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EN
Adaptiveness is one of the most significant features of the supply chain that affects the results of its functioning. The capability of the supply chain to adapt to all, more and more demanding conditions is one of the main factors that guarantee long-term competitiveness and success. R. Kalakota, M. Robinson and P. Gundepudi consider inventory visibility, fulfilment velocity and coordination versatility as three fundamental pillars of adaptive supply chains, also termed as 3V in the literature. The chief objective of this paper is the identification of features that a supply chain should have in order to be called adaptive, as well as the verification of their compliance with the 3V principle. The review of the available literature sources that focus on the subject of the major features of adaptive supply chains (in particular having a decisive effect on their adaptive capabilities) has resulted in certain common elements. The authors of all the described approaches emphasise the two features: visibility and velocity. The third, frequently indicated, feature is also versatility or variety (that can be treated as one of the elements of the versatility of the supply chain). Visibility involves ensuring access to the information for all participants in the supply chain, also customers. Velocity, in turn, refers to the reaction time of the supply chain to all sorts of events and the time of implementing necessary changes. The third element is versatility. It primarily involves balancing the operational capability of a supply chain with market requirements, in particular delivering suitable products and services of the required quality and in the ordered volume. It is also vital to adjust the offer to the individual needs of customers.
PL
Standardowa odzież ostrzegawcza dotychczas stosowana w praktyce zawodowej i pozazawodowej, w przypadku braku oświetlenia kierunkowego nie zapewnia widzialności jej użytkownika. Czynnikiem, który może wpłynąć na poprawę właściwości ochronnych odzieży ostrzegawczej może być doposażenie jej w źródła światła bezpośredniego, emitujące promieniowanie widzialne. Na rynku od kilku lat zaczęły się pojawiać wyroby odzieżowe wyposażone w różnego rodzaju źródła światła, jednak jak dotąd nie ma znormalizowanych metod badań i wymagań dla tego typu odzieży. Aby stworzyć możliwości oceny takiej odzieży, przeprowadzono badania fotometryczne i użytkowe modelowych rozwiązań odzieży o intensywnej widzialności z aplikacją elementów świecących. Na podstawie analizy otrzymanych wyników zaproponowano podstawową klasyfikację tego typu odzieży w zakresie minimalnych wymagań luminancji emitowanego z niej światła z oraz kryteria jej oceny.
EN
The standard high visibility clothing previous used in the professional and nonprofessional practice, in the absence of directional lighting does not ensure the visibility of its user. A factor that can improve the protective properties of warning clothing may be the retrofitting it with elements that emit direct visible radiation. The clothing with various types of active light sources have started to appear on the market for several years, but so far there are no the standardized test methods and the requirements for this type of clothing. In order to create the possibility of assessing such clothing, we conducted the photometric and functional tests of model high visibility clothing solutions with the application of lighting elements. On the basis of the results obtained and their analysis, a basic classification of this type of clothing was proposed in terms of the minimum luminance requirements of the light emitted from it, as well as criteria for its assessment.
PL
Artykuł został poświęcony zagadnieniu widoczności sygnałów świetlnych nadawanych przez sygnalizatory kolejowe i wskaźniki stosowane na liniach kolejowych zarządzanych przez PKP Polskie Linie Kolejowe S.A. Zostały przedstawione zasady widoczności związane ze stawnością sygnalizacji oraz wynik analizy wymagań zawartych w przepisach i zasad stosowanych przez projektantów w kraju i za granicą. Omówiono genezę standardu sygnalizacji OSŻD i określone w ramach tego standardu długości dróg związanych z widocznością. Na podstawie wniosków ze zgromadzonego materiału zostały zaproponowane zmiany w wytycznych wyznaczania odległości, z której sygnał na sygnalizatorach kolejowych powinien być widoczny i czytelny oraz zasad postrzegania tego sygnału przez kierującego pojazdem trakcyjnym w trakcie zbliżania się do sygnalizatora.
EN
The article is devoted to the issue of visibility of light signals transmitted by railway signals and indicators used on railway lines managed by PKP (Polskie Linie Kolejowe S.A. company). Visibility rules related to signalling combination and the result of the analysis of the requirements contained in regulations and principles applied by designers in Poland and abroad were presented. The genesis of the OSJD signalling standard and the visibility road lengths defined under this standard were discussed. Based on the conclusions of the collected material, changes were proposed in the guidelines for determining the distance from which the signal on railway signals should be visible and legible and the principles of perception of this signal by the train driver when approaching the signal.
