Purpose: This paper aims to assess microstructures and mechanical properties of annealed and un-annealed Al-Li alloys (AA8090) and provide valid information regarding influence of anisotropy on tensile properties, fatigue lives. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology included investigating the influence of annealing on grain size, tensile strength and fatigue lives of AA8090. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were utilized to analyse the crystallographic texture. Findings: The results showed that the un-annealed alloy exhibited much finer grain structure in three directions, namely longitudinal (L) rolling direction, L-45° and Long transverse (LT) combined with stronger crystallographic texture. Regarding to mechanical properties, un-annealed alloy presented superior tensile strength with strong anisotropic behaviour. L and LT grains direction showed highest tensile strength value of 550 MPa and L-45° showed lowest tensile strength value of 420 MPa. Results of fatigue test revealed that annealed Al-Li alloy has lower fatigue lives with high influence of test direction on fatigue properties. Higher variation in fatigue life to failure links with un-annealed alloy over annealed alloy. Examination of fractured surface showed that the morphology of fractured surface is a mixture of ductile and brittle fractures in both annealed and un-annealed alloys with more brittle behaviour in un-annealed alloy. Research limitations/implications: The main challenge of this work is the determination of the test direction (test angle in respect to rolling direction), which is necessary to provide correct information regarding mechanical properties. Further study of low cycle fatigue can be done in future, which will be an excellent indication to mechanical properties of this alloy since it provides more understanding to the behaviour of the material and better comprehend crack propagation and strain stress concentration. Practical implications: AA8090 alloy is an important candidate for aerospace and aircraft industries. Influence of annealing heat treatment and rolling direction on mechanical properties of AA8090 alloy provides more accurate information to the manufacturers who deal with this alloy. Originality/value: This study is affording a significant information regarding the effect of annealing and anisotropic behaviour on mechanical properties of AA8090. To our knowledge, there are few reports that study this combination of factors on AA8090 alloy.