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EN
The automotive market is developing very dynamically. In recent years, we can observe activities of automotive concerns in the production of new models of electric, hybrid and hydrogen vehicles, and conventional cars are supplied with increasingly economical and low-emission engines. There are also increasingly stringent standards related to exhaust emissions from the exhaust system. From September 1, 2018, passenger cars have to comply with the Euro 6d-Temp emission standard and be homologated according to the WLTP test procedure including the WLTC driving cycle and emission measurements in road traffic conditions. The exhaust components measured during the test, such as carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides or hydrocarbons, are toxic to living organisms. However, it seems that the most important issue in the long term may be the value of carbon dioxide emissions, the excess of which poses an ecological threat to the entire planet. The production of new vehicles equipped with modern complicated combustion engines, batteries, fuel cells and electronic devices is associated with a very high emission of this greenhouse gas The authors of the following article, based on their own research, sought to estimate the ecological profitability of replacing a used passenger car meeting the Euro-4 emissions standard for a new vehicle bearing in mind the value of carbon dioxide emissions during vehicle production. The analysis was to indicate how intensive the annual operation of the vehicle should be to make it profitable to recycle and replace it with a modern car with lower emissions considering the global sum of carbon dioxide emissions.
EN
The article discusses the development of the world EV fleet in years 2010-2017. Estimates of fleet of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and BEV in the world are presented. The total number of PHEVs registered in the world in 2016 was roughly 800 thousand (650 thousand in EU). Despite the fact that the sale of electric vehicles has increased considerably in recent years, in particular over 1.1 million in 2017, and also hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to approx. 760 thousand in 2017. The article also discusses the development of the electric vehicles market and annual new registrations of vehicles in a breakdown into respective countries. China is the definite leader in this area. In 2017 there were almost twice more BEVs registered in China than in the US and EU together. While the increase in the sale of BEVs in years 2016-2017 in the EU and the US accounted for approx. 50%, it came to over 90% in China. Among eight top worldwide BEV producers, there are four Chinese manufacturers. In the analysed 2017, there were slightly more than 7 thousand of hydrogen-fuelled passenger cars (FCEV) in use, with over 3,500 in the US, 2,300 in Japan and approx. 1,200 in Europe, and several hundred hydrogen-fuelled buses and several dozen hydrogen-fuelled trucks. The article also addresses the development of hydrogen refuelling stations (HRS) in recent years in different countries in the world, bearing in mind that the quantitative development of the hydrogen-fuelled car fleet is strongly associated with the number of hydrogen refuelling stations.
EN
The article presents political and legal aspects regarding the recommendation for the development of hydrogen technology in the economy and in transport. The development of electric cars with hydrogen-powered fuel cells, which took place in recent years in the world, has been outlined. The principles of calculation of average vehicle operating costs applicable in the transport economics are discussed. The estimated average unit operating costs of a statistical passenger car using conventional energy carriers, estimated in the studies of the Motor Transport Institute are quoted. The assumptions and results of the estimation of the average cost per 1 vehicle-kilometre of the electric passenger car’s mileage (BEV) have been presented, as well as the assumptions and results of the estimation of the average unit operating costs of a hydrogen powered passenger car (FCEV). The average unit costs of the mileage of these vehicles have been compared. The predictions regarding the future changes in the average prices of FCEV vehicles have been cited and the average unit costs of operating electric cars with fuel cells by the 2050 have been estimated. The project of administrative support for the development of low-emission transport in Poland was indicated.
EN
Presentation of the number of passenger cars, vehicles other than passenger cars with GVM up to 3.5 tons and above 3.5 tons (trucks, buses and special vehicles), registered in Poland as at the end of 2015, with types of energy carriers. Forecasts of transport performance of the vehicle fleet and the forecast of the fleet volume in Poland by year 2035. Expert forecasts of energy carriers consumption (petrol, diesel oil, LPG, CNG, electric power, hydrogen) up to year 2035.
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