EN
Today’s market and customer expectations are changing so fast that numerous solutions and logistic concepts are becoming obsolete or require radical changes. These changes largely result from digital transformation, which creates a new business reality, generating access to digital tools and services in any place, at any time and scope. Owing to digital transformation it is possible to apply technology which ensures visibility throughout the supply chain, realtime response, implementation of modern E2E concepts, and primarily solutions that will allow to effectively meet the expectations of the modern customer. In this respect, it could be useful to consider the place of telematics in meeting these requirements and expectations. The assumed increase in effectiveness of activities, real-time data exchange and automation of many processes without the broad implementation of telematics considerations seems impossible. Thus, the question arises not only about the role and importance of telematics, but also about the scope and areas of implantation of telematics solutions into the functioning of modern supply chain referred to as “RealTime-End-to-End-Visibility”. The article attempts to identify and comprehensively approach the factors determining the emergence of such solutions. The objective of the study is also to indicate trends and directions of changes in the implementation of the latest telematics solutions on the example of selected companies in Lower Silesia.
5
EN
Range-gated-imaging system, which can be used to eliminate backscatter in strong scattering environments, is based on two high speed technologies. It uses high power, ultra-short pulse laser as the light source. And it opens the optical gate of an ICCD camera with a micro-channel-plate image intensifier in a very short time while the laser pulses reflected by the object is coming back to the ICCD camera. Using this range-gated-imaging technology, the effect of scattered light can be reduced and a clear image is obtained. In this paper, the test results of the range-gated-imaging system under dense aerosol environments, which simulates environments in the reactor containment building when the severe accident of the nuclear power plant occurred, are described. To evaluate the observation performance of the range-gated-imaging system under such dense fog environment, we made a test facility. Fog particles are sprayed into the test facility until fog concentration is reached to the postulated concentration level of the severe accident of the nuclear power plant. At such dense fog concentration conditions, we compared and evaluated the observation performances of the range-gated-imaging system and the CCD camera.
EN
Road safety has an extremely important role in existing transportation systems. Drivers on the road are influenced by various factors (light and temperature conditions, visual smog, environment surrounding, etc.) and driver´s distraction represents the most common cause of road traffic accidents. According our previous researches, we found that visual smog has a negative influence on drivers on the road. However, the task of placing the traffic signs on the roads is to increase road safety, thus positively influencing the driver while driving. The main objective of this article is to measure the visibility of traffic signs on selected roads in specific light conditions (in night). Secondary objective is to measure visibility of roadside advertisement (billboards) near roads that are influencing driver´s distractions in negative way. The mobile ETG technology (eye tracking glasses) has been used as a method for measuring the gaze of the driver’s eyes on traffic signs in night conditions. We compared the results from our previous research (daylight conditions) with the obtained results from the current research. On the basis of the comparison of both measurements we can find out differences (positive and negative) in influence of traffic signs and road side advertisements on drivers in various light conditions.
EN
All the actions tending to limit the number of road accidents are very important. One of such an activity done by road users is wearing the warning clothing containing reflectivematerials and elements. Warning clothing enables noticing the moving person in good and/or bad atmospheric conditions. Reflective elementsplaced on the clothing improve the visibility not only pedestrians, but also the other road users, for example, bicycle riders. In the paper there is presented the designed project of warning clothing – bicycle rider jacket and there are presented results of questionnaire and of visibility measurementsof jacket on the road in the darkness.
8
Content available remote Praktyczne aspekty szacowania widzialności w dymie
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę szacowania widzialności w dymie wykorzystywaną jako element numerycznego modelowania skutków pożaru w obiektach budowlanych. Metoda ta powstała w latach siedemdziesiątych w Japonii jako uzupełnienie prostych matematycznych modeli pożaru i w niemal niezmienionej formie została zaadaptowana do nowoczesnych narzędzi inżynierskich. Jej ograniczeniem są przede wszystkim niedoskonałości matematycznego modelu osłabienia natężenia światła w dymie na podstawie prawa Lamberta-Beera oraz podatność na dane wejściowe podane przez użytkownika, w tym w szczególności tzw. współczynnika generacji sadzy (soot yield, Ysoot). Artykuł jest podsumowaniem pracy autorów w tej dziedzinie, ma na celu zwrócenie uwagi projektantów na możliwe źródła błędu w metodzie CFD.
