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PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań półmasek filtrujących wytworzonych na bazie opracowanych materiałów filtracyjnych z polipropylenu i poliwęglanu zawierających modyfikator w postaci perlitu. Wytworzone półmaski filtrujące poddano badaniom w zakresie penetracji aerozoli testowych (chlorek sodu i mgła oleju parafinowego) oraz oporu oddychania (w fazie wdechu i wydechu) wg standardowej metodyki badań przedstawionej w normach przedmiotowych oraz niestandardowej metodyki badań dotyczącej penetracji wobec nanoaerozoli chlorku sodu. Stwierdzono, że zarówno półmaska na bazie polipropylenu z modyfikatorem, jak i półmaska na bazie poliwęglanu z modyfikatorem zapewniają dwukrotnie wyższą ochronę niż standardowe półmaski filtrujące zawierające materiały filtrujące stosowane do produkcji półmasek filtrujących o najwyższej, trzeciej klasie ochronnej.
EN
Two filtering half masks with perlite-modified polypropylene and polycarbonate nonwoven layers were constructed and studied for penetration of NaCl and paraffin oil mist nanoparticles-containing aerosols. The half masks were more efficient than conventional half masks without perlite-modified nonwoven layers.
EN
The paper demonstrates the application of maximum bubble pressure tensiometry for analysis of physicochemical effects induced by selected mineral nanoparticles and medical powders on pulmonary surfactant. It was shown that dynamic surface tension data measured in timescales relevant to breathing conditions can be used as indicators of possible alterations in lung mechanics caused by inhaled aerosol particles.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki zastosowania tensjometrii pęcherzykowej opartej o pomiar ciśnienia maksymalnego do analizy wpływu wybranych nanocząstek mineralnych i leczniczych proszków inhalacyjnych na surfaktant płucny. Dane pomiarowe dynamicznego napięcia powierzchniowego w skalach czasowych korelujących z rytmem oddychania wskazują na możliwość uzyskania informacji o zaburzeniach mechaniki płuc wskutek wdychania cząstek aerozolowych zawartych w powietrzu.
PL
Przedmiotem publikacji jest przedstawienie propozycji modelowania i zasad wizualizacji zmian w mechanice układu oddechowego, u osób z nadwagą lub otyłością. W badaniach wykorzystano 16-elementowy model elektryczny układu oddechowego. Dobór wartości parametrów modelu odbywał się na podstawie wiedzy dostępnej w literaturze medycznej. Opracowanie może być szczególnie przydatne inżynierom dokonującym wstępnej weryfikacji nowo opracowywanych systemów medycznych lub na etapie dokonywania przeglądów okresowych aparatury medycznej.
EN
The subject of the publication is a proposal of approach to modeling and visualization of changes in pulmonary mechanics, for people impaired by obesity or serious overweight. Previously developed models of the patient respiratory system were based on parameter identification of the considered models with the help of the measured data [3]. In this paper the modeling procedures basing on the basic medical knowledge in the field of clinical obesity (BMI> 35) are proposed. In the research a 16-coefficient electrical model of the respiratory system (Fig. 1), presented previously in [8], was used Most of lesions causing the changes in parameter values, described in Section 2, simulate the changes in mechanics of respiratory tract and lungs. The range and nature of the changes in the model parameter values are the subject of Section 3. The results of simulations of the respiratory volume (Fig. 3) and the flow (Fig. 4) are presented in Section 4. Moreover, the result of respiratory mechanics examination obtained by FOT is shown in Fig. 6. The presented time courses are consistent with the results available in the medical literature, obtained as a result of the medical examinations (Fig. 5). That proves the legitimacy of the presented approach and demonstrates the functionality of lesions modeling based on basic medical knowledge. This approach may be particularly useful for engineers providing preliminary verification of newly developed medical systems or at the stage of servicing the medical equipment.
