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EN
The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool for the design of a novel Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell and to investigate the performance of serpentine micro-channel flow fields. A three-dimensional steady state model consisting of momentum, heat, species and charge conservation equations in combination with electrochemical equations has been developed. The design of the PEMFC involved electrolyte membrane, anode and cathode catalyst layers, anode and cathode gas diffusion layers, two collectors and serpentine micro-channels of air and fuel. The distributions of mass fraction, temperature, pressure drop and gas flows through the PEMFC were studied. The current density was predicted in a wide scope of voltage. The current density – voltage curve and power characteristic of the analysed PEMFC design were obtained. A validation study showed that the developed model was able to assess the PEMFC performance.
EN
The paper addresses the issues of quantification and understanding of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) based on numerical modelling carried out under four European, EU, research projects from the 7FP within the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, FCH JU, activities. It is a short review of the main projects’ achievements. The goal was to develop numerical analyses at a single cell and stack level. This information was integrated into a system model that was capable of predicting fuel cell phenomena and their effect on the system behaviour. Numerical results were analysed and favourably compared to experimental results obtained from the project partners. At the single SOFC level, a static model of the SOFC cell was developed to calculate output voltage and current density as functions of fuel utilisation, operational pressure and temperature. At the stack level, by improving fuel cell configuration inside the stack and optimising the operation conditions, thermal stresses were decreased and the lifetime of fuel cell systems increased. At the system level, different layouts have been evaluated at the steady-state and by dynamic simulations. Results showed that increasing the operation temperature and pressure improves the overall performance, while changes of the inlet gas compositions improve fuel cell performance.
EN
The aim of the present study was a numerical investigation of the efficiency of the combustion process of a novel concept burner under different operating conditions. The design of the burner was a part of the development process of a complete SOFC based system and a challenging combination of technical requirements to be fulfilled. A Computational Fluid Dynamics model of a non-premixed burner was used to simulate combustion of exhaust gases from the anode region of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stacks. The species concentrations of the exhaust gases were compared with experimental data and a satisfactory agreement of the conversion of hydrocarbons was obtained. This validates the numerical methodology and also proves applicability of the developed approach that quantitatively characterized the interaction between the exhaust gases and burner geometry for proper combustion modelling. Thus, the proposed CFD approach can be safely used for further numerical optimisation of the burner design.
EN
The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using CFD technique as a diagnostic tool of a malfunctioning Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Hydrogen starvation of a SOFC due to nitrogen dilution is one of the cell dysfunctions and can lead to its degradation. Identification of the starvation point allows to improve cell performance and establish the best conditions for degradation tests. To illustrate a potential of the CFD tool, several simulations of a single planar SOFC and its behaviour under hydrogen starvation were performed and analysed. The results showed that at lower cell voltage values of 0.3 and 0.5 V significant gradients in the electric current were noticed due to a local reduction in hydrogen concentration. The CFD analysis allowed defining desirable mass flow rate of hydrogen to SOFCs to avoid fuel starvation. The model constitutes a helpful tool for optimizing cell design and operational conditions.
EN
The paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical study for a new design of a plate heat exchanger with two different flow patterns. The impact of geometric characteristics of the two studied geometries of exchanger plates on the intensification process of heat transfer was considered. The velocity, temperature and pressure distributions along the heat exchanger were examined. The CFD results were validated against experimental data and a good agreement was achieved. The results revealed that geometrical arrangement of the plates strongly influence the fluid flow. An increase in the Reynolds number led to lowering the friction factor value and increasing the pressure drop. The configuration II of the plate heat exchanger resulted in lower outlet hot fluid temperature in comparison with the configuration I, which means improvement of heat transfer.
EN
The present study deals with modelling and validation of a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) design fuelled by gas mixture of partially pre-reformed methane. A 3D model was developed using the ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool that was supported by an additional Fuel Cell Tools module. The governing equations for momentum, heat, gas species, ion and electron transport were implemented and coupled to kinetics describing the electrochemical and reforming reactions. In the model, the Water Gas Shift reaction in a porous anode layer was included. Electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide fuels were both considered. The developed model enabled to predict the distributions of temperature, current density and gas flow in the fuel cell.
EN
The aim of the work was to develop a mathematical model for computing the steady-state voltage – current characteristics of a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and to determine the performance of a new SOFC design. The design involves cross-flow bipolar plates. Each of the bipolar plates has an air channel system on one side and a fuel channel system on the other side. The proposed model was developed using the ANSYS-Fluent commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software supported by additional Fuel Cell module. The results confirm that the model can well simulate the diagonal current path. The effects of temperature and gas flow through the channels and a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) structure were taken into account. It was shown that a significant increase of the MEA temperature at high current density can lead to hot spots formation and hence electrode damage.