EN
The paper treats on the method of evaluating visibility in smoke, used as an element of numerical modelling of the effects of fire within buildings. This method was developed in Japan in 70’s as element of simplified fire models, and nowadays it is implemented in an almost untouched form in modern tools. The limitations of the method come from the uncertainty of the Lambert-Beer law, as well as its vulnerability of the user input (especially the soot yield parameter). This paper is a summary of the authors work in this field, and the aim of it is to increase the consciousness of the designers on the possible source of error, in the CFD method.
EN
Mine rehabilitation is nowadays an essential part of the mine life-cycle. Nevertheless, due to the inadequate legislative framework and the lack of appropriate financial instruments in the past, abandoned mined land is present in almost all regions with a mining history. Especially in times of fiscal and financial belt tightening, where direct funding is almost impossible, the restoration of abandoned mines becomes a difficult task and, consequently, prioritization of the restoration projects is necessitated. So far, several models have been developed for that purpose. The existing models, however, usually underestimate that, especially for non-reclaimed mines located close to populated areas, landscape degradation generated by surface mining is a critical factor. To this end, this paper presents, through an illustrative example, a new approach providing the means for prioritizing mine restoration projects based on the visibility of surface mines with regard to the neighboring areas of interest. The proposed approach can be utilized as an additional module in existing prioritization models, or it can be used standalone when considering a group of surface mines where what distinguishes them from each other is primarily the disturbance of the landscape.
PL
W artykule omówiony został problem dostrzegania pieszego oświetlonego światłami mijania w porze nocnej. Przedstawione zostały wyniki badań dotyczące odległości postrzegania w światłach mijania pieszego nie posiadającego elementu odblaskowego a następnie wyposażonego w pryzmatyczną opaskę odblaskową umieszczoną na przedramieniu. Na podstawie wyników przeprowadzonych badań odniesiono się również do długości drogi zatrzymania pojazdu przy prędkości maksymalnie dozwolonej administracyjnie w danych warunkach drogowych oraz możliwości uniknięcia wypadku poprzez wykonanie manewru omijania lub zatrzymania pojazdu przed pieszym w oparciu o zmierzone odległości. Uzyskane wyniki badań poddano analizie statystycznej, która pozwoliła ocenić poprawność wnioskowania na ich podstawie.
EN
The article discusses the issue of the detection of a pedestrian illuminated with the DRL lights during the night time. There were presented the results of the study concerning the distance of perception of the pedestrian without a reflective element, and then, equipped with a prismatic reflective band on the forearm. The study was conducted with the presence of DRL lights. The results of the study were also the basis of the analysis of the stopping distance in the condition of maximum speed allowed administratively and the possibility of avoiding an accident by evading or stopping the vehicle before the pedestrian, based on the measured distances. The obtained results of the study were subjected to statistical analysis, which allowed to assess their correctness of reasoning based on them.
EN
Świnoujście is a Polish seaport located on the Pomeranian Bay, on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea island of Usedom and Wolin. The port is situated in the Świna Strait in Świnoujście, Western Pomerania. The harbor consists of a cargo handling quay, passenger terminal and marina. The seaports of Świnoujście and Szczecin are closely linked economically to form a team and are connected by a passage through the Szczecin Lagoon. All big ships directed to Szczecin have to be routed through the port of Świnoujcie. The hydro-meteorological conditions in the Świnoujście Port area and surroundings, affecting safe maneuvering of ships, are analyzed by statistical methods. The conditions studied, with the aid of Port Captain logbook, are: currents, winds, water level, ice conditions and visibility. The statistical distribution of water level was analyzed and proposed as decision-making tool during a ship’s approach to Świnoujście Port.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problem związany z ograniczeniem pola widoczności tzw. stref martwych w pojazdach użytkowych oraz pojazdach ciężarowych. Problem związany z bezpieczeństwem użytkowania takich pojazdów wiąże się w dużej mierze ze specyfiką konstrukcji samego nadwozia pojazdu oraz miejsca pracy kierowcy. Jednym ze sposobów poprawy widoczności z miejsca kierowcy jest wprowadzanie różnych układów techniki wizyjnej oraz systemów przekształcania obrazu z wykorzystaniem w technice samochodowej mini kamer. Jednym z najnowszych rozwiązań w tym zakresie jest „system 360 stopni” analizujący w pełnym zakresie otoczenie wokół pojazdu. System ten może w znaczący sposób poprawić bezpieczeństwo manewrowania poprzez całkowitą likwidację stref martwych widoczności.
