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PL
Do strat i marnotrawstwa żywności dochodzi na każdym etapie produkcji żywności, począwszy od produkcji podstawowej surowców przez przetwórstwo, transport, magazynowanie, handel oraz gastronomię, a skończywszy na konsumpcji. Wszystkie ogniwa odpowiadają za straty i marnotrawstwo żywności, jednak ich skala jest różna. Artykuł prezentuje próbę oszacowania skali strat i marnotrawstwa żywności w Polsce na podstawie wyników badań przeprowadzonych w ramach projektu PROM. Analiza dotyczy poszczególnych ogniw łańcucha żywnościowego oraz wybranych sektorów. Przeanalizowano także uzyskane wyniki w kontekście dotychczas dostępnych danych zarówno dla Polski, jak i innych krajów UE. Oszacowana wielkość strat dla wszystkich ogniw łańcucha żywnościowego to 4 840 946 t rocznie. Uzyskane szacunki mogą być obarczone błędem ze względu na trudności w pozyskaniu danych, szczególnie z niektórych sektorów, i zbyt małą próbę badawczą. Wskazują jednak na największy – 60% udział gospodarstw domowych w marnowaniu żywności, natomiast produkcja i przetwórstwo żywności odpowiadają łącznie za 30%. Szacunki te wskazują kierunki działań, które powinny być podejmowane w Polsce, aby w sposób efektywny przeciwdziałać marnowaniu i stratom żywności.
EN
Food losses and food wastage occur at every stage of food production, beginning from basic manufacture of raw materials via processing, transport, storage, trade and gastronomy, and finally, at consumption stage. All mentioned links are responsible for food losses and waste however, their scale is different. The present paper provides an attempt of estimating the scale of food losses and waste in Poland based upon the results of the studies, conducted within the frames of PROM project. The analysis concerns the particular links of food chain and the selected sectors. The obtained results were also analyzed in the context of the so far available data for Poland as well as for other EU countries were also analyzed. The estimated amount of food losses in the food chain is 4 840 946 tons per year. The obtained estimates may be biased due to difficulties in obtaining data, especially from certain sectors, and too small a research sample. However, they indicate the largest – 60% share of households in wasting food, while the production and processing of food is 30% in total. These estimates indicate the directions of actions that should be taken in Poland in order to effectively counteract food waste and losses.
EN
This article presents results of the inventory of pollutant emission from motor vehicles in Poland. To determine emission from motor vehicles in Poland COPERT 5 software was used for the first time. In addition, a comparison of the national emission from motor vehicles in 2016 and in 2015 was included. Pollutants harmful to health were considered primarily: carbon monoxide, organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Emission of substances contributing to the intensification of the greenhouse effect were also examined: carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrous oxide. It was found that the relative increase in volume of emission of carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds is less than 10%, and nitrogen oxides and particulate matter less than 15%. The relative increase in carbon dioxide emission is approximately 14%, which corresponds to a relative increase in fuel consumption. The relative increase of volume of heavy metal emission is similar. The assessment of the energy emission factor (emission of pollution related to energy equal to used fuel) proves that - amongst pollutants harmful to health - for carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds there is a relative reduction by approximately 5% in 2016, and for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter - increase by approximately (3-4)%.
EN
The inventory results of pollutant emission from motor vehicles in Poland comparing to the emission of pollutants in the European Union have been presented in the paper. The analysis is based on the official results of the pollution inventory reported to the European Union. Emission of the following substances was considered for the years 1990-2016 for Poland and the European Union from all civilization and road transport activities: carbon monoxide, non-methan volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter consisting of fractions: total suspended particles, PM10 and PM2.5. It was observed that the share of pollutant emission from road transport in Poland is smaller than for the entire European Union. This is especially evident in the case of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. As a result of the analysis of the emission inventory in the European Union, it was confirmed that the share of motorization in the emission of pollutants harmful to human health is significantly smaller in Poland than in the entire European Union. Therefore, conducting a detailed analysis of specific distance emission of pollutants from a statistical vehicle as well as extending research on greenhouse gas emission from motor vehicles is recommended.
EN
Within the Institute of Environmental Protection - National Research Institute the Central Emission Database is being established. The Database will cover the most important emission sectors from anthropogenic activities, including usage of motor vehicles. The intensity of emissions of individual pollutants is the input data to air pollution dispersion models. Based on calculations performed by the air pollution dispersion models concentration of pollutants dispersed in atmospheric air (pollution immission) is provided. The annual average immision for a selected place in Poland is a measure of the threat to environment. In order to determine the intensity of pollutant emissions from motor vehicles it is necessary to recognize the intensity of vehicle motion and the volume of emission of pollutants depending on the type of vehicle motion. The task presented in this article is to determine the characteristics of pollutant emissions from motor vehicles depending on the type of their motion. The mean value of vehicle speeds was used to characterize the type of vehicle motion. The emission of pollutants from vehicles is therefore characterized by the dependence of road emissions of pollutants on the average speed of vehicles. The characteristics were determined for cumulated categories of motor vehicles: passenger cars, light commercial vehicles as well as heavy duty trucks and buses. The results of the inventory of pollutant emissions from motor vehicles in Poland in 2016 were used to determine the characteristics of pollutant emissions.
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