EN
The main purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model, in a steady state and dynamic mode, of a Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPOx ) reformer – Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack integrated system in order to assess the system performance. Mass balance equations were written for each component in the system together with energy equation and implemented into the MATLAB Simulink simulation tool. Temperature, gas concentrations, pressure and current density were computed in the steady-state mode and validated against experimental data. The calculated I–V curve matched well the experimental one. In the dynamic modelling, several different conditions including step changes in fuel flow rates, stack voltage as well as temperature values were applied to estimate the system response against the load variations. Results provide valuable insight into the operating conditions that have to be achieved to ensure efficient CPOx  performance for fuel processing for the SOFC stack applications.
EN
The presented modelling investigation was carried out to analyze thermal stresses and expansion in an anode supported planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (pSOFC). The temperature distribution was based on previously developed thermo-electrochemical model predicting fuel cell operation. The design of a single pSOFC consisted of three ceramic layers of membrane electrode assembly: anode, electrolyte, cathode and two cross-flow bipolar plates with 26 ribs. The gases flowed diagonally from one cell corner to the opposite one. The fuel and air flows were cross-wise opposed on each bipolar plate side. The study allowed to indicate the most vulnerable to thermal damage area of the fuel cell in the operating conditions. The results will be useful in further design modification and performance optimization of the SOFC.
PL
Przeprowadzone symulacje numeryczne miały na celu analizę termicznych naprężeń i ocenę stopnia wydłużenia płaskiego stałotlenkowego ogniwa paliwowego typu pSOFC (ang. planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell). Rozkład temperatury w ogniwie wyznaczono w oparciu o wcześniej opracowany model termiczno-elektrochemiczny [11]. Nowatorskie rozwiązanie ogniwa typu pSOFC objęło ceramiczną konstrukcję, w skład której weszły porowate elektrody – anoda i katoda, elektrolit oraz dwie płytki bipolarne z 26-cioma żebrami. Przepływ paliwa i powietrza odbywał się krzyżowo i przeciwprądowo, po przekątnej ogniwa. Wyniki symulacji pozwoliły na określenie obszarów ogniwa narażonych na uszkodzenie w wyniku wysokich wartości naprężeń termicznych. Uzyskane rezultaty FEM umożliwią dalszą modyfikację konstrukcji płaskiego ogniwa w celu optymalizacji wydajności pSOFC.
EN
The CFD modelling of heat transfer in a microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (mSOFC) stack has been presented. Stack performance predictions were based on a 16 anode-supported microtubular SOFCs sub-stack, which is a component of the overall stack containing 64 fuel cells. Both radiative and convective heat transfer were taken into account in the modelling. The heat flux value corresponded to the cell voltage of 0.7 [V]. Two different cases of the inlet air velocity of 2.0 and 8.5 [ms–1] were considered. It was found that radiation accounted for about 20–30 [%] of the total heat flux from the active tube surface, which means that the convective heat transfer predominated over the radiative one.
PL
Przeprowadzono symulacje numeryczne przepływu cieczy silnie rozrzedzanej ścinaniem w mieszalniku z mieszadłem PMT. Uzyskane wyniki porównano z dostępnymi w literaturze danymi eksperymentalnymi z pomiarów LDA. Obliczono liczbę mocy mieszania Po, oraz lokalne i średnie wartości stałej Metznera-Otto k s i wartości intensywności rozpraszania energii kinetycznej ɛ. Potwierdzono występowanie podczas procesu mieszania kawerny cieczy, wewnątrz której zaobserwowano dużą zmienność wartości współczynnika k s i ɛ.
EN
Numerical simulations of highly shear-thinning fluid flow in a stirred tank equipped with the PMT impeller were performed. The results were compared with published experimental data obtained by means of LDA. Values of the power number Po, local and mean values of the Metzner-Otto constant ks, and the viscous energy dissipation rate ɛ, were computed. The occurrence of liquid cavern during mixing was confirmed and a strong variability of ɛ and ks within the cavern was found.