EN
The article presents the problem of limited field of view so. Blind spots in commercial vehicles and heavy goods vehicles. The problem of the safety of use of such vehicles is associated largely with the specifics of construction of the body of the vehicle and the driver's workplace. One way to improve visibility from the driver's seat is the introduction of different kinds of systems technology vision and image conversion system opened possibilities for use in automotive engineering mini-cameras. One of the latest solutions in this regard is the "system 360 degrees" fully analyzing the environment around the vehicle. This system can significantly improve the safety of maneuvering through the complete elimination of dead visibility.
PL
Jednym z istotnych czynników wpływających na wypadki z pieszymi przekraczającymi jezdnię są ograniczenia obszarów dobrej widoczności pieszych i pojazdów na przejściach dla pieszych. W Polsce ten problem jest niedoceniany. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono propozycję metody wyznaczania obszaru dobrej widoczność na przejściach dla pieszych w Polsce. Metodę tę opracowano, korzystając z doświadczeń zagranicznych i badań własnych. Metoda zawiera: sposób szacowania odległości widoczności pojazdu zbliżającego się do przejścia dla pieszych z punktu widzenia pieszego chcącego przekroczyć jezdnię, sposób szacowania odległości widoczności pieszego przechodzącego przez jezdnię lub wykazującego zamiar wejścia na przejście dla pieszych z punktu widzenia kierowcy pojazdu zbliżającego się do przejścia oraz zasady sprawdzania obszaru dobrej widoczności i postępowania w celu ewentualnego jej polepszenia.
EN
One of the important factors affecting accidents with pedestrians crossing the road are limitations of areas of good visibility of pedestrians and vehicles at pedestrian crossings. In Poland this issue is underestimated. This paper proposes a method of determining area of good visibility at pedestrian crossings in Poland. The method has been developed on the basis of international experiences and own studies. The method includes: a measure to estimate vehicle sight distance approaching the crossing from the point of view of pedestrians willing to pass the road, measure to estimate a distance of the visibility of pedestrians crossing the road or demonstrating intention to enter a crossing from the point of view of the driver of approaching vehicle and rules of verification the area of good visibility in order to possible improvement.
EN
Nowadays the number of road accidents of pedestrians and bicycle riders is on the high level. All the actions tending to limit the number of those dramatic situations are very important. One of such an activity done by the road users is wearing the warning clothing equipped in reflective elements and materials. Warning clothing is very important element of prevention against the road accidents, which enables noticing the moving person in good and/or bad atmospheric conditions. Reflective elements placed on the clothing improve the visibility not only pedestrians, but also the other users of the road, for example, the road workers or bicycle riders. Therefore, in the paper there are described the problems dealt with the traffic safety and first of all concerning the reflective materials applied in the warning clothing.
PL
Oświetlenie przednie pojazdów samochodowych wywiera decydujący wpływ na bezpieczeństwo ruchu drogowego. Szczególnie ważną rolę odgrywają światła przednie, zwłaszcza w warunkach ograniczonej widoczności. Zły stan techniczny reflektorów, oraz nieprawidłowe ich używanie ograniczają widoczność pojazdu, a w nocy lub podczas opadów spada widoczność drogi i innych jej użytkowników dla kierowcy. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań widoczności przednich świateł pojazdów samochodowych o różnych porach dnia i nocy, a także w różnych warunkach pogodowych. Stwierdzono, że zdecydowana większość pojazdów cechuje się dobrą widocznością świateł. Zaobserwowano jednak niewielkie ilości pojazdów bez włączonych świateł czy z włączonymi światłami do jazdy dziennej, wówczas gdy nie jest to dozwolone. Zaobserwowano także nieliczne przypadki złego stanu technicznego reflektorów przednich, powodujących, że natężenie ich światła było słabe, bądź nierównomierne.
EN
Proper acting of car headlamps has a crucial influence on traffic safety, especially at nighttime or during rain- or snowfalls. Poor technical condition of headlamps as well as their improper use reduce vehicle visibility. Also driver’s possibilities of road observation is then limited. This article presents a study of car headlamps visibility. Driving during the day or at night and in different weather conditions was taken into account. The study results shown, that the vast majority of investigated cars exhibited good visibility of their headlamps. Nevertheless rare drivers doesn’t turn on headlamps in their cars or use daytime running lights, when it is forbidden. Also few cases of headlamps’ poor technical condition were observed. They results in low or uneven their illumination.
