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1
Content available remote Wytrzymałość spoiny w murach z ABK
EN
This paper presents a new welding quality evaluation approach depending on the analysis by the fuzzy logic and controlling the process capability of the friction stir welding of pipes (FSWoP). This technique has been applied in an experimental work developed by alternating the FSW of pipes process major parameters: rotation speed, pipe wall thickness and travel speed. variable samples were friction stir welded of pipes using from 485 to 1800 rpm, 4–10 mm/min and 2–4 mm for the rotation speed, the travel speed, and the pipe wall thickness respectively. DMAIC methodology (Defining, Measuring, Analyzing, Improving, Control) has been used as an approach to analyze the FSW of pipes, it depends on the attachment potency and technical commonplace demand of the FSW of pipes process. The analysis controlled the Al 6061 friction stir welded joints’ tensile strength. To obtain the best tensile strength, the study determined the optimum values for the parameters from the corresponding range.
EN
Purpose: This research examined the effects of artificial-aging temperature and time on tensile strength, hardness, microstructure, and fault morphology in AlSiMg. Design/methodology/approach: This research was conducted using aluminium alloy at 120°C, 150°C, and 180°C artificial-aging temperature and 6 hours holding time. The tensile test used ASTM B211-03 standard and hardness test adapted to ALCOA 6061 standard. Findings: Tensile test results indicated the highest tenacity on aluminium alloy at a 150ºC temperature that was 47.263% strain level. In addition to the strain level, this research also obtained the highest tensile strength level at 180ºC that was 62.267 kgf/mm2 and the highest hardness value that was 110 HV. The increase in tensile strength and hardness at 180°C was caused by the increase in Mg, Si, and Al. Based on the microstructure test, the highest tenacity was obtained at 150°C temperature as the result of closed and gathered Mg2Si precipitates; while at 180°C temperature, the precipitates appeared to be more distributed, causing a rise in hardness value and tensile strength. AlSiMg tenacity also exhibited from the number of dimples compared to cleavages at 150°C temperature. Research limitations/implications: The limitation that found in this research was conducted using AlSiMg aluminium Al6061 specimen with an artificial-aging treatment at 120ºC, 150°C, and 180°C temperature for 6 hours and then compared to the raw material. AlSiMg tensile specimen was made according to ASTM E8-E8M standard. Practical implications: This research can be applied in industrial manufacture process to find tensile strength, hardness, microstructure, and fault morphology of Al6061 alloy. Originality/value: According to research result, can be understood that by conducting these experiments, Artificial-aging treatment temperature variations in AlSiMg aluminium alloy could increase hardness.
EN
Chemical treatment with sodium hydroxide, formamide and ethyl acetate is shown to affect certain properties of paper made from recovered fibres. Sodium hydroxide treatment improves the brightness of sheets by approx. 0.12–17.2% under similar recycling conditions. All chemical treatments usually improve the tensile and burst strengths of sheets to some degree. The highest tensile and burst strength values of 42.09 Nm/g and 2.60 kPa m2/g were obtained at the first recycling stage with 10% ethyl acetate treatment (O10Et1), and these represent approximately 142.2% and 100% improvement of tensile and burst strength respectively. In contrast, although the results revealed that certain chemical treatments markedly improved both tensile and burst strengths, there is some variation observed for tear strengths. The largest improvement in tear strength (72.9%) was found at the third recycling stage with 5.0% formamide treatment (O5Fa3), followed by O10Et3 (33.9%) and O10Na3 (29.2%). It is important to note that the highest tear strength value of 9.09 Nm2/g was found at the second recycling stage of the control samples. The results clearly show that the tensile and burst strengths of sheets can be improved by certain chemical treatments, but there is no correlation with tear strengths.
PL
Inżynierskie kompozyty cementowe [IKC] n z dodatkiem włókien należą do grupy wysokowartościowych fibrokompozytów. Zawierają one drobnoziarniste składniki: cement, drobny piasek i popiół lotny, natomiast nie zawierają kruszywa grubego. Zawartość cementu w typowym inżynierskim kompozycie cementowym wynosi około 1000 kg/m3, co sprawia, że jest to materiał niezgodny z koncepcją zrównoważonego rozwoju. Popiół lotny w mieszankach IKC poprawia właściwości mechaniczne i trwałość, a optymalna ilość popiołu zastępującego cement mieści się w granicach od 30% do 40%. W przeprowadzonych badaniach podjęto próbę dodania do IKC granulowanego żużla wielkopiecowego zastępującego cement, wraz z popiołem lotnym. Przygotowano pięć mieszanek, jedną kontrolną i cztery o różnej zawartości żużla od 10% do 50%, w odstępach co 10%. Zawartość granulowanego żużla wielkopiecowego w takiej zaprawie ma korzystny wpływ na właściwości mechaniczne oraz odporność na udar.
EN
Engineered Cementitious Composites are belonging to the ultrahigh performance fiber reinforced composites. Engineered Cementitious Composites are composed of fine grained ingredients like cement, fine sand, fly ash, but don’t coarse aggregate. Presence of cement in the typical Engineered Cementitious Composites mix is nearly 1000 kilograms per cubic meter, which make this material to keep far from the sustainability. The content of fly ash in the mix improves the performance of mechanical properties and durability, however, the percentage of replacement of cement has the optimum up to 30 to 40 %. In this study, an attempt is made to add granulated blast furnace slag to Engineered Cementitious Composites mix replacing the cement, along with fly ash. Five different