PL
Wyznaczono charakterystyki reologiczne wodnego roztworu soli sodowej karboksymetylocelulozy (CMC typ Blanose 9H4) o stężeniu 1,0% oraz 2,0% w temperaturach 20; 30; 40 i 50ºC. Pomiary wykonano za pomocą reometru modułowego MCR 301 firmy Anton Paar w układzie stożek-płytka. Sporządzono wykresy zależności lepkości i naprężenia stycznego od szybkości ścinania. W zakresie od 20 do 50ºC stwierdzono istotny wpływ temperatury na lepkość roztworu CMC o stężeniu 1,0%. Natomiast dla roztworu CMC o stężeniu 2,0% wpływu temperatury na własności reologiczne nie ustalono. Przedstawiono dopasowanie modelu Ostwalda-de Waele’a oraz modelu w postaci wielomianu logarytmicznego czwartego stopnia do danych eksperymentalnych. Bardzo dobre dopasowanie danych otrzymano dla modelu wielomianowego.
EN
Rheological characteristics for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC Blanose 9H4 type) aqueous solution with concentration equal to 1.0% wt. and 2.0% wt. at temperatures of 20, 30, 40, 50 ͦC were determined. Measurements were per-formed using the modular MCR 301 Anton Paar rheometer. In a temperature range from 20°C to 50°C a significant influence of temperature on viscosity was observed for 1.0% wt. CMC solution. For 2.0% wt. CMC solution the influence of temperature on rheological properties were not established. The non-Newtonian power-law and polynomial of fourth degree models were compared with experimental data. It can be stated that the polynomial model fits better the experimental results.
EN
The paper presents the results of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the velocity field of a Newtonian fluid in a mixing tank equipped with a PMT type impeller. The results are presented in the form of the velocity vectors, profiles and maps and compared with available data in the literature for the corresponding system, obtained from Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements. A good qualitative agreement of the results was found. In the flow one primary and two secondary circulation loops were observed. The PMT type impeller produced a typical axial-radial circulation of the liquid in the vessel. The value of the circulation flow number, KC, was calculated.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki pomiarów pola prędkości cieczy newtonowskiej w mieszalniku wyposażonym w mieszadło typu PMT, wykonanych za pomocą obrazowej anemometrii laserowej (PIV). Wyniki przedstawiono w postaci wektorów, profili i map prędkości średniej oraz porównano je z dostępnymi w literaturze danymi do analogicznego układu, otrzymanymi z pomiarów wykonanych metodą dopplerowskiej anemometrii laserowej (LDA). Stwierdzono dobrą zgodność jakościową wyników. W przepływie wyodrębniono jeden pierwotny i dwa wtórne wiry cyrkulacyjne. Mieszadło typu PMT wytwarzało typowo osiowo-promieniową cyrkulację cieczy w mieszalniku. Obliczono liczbę cyrkulacji cieczy, KC.
EN
The paper present the results of numerical simulations performed for a stirred tank equipped with a PMT type impeller, filled up with a Newtonian fluid. The effects of the grid density and mesh quality and also of the simulation mode on the modelling of fluid flow in a stirred tank were studied. The results are compared with literature data obtained from LDA measurements. It was found that denser numerical grids give more detailed information about generated flow field near the impeller blades. Additionally, better compatibility of predicting and experimental results was obtained in the case of the transient mode simulation, what also demonstrates a significant effect of the angular position of the impeller against baffles on the generated velocity field.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki symulacji numerycznych prowadzonych dla mieszalnika z mieszadłem typu PMT, wypełnionego cieczą newtonowską. Zbadano wpływ gęstości i jakości siatki numerycznej oraz trybu prowadzenia symulacji numerycznych na modelowanie pola prędkości cieczy w mieszalniku. Wyniki porównano z literaturowymi danymi eksperymentalnymi z pomiarów LDA. Stwierdzono, że gęstsza siatka numeryczna daje bardziej szczegółowe informacje o generowanym polu prędkości w pobliżu łopatek mieszadła. Dodatkowo lepszą zgodność wyników przewidywanych z doświadczalnymi otrzymano w przypadku prowadzenia symulacji w trybie nieustalonym, co świadczy o dużym wpływie kątowego położenia mieszadła względem przegród na generowane pole prędkości.
EN
The aim of this work was to achieve a deeper understanding of the heat transfer in a microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (mSOFC) stack based on the results obtained by means of a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool. Stack performance predictions were based on simulations for a 16 anodesupported mSOFCs sub-stack, which was a component of the overall stack containing 64 fuel cells. The emphasis of the paper was put on steadystate modelling, which enabled identification of heat transfer between the fuel cells and air flow cooling the stack and estimation of the influence of stack heat losses. Analysis of processes for different heat losses and the impact of the mSOFC reaction heat flux profile on the temperature distribution in the mSOFC stack were carried out. Both radiative and convective heat transfer were taken into account in the analysis. Two different levels of the inlet air velocity and three different values of the heat losses were considered. Good agreement of the CFD model results with experimental data allowed to predict the operation trends, which will be a reliable tool for optimisation of the working setup and ensure sufficient cooling of the mSOFC stack.