EN
When driving a car, the visual awareness is important for operating and controlling the vehicle. When operating a tractor, it is even more complex. This is because the driving is always accompanied with another task (e.g., plough) that demands constant changes of body postures, to achieve the needed Field-of-View (FoV). Therefore, the cockpit must be well designed to provide best FoV. Today, the driver's FoV is analyzed mostly by computer simulations of a cockpit model and a Digital Human Model (DHM) positioned inside. The outcome is an ‘Eye view’ that displays what the DHM ‘sees’. This paper suggests a new approach that adds quantitative information to the current display; presented on three tractor models as case studies. Based on the results, the design can be modified. This may assist the engineer, to analyze, compare and improve the design, for better addressing the driver needs.
17
Content available Widoczność na przejściach dla pieszych
PL
Przyczyną powstawania większości wypadków drogowych z udziałem pieszych są w Polsce błędy popełniane przez użytkowników dróg, a także błędy planistyczne i projektowe oraz bardzo często źle utrzymana infrastruktura drogowa. Jednym z istotnych czynników wpływających na wypadki z pieszymi przekraczającymi jezdnię są ograniczenia obszarów dobrej widoczności pieszych i pojazdów na przejściach dla pieszych. W Polsce ten problem jest niedoceniany. W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę problemu ograniczonej widoczności na przejściach dla pieszych. Przedstawiono przykłady wyznaczania obszaru dobrej widoczności w wybranych krajach oraz podstawy teoretyczne wyznaczania obszaru dobrej widoczność na przejściach dla pieszych.
EN
The cause of most road accidents involving pedestrians in Poland mistakes made by road users, as well as planning and design errors, and often poorly maintained road infrastructure. One of the important factors affecting the accidents with pedestrians in excess of the road are the limitations of areas of good visibility of pedestrians and vehicles at pedestrian crossings. In Poland, the problem is underestimated. This paper presents the characteristics of the problem of limited visibility at pedestrian crossings. Also shows examples of the determination of the area of good visibility in selected countries and the theoretical basis for determining the area of good visibility at pedestrian crossings.
18
Content available remote Visibility and geometry of global satellite navigation systems constellations
EN
Nowadays (November 2015) there are two global fully operational satellite navigation systems, American GPS and Russian GLONASS. Two next are under construction, Galileo in Europe and BeiDou in China. As the error of observer’s position obtained from these systems depends on geometry factor DOP (Dilution Of Precision) among other things the knowledge of the number of satellites visible by this observer above given masking elevation angle Hmin and the distributions of DOP coefficient values, GDOP in particular, is very important. The lowest and the greatest number of satellites visible in open area by the observer at different latitudes for different Hmin, the percentage of satellites visible above angle H (9 intervals, each 10O wide), distributions (in per cent) of satellites azimuths (8 intervals, each 45O wide) and GDOP coefficient values (8 intervals) for Hmin = 5O for all these four systems at different observer’s latitudes (9 intervals, each wide 10O wide) are presented in the paper. Additionally the lowest elevation for which the number of satellites visible at different latitudes by the observer in open area above this angle is equal 4 or 3 and the distributions (in per cent) of GDOP coefficient values for different Hmin at observer’s latitudes 50-60O for the same four systems are showed. All calculations were made for constellation of GPS 27 satellites, GLONASS 24, Galileo 30 and BeiDou 27 MEO satellites.
19
Content available remote System of object display in conditions of smoke screening
EN
Paper presents results of investigations of increased visibility with help of electrooptical system APIS in a smoky environment in outdoor conditions. A comparative assessment of visibility in smoke with use of this system is given as well as posibility of the visibility increase with help of the APIS system is considered.
20
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano możliwości wykorzystania urządzeń do pomiaru zasięgu widzialności na potrzeby prób odbiorowych systemów oddymiania w budynkach, w celu umożliwienia oceny skuteczności ich działania. Dzięki zastosowaniu detektora homodynowego uzyskano dobrą dokładność pomiarową, którą zweryfikowano na stanowisku testowym. Przedstawiono również metodę weryfikacji dokładności pomiarów oraz przykładowe wyniki uzyskane w warunkach rzeczywistych.
EN
The article presents possibilities of using dedicated devices designed to measure a visibility range for acceptance tests of smoke ventilation systems in buildings in order to enable the evaluation of their operation efficiency. Good measurement accuracy was obtained thanks to employing a homodyne detector, which was then verified at an acceptance station. Furthermore, a method of validation of measurement accuracy has been described here along with exemplary results received in actual conditions.
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