EN
The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the fundamental index in obstructive lung disease diagnosis, depends on both resistive (RP) and compliant (CP) properties of the respiratory system (RS). The study aim was to test initially a method that could differentiate their influence to aid spirometry interpretation during screening examinations. Tests were done on a virtual RS elaborated previously. After respiratory muscle relaxation, a part of air was exhaled passively to an added compliance (Cad) or through an added resistance (Rad). The CP and RP were estimated from mouth pressure changes under different conditions of RS and measurement (different obstruction severities, various Cad and Rad values, etc.). Measurements had to be performed after maximal inspiration to avoid dependence of results on the lung volume. The Cad maneuver enabled to estimate the CP properly. Inertances and bronchi collapse caused pressure fluctuations, whereas bronchi reopening modified pressure rise after airflow interruption. Rad > 0.8 kPa s/L eliminated these problems and made the RP estimation independent from the Rad value and the CP. The calculated value of resistance depended on both airway resistance and parenchyma viscosity (like FEV1) and viscosity of other tissues. Since collapse instantaneous observation in real patients is impossible, initial but extensive tests illustrating influence of the collapse on measurement could be done only on a virtual RS.
PL
Instalacje i urządzenia wodne, w tym systemy wody technologicznej/chłodzącej są rezerwuarami, które mogą być zasiedlane przez szereg mikroorganizmów tym bakterie z rodzaju Legionella. Zakażenie człowieka pałeczkami Legionella następuje na drodze inhalacyjnej w przypadku przedostania się łych mikroorganizmów wraz z aerozolem wodnym bezpośrednio do układu oddechowego. Badania przeprowadzone w zakładach mechanicznej obróbki szkła potwierdziły obecność bakterii Legionella w wodzie technologiczne) urządzeń generujących aerozol wodny, co wskazuje na ryzyko wystąpienia zakażeń oddechowych pracowników zatrudnionych przy ich obsłudze. Ze względu na istniejące zagrożenie zdrowotne powodowane zasiedlaniem instalacji i urządzeń wodnych przez pałeczki Legionella. należy prowadzić okresowy monitoring wody technologicznej w kierunku wykrywania obecności tych bakterii oraz opracować procedury stosowania regularnych zabiegów czyszczenia i dezynfekcji, urządzeń generujących bioaerozol.
EN
Installations and water equipment, including cooling water systems are reservoirs that can be inhabited by a variety of microorganisms, including Legionella genus. Human infection with Legionella occurs through inhalation during introduction of these micro-organisms, together with the water spray directly to the respiratory system. Studies in mechanical glass processing factories have confirmed the presence of Legionella in technological water devices generating bioaerosol, indicating the risk of respiratory infections by their employees. In view of existing health risks caused by colonisation of installation and water equipment with the Legionella, periodical monitoring towards the detection of these bacteria and developing procedures for including regular cleaning and disinfection treatments of devices that generate bioaerosol needs to be applied
EN
One of highly effective filtering nonwovens of melt-blown type is an equipment designed to be used as a respiratory equipment protecting against inhaling hazardous industrial aerosols. Such equipment is often designed as disposable and as a result the cost of its utilization is a heavy burden for the employers. Due to that fact the numerous research works are undertaken to create production possibilities for nonwovens, which would include biodegradable polymers. This work presents results of research connected with applying a polylactic acid (PLA) for production of melt-blown electret nonwovens as a base in creating and filtering half-masks. The results of research on agreement with standards harmonized with the 89/686/EWG directive, indicate that the equipment fulfills the requirements as far as the highest efficiency of protection is concerned. However, due to occurrence of non-biodegradable construction elements (i.e. exhalation valve, nose clamp, head harness), further technological research in this field is necessary.