PL
Praca przedstawia wyniki badań eksperymentalnych LDA burzliwego przepływu cieczy w mieszalniku Kenics. Celem badań była próba opisu struktury przepływu burzliwego za pomocą kwantyfikatorów matematycznych: malizy widmowej oraz transformacji falkowej. Na podstawie wyników twierdzono, że ze wzrostem liczby Re wartości średnie E(f) systematycznie wzrastały, czyli poziom fluktuacji w przepływie będzie wzrastał podobnie. \naliza porównawcza widm energetycznych uzyskanych za pomocą obu netod: analizy widmowej oraz transformacji falkowej dała zadowalający vynik, przy czym widma z analizy CWT są wygładzone. Stwierdzono, że ransformata falkowa może być stosowana z powodzeniem w analizie struk- ury burzliwej przepływu.
EN
Results of experimental studies of turbulent fluid flow in a Kenics mixer conducted by means of LDA are presented in the paper. The aim of this study was to describe a turbulent flow structure with the aid of mathematical methods such as spectral analysis and wavelet transform. It was found that the increase of Reynolds number caused a systematic growth of average energy density E{f). Therefore, a level of flow fluctuations should behave similarly. The comparative analysis of power spectra obtained by means of the Fourier and wavelet analyses gave satisfying results. The fluctuations in the wavelet power spectra are smoothed out comparing to those obtained from the Fourier transform. The wavelet transform can be successfully ap¬plied in turbulent flow analysis.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki symulacji systemu procesowego do wytwarzania energii elektrycznej o mocy 100 W zaopatrzonego w stos stałotlenkowych ogniw paliwowych SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) zasilany metanem. Symulacje przeprowadzono z użyciem komercyjnego programu Aspen Plus. Analizowano wpływ reformingu parą wodną oraz reakcji katalitycznego spalania na finalne zużycie paliwa. Określono również wpływ natężenia przepływu powietrza na chłodzenie systemu.
EN
A 100 W power system based on a micro-tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack was investigated. The commercially available Aspen Plus process simulator was chosen for modelling and parametric analysis of the system.The effects of reforming with water steam and of catalytic combus-tion on the final fuel consumption were analysed along with the influence of air flow rate on system cooling.
19
Content available remote Modelling of processes in a microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
PL
W pracy przedstawiono pierwszy etap opracowanej strategii modelowania, obejmujący zastosowanie dwuwymiarowego modelu numerycznego mikrorurowego stałotlenkowego ogniwa paliwowego. Zastosowane kody obliczeniowe numerycznej mechaniki płynów (CFD) umożliwiły ilościowy opis nieliniowych relacji pomiędzy parametrami: temperaturą, ciśnieniem, strumieniami substratów i produktów.
EN
Paper presents the first stage of developed modeling strategy, including the use of two-dimensional numerical model of the solid microtubular oxide fuel cell. Codes used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allowed a quantitative description of the non-linear relationship between parameters: temperature, pressure, substrate and product streams.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań eksperymentalnych burzliwego przepływu cieczy w mieszalniku Kenics przeprowadzonych za pomocą LDA. Celem badań było wyznaczenie poziomu wielkości opisujących przepływ burzliwy cieczy w mieszalniku Kenics oraz identyfikacja fluktuacji prędkości. Wyniki badań opracowano statystycznie i przedstawiono w postaci bezwymiarowych rozkładów: vz/v0, vt/v0, vz/v0 oraz k/v02. Na podstawie wyników pomiarów LDA stwierdzono, że rozkłady wartości składowych prędkości zależą od kąta pomiarowego, wysokości pomiarowej oraz w niektórych przypadkach również od liczby Re. Zmiany k/v02 oraz bezwymiarowych profili składowych prędkości wskazują na występowanie fluktuacji prędkości w przepływie o różnej intensywności.
EN
Results of experimental studies of turbulent fluid flow in a Kenics mixer conducted by means of LDA are presented in the paper. The aim of this study was to determine a level of parameters describing turbulent flow in a Kenics mixer and the identification of velocity fluctuations. The results were analyzed statistically and presented as dimensionless radial profiles of vz/v0, vt/v0, vz/v0 and k/v02 On the basis of LDA results, it was noted< that the dimensionless profiles of velocity components are dependent on the measurement angle, height, h/H, and on Re in some cases. The profile of k/v02 and dimensionless profiles of velocity components indicate that veloc ity fluctuations in turbulent flow are of varying intensity
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