkach suszy hydrogeologicznej (B), przedstawiają zróżnicowanie przestrzenne występowania poszczególnych klas podatności. W wariancie A największą powierzchnię zajmuje średniowysoka i średnia klasa podatności. W okresie suszy hydrogeologicznej największą powierzchnię zajmuje średnia klasa podatności. Wyniki badań potwierdzają potrzebę wariantowej oceny podatności, szczególnie w płytkich systemach hydrogeologicznych, w których objęte są ochroną zróżnicowane ekosystemy, w tym ekosystemy zależne od wód podziemnych.
EN
The study of groundwater vulnerability was carried out in the Vistula river valley, in the area of shallow groundwater occurrence. An analysis of groundwater level changes was preformed to identify average values and the lowest values in the period of 1999–2013. On the hydrodynamic model, infiltration rate was determined corresponding to average groundwater levels and the lowest levels representing hydrogeological drought. A variant evaluation of groundwater vulnerability to pollutions was done using the DRASTIC method, assuming the average and the lowest groundwater levels and the corresponding infiltration rates for the calculation. The vulnerability maps for both vulnerability options: medium (A) and hydrogeological drought conditions (B), show the spatial diversity of individual vulnerability classes. In Variant A, the medium and medium high classes occupy the largest area. During the hydrogeological drought the medium class is the largest area. The research results support the need for a variant susceptibility assessment, especially in shallow hydrogeological systems in which diverse ecosystems are protected, including groundwater-dependent ecosystems.
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