8
Content available remote The effect of body warming on respiratory system stress recovery in the rat
EN
The mechanical characteristics of respiratory system tissues include visco-elastic behaviour. In particular, after mechanical unloading, i.e., a reduction in respiratory system volume, the lower stress achieved slowly increases, approaching higher constant value, due to visco-elastic stress recovery. We performed experiments in which constant deflation flow arrest was applied in rats to study the successive pressure-time course, which defines the visco-elastic stress recovery. To investigate the possible effects of temperature changes, measurements were performed at two body temperatures, 36.6 +- 0.3 and 39.0 +- 0.1 degrees C. We found that stress recovery is reduced by increasing body temperature. Pressure-time curves after deflation arrest were fitted by specific mathematical model, and a good agreement was found. Model parameters exhibited significant changes with body temperature variations, suggesting that temperaturedependent micro-structural rearrangement phenomena in the tissues of alveolar wall were involved in the stress recovery decrement with body temperature increase. Thus, visco-elastic phenomena in respiratory system tissues of mammals exhibit temperature dependence. The stress recovery changes with body temperature suggest that expiration is expected to be easier in condition of physiological body temperature than in the case of increased temperature.
EN
The following paper describes the results of investigations in Rybnik-Orzepowice waste-water treatment plant as part of the targeted project No 6 ZR7 2008C/07051 entitled “The increase in biogene reduction through the optimisation of the biological waste-water treatment process in Rybnik-Orzepowice waste-water treatment plant”. The investigations presented in this article were carried out in April and May 2010 (four measurement days), using a transportable Bioscope respirometer. The obtained results were compared with the read-outs from stationary oxygen probes. A comparative laboratory test was also carried out in order to determine the activated sludge respiratory activity and to verify the correctness of results received with the use of respirometer. The investigations constituted a part of studies conducted in the framework of the targeted project. They might be also regarded as an attempt to make use of the experience acquired before research in terms of real conditions for an exploitation of biological wastewater treatment plants.
PL
W niniejszym artykule opisano wyniki badań przeprowadzonych w oczyszczalni Rybnik-Orzepowice w ramach projektu celowego nr 6 ZR7 2008C/07051 pt. „Zwiększenie redukcji biogenów przez optymalizację procesu biologicznego oczyszczania ścieków w oczyszczalni ścieków Rybnik-Orzepowice”. Opisywane w artykule badania wykonano w kwietniu i maju 2010 roku (cztery dni pomiarowe), wykorzystując do tego celu przenośny respirometr Bioscope. Otrzymane wyniki zestawiono z odczytami ze stacjonarnych sond tlenowych. Wykonano również porównawczy laboratoryjny test na wyznaczanie aktywności oddechowej osadu czynnego w celu sprawdzenia poprawności wyników otrzymywanych z wykorzystaniem respirometru. Badania te były częścią prac prowadzonych w ramach projektu celowego, a także próbą wykorzystania zdobytych doświadczeń badawczych, w warunkach rzeczywistych eksploatowania biologicznych oczyszczalni ścieków.
EN
Positive alveolar (PA) and thoracic (Pr) pressures during artificial ventilation disturb pulmonary circulation, and might influence arterial blood oxygenation (PaO2). Initial analysis of such influence of different artificial ventilation modes is the goal of this paper. Previously elaborated virtual respiratory system (IBIB PAS, Warsaw, Poland) and cardiovascular system model (ICP CNR, Rome, Italy) were connected with two files-buffers to work as one virtual cardio-pulmonary system. Dependence of PaO2 on two methods (continuous inspiratory airflow (VCV) or pressure (PCV)), two ventilatory frequencies (fV = 15 or 7.5/min), and two values of the minute ventilation (Vmin = 6 or 8L/min) was investigated. Perfusion dependence on gravity was neglected as the virtual patient was in the supine position. Simulations showed that when fV = 15/min, neither the used method nor Vmin influence pulmonary blood flow significantly, whereas they influence the flow during expiration when fV = 7.5 (blood flow falls more for PCV and Vmin = 8 L/min). Vmin more significantly influences alveolar partial pressure of oxygen (P02) when fV = l5/min. P02 was greater for PCV. As effects on the flow and PO2 were contradictory, Pa02 was almost independent of the used method and fV. It depended on Vmin more significantly if fV = 15/min.
11
Content available remote A new control solution for independent synchronous ventilation of lungs
EN
A new control solution for independent, synchronous ventilation of lungs has been developed and a controller to perform it with use of only one respirator and a bilumen intubation tube has been built. The controller enables division of the inspiratory tidal volume between the lungs in desired ratio, and setting of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) separately for each lung. The model tests have shown that the characteristics of the flow meters used, however not linear, is good enough to achieve clinically accepted accuracy of volume division. The tests have shown that the volume division is independent from the total tidal volume and PEEP. Maximal errors of the tidal volume division was less than 10%. The case study of patient after lung injury has shown significant improvement of the X-ray image and respiratory parameters (blood oxygenation, ventilatory pressures) during the independent ventilation of lungs with the use of the new device. The clinical study of 60 patients has shown that differences between actually realized volume division and the adjusted values are practically negligible.
PL
Kaszel jest jednym z najbardziej uciążliwych i jednocześnie najbardziej powszechnych objawów w przebiegu przewlekłych chorób układu oddechowego. Dotychczasowe tradycyjne metody badań częstości i natężenia kaszlu polegają na obserwacji chorego, rejestracji audio-wideo, a następnie na zliczaniu występujących incydentów. Międzynarodowe organizacje zajmujące się chorobami układu oddechowego (European Respiratory Society, American College of Chest Physicians) zalecają stosowanie skomputeryzowanych i zautomatyzowanych metod pomiarowych, pozwalających na ambulatoryjną, obiektywną ocenę kaszlu u chorych. Zjawisko kaszlu wywołuje drgania klatki piersiowej chorego z jednoczesną emisją charakterystycznych zaburzeń akustycznych. Rejestracja i analiza powyższych sygnałów wibroakustycznych umożliwia zarówno monitorowanie częstości kaszlu, jak i ocenę jego natężenia zatem metoda ta będzie przydatna do oceny skuteczności procesu leczenia chorych. W artykule przedstawiono metodę badań oraz wyniki pilotażowych pomiarów, przeprowadzonych przy współpracy Centrum Techniki Morskiej (CTM) z Akademią Medyczną w Gdańsku oraz Collegium Medicum Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Bydgoszczy. Rejestrowano sygnały wibroakustyczne generowane podczas kaszlu u pacjentów z chorobą obturacyjną układu oddechowego i rakiem płuc. Do badań zastosowano system analizatora typu PULSE produkcji Bruel & Kjaer. Wykonano jednoczesną rejestrację sygnałów akustycznych i drgań, a następnie sygnały te poddano analizie.
EN
Cough is one of the most bothersome and frequent symptoms of chronic pulmonary diseases. Traditional examination methods rely on patient observation, audio-video registration and incidents counting. European Respiratory Society and American College of Chest Physicians recommend using computer based and automated measuring methods, which allow objective evaluation of patients cough. Cough phenomenon produces chest vibrations with simultaneous characteristic acoustic disturbances. Registration and analysis of those vibroacoustic signals enable cough frequency and intensity monitoring, which means that this method will be useful for evaluation of the therapy effectiveness. This paper presents the method and pilot study results that were obtained by R&D Marine Technology Centre in cooperation with the Medical University of Gdańsk and Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz. Cough vibroacoustic signals of patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and lun| cancer were recorded. Bruel & Kjaer Pulse analyzer has beer used during the examination. Registration and analysis of the acoustic and vibration has been performed.
13
Content available remote Spray drying as a method of producing silk sericin powders
EN
Purpose: The purpose of paper is to analyse Spray drying as a method of producing silk sericin powders. Design/methodology/approach: Aqueous sericin solutions were used as raw material for the production of dry powders using a lab-scale spray dryer. A linear regression analysis of agglomeration was employed, in addition to experimental designs at two levels with three factors for the analysis of three responses: moisture content, particle type and agglomeration degree. The process factors were the drying air temperature (120şC and 160şC), the feed rate (1.25 × 10-7 and 2.5 × 10-7 mł/s), and the concentration of sericin solutions of 10% and 30% (w/w) fed to the spray dryer. Findings: The three responses were analyzed statistically to determine the effective parameters and it was concluded that moisture content depended on three factors--drying air temperature being the dominant parameter. Particle size and shape depended mainly on feed rate and agglomeration depended on the moisture content of the product. Practical implications: As a result of the growing interest in drug delivery through a pulmonary route for local and systemic effects, the crucial physical characteristics of the spray-dried sericin influencing the dispersion and deposition behaviour including particle size, morphology, moisture content and agglomeration degree were examined for formulation and spray drying variables. Originality/value: The most effective parameters on particle size and morphology were found to be the feed solution concentration and feed rate, while the temperature was an insignificant variable.
14
Content available remote A hybrid model of the respiratory system
EN
The aim of this work is building a hybrid model of the human respiratory system which enables connecting the real clinical devices (respirators) with the computerized virtual lungs. A simulation of the artificial ventilation of lungs, with the use of the hybrid model and the Siemens Servo 900 respirator, was made. Waveforms of pressure inside the lungs, flow in the respiratory tract, and the lung volume during the simulated artificial ventilation were recorded. The compliance and resistance of the hybrid model of the respiratory system were calculated on the basis of the inspiratory pause algorithms and compared to the values set in the model. The initial tests have shown that the calculated values of the parameters differ by 20% (worst result) from the values set in the model. The model will enable the investigation of the different modes of lung ventilation, as well as educational presentation of the respirator-patient interaction.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono propozycję wykorzystania wyników modelowania pomiaru spirometrycznego do celów diagnostycznych. Zastosowanie praktyczne modelu wymaga określenia wartości referencyjnych parametrów modelu w zależności od cech antropologicznych pacjenta. Zaprezentowano liniowy i nieliniowy opis wyznaczania tych wartości. Błąd aproksymacji wartości referencyjnych parametrów, wyznaczonych z wykorzystaniem nieliniowego równania referencyjnego, umożliwia obliczenie wartości referencyjnej badanego parametru (w zależności od płci, wieku i wzrostu) z dobrą dokładnością, wystarczającą do różnicowania stanów zdrowia. Daje to możliwość wsparcia procesu diagnostycznego nowymi informacjami uzyskanymi dzięki zastosowaniu modelu pomiaru spirometrycznego.
EN
The paper presents the application of model respiratory mechanism based on the spirometry measurement. The model parameter estimates are obtained based on the spirometry test results. The model parameters enable to obtain the new information concerning breathing conditions. The diagnostic practice requires the reference values of model parameters, which depended on anthropometric data of the subject. The linear and non-linear reference equations are presented. The Mean Squared Error obtained for the non-linear reference equation, in comparison to quantitative change in parameter value on different state of health condition, allows us to postulate that the spirometry respiratory model parameter estimates could be successfully applied for diagnostic purposes.
16
Content available remote The virtual cardio-respiratory system: a sub-model of gas exchange and transfer
EN
A virtual cardio-respiratory system (CRS) is proposed for testing ventilatory support and scientific hypothesis. It may appear more convenient than experiments on animals or limited investigations on patients. In particular, there are no limitations for manipulation of virtual CRS parameters while such manipulation is difficult or impossible in the case of real CRS. The virtual CRS architecture: The proposed virtual CRS consists of: (a) the sub-model of respiratory system mechanics (RSM) previously used as the stand-alone virtual respiratory system, (b) a sub-model of gas exchange and transfer in the respiratory and circulatory systems (GET), which is constituted with three modules: gas transfer in respiratory system, gas exchange in lungs, and gas transfer in circulation. The GET utilizes airflows and pressures supplied by the RSM whereas the RSM utilizes volumes of gases supplied by the GET. Results: the CRS gave proper results for both respiration and respiratory arrest. In particular, if the CRS 'respired' with pure oxygen then arterial blood saturation with oxygen remained high for tens of minutes after respiratory halt when airways were open; otherwise atelectasis developed during 8-10 minutes. Like for real patients, carbon dioxide tension in blood decreased quickly when ventilation increased and it increased slowly when the ventilation fell.
17
Content available remote Spirometry measurement model - the diagnostic purpose support
EN
The paper presents a new model of respiratory mechanism based on the spirometry measurements. The spirometry test assesses efficiency of the lung ventilation. The respiratory system functioning is based on the ventilation mechanism. Thus the quality of the lung depends on the quality of lung ventilation. Respiratory system modelling supports a diagnostic process. The model parameter estimates are obtained on the basis of the spirometry test results. The model parameters enable us to obtain the new information concerning breathing conditions. These parameters make it also possible to distinguish between healthy and diseased subjects. The spirometry measurement model presents itself as a new diagnostically helpful aid.
EN
Expert, data based and information systems developed for medical applications are usually meant for physicians who need them in making diagnoses, training and study processes. Several similar systems meant also for patients have been developed abroad. In Poland there are no expert systems that could be supportive for making a decision by the patient and adapted to the Polish conditions. Therefore, development of such a system has been pressed ahead, of which preliminary results are presented in the report. Certain features and characteristics of existing systems and needs of the Polish patient as well as advantages for the physician have been taken into account in the report. The preliminary development of the system has been limited to selected diseases of blood circulatory and respiratory systems, with consideration of apparent symptoms concerning these systems.
19
Content available remote A model-based approach to the forward and inverse problems in spirometry
EN
The respiratory system is one of the most essential systems sustaining human life. Its complexity raises, however, serious difficulties when one is trying to analyse the lung structure or function experimentally. An alternative approach consists in conducting research via mathematical modelling. This paper reviews the most essential model-based approaches to the so-called forward and inverse problems in spirometry, focusing on research the author has been involved in. A few selected results achieved with the aid of the mathematical models of the forced expiration illustrate the state of the art, and current challenging issues in modelling the respiratory system are depicted.
20
Content available Ochrona układu oddechowego przed bioaerozolami
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano podstawowe zagadnienia związane z klasyfikacją i doborem sprzętu ochrony układu oddechowego przed bioaerozolami. Przedstawiono zasady doboru klasy ochronnej filtrów i półmasek filtrujących w zależności od grupy ryzyka według dyrektywy Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady Europejskiej 2000/54/EC. Ponadto zaprezentowano wyniki realizacji projektu celowego, współfinansowanego ze środków Europejskiego Funduszu Rozwoju Regionalnego, którego podstawowym celem było opracowanie i wdrożenie do produkcji filtrów i półmasek filtrujących przeznaczonych do stosowania w narażeniu na czynniki biologiczne przenoszone drogą powietrzną. Opracowany sprzęt ochrony układu oddechowego zapewnia wysoką skuteczność wyłapywania cząstek bioaerozolu z przepływającego powietrza w fazie wdechu użytkownika oraz zdolność hamowania rozwoju mikroorganizmów zdeponowanych w czasie użytkowania w materiale filtracyjny (tzn. bioaktywność).
EN
This article discusses basic issues concerning classification and selection of respiratory protection equipment against bioaerosols. It also presents the principles of selecting the protective class of filters and filtering half masks, depending on the group of risk in accordance to the 2000/54/EC Directive of the European Parliament and Council. Furthermore, we present results of project realization, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund whose primary aim was to establish and implement into production filters and filtering half masks, designed to be used in danger of biological agents passed through the air. The developed respiratory protection equipment ensures high efficiency of interception of bioaerosol particles floating in the air at the inhalation phase of the user, and the ability to inhibit growth of microorganisms deposited in filtering materials throughout the time (i.e. bioactivity).
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