Environmental emissions and efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) have been experimentally investigated and compared with petro-diesel. Rubber seed oil methyl ester, cotton seed oil methyl ester, neem oil methyl ester, and mahua oil methyl ester were used as fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and smoke emissions were investigated. Mahua oil methyl ester exhibits higher brake thermal efficiency compared to other FAMEs. The NOx was found to be higher, while CO, HC, and smoke emissions of rubber seed oil methyl ester were lower than the other fuels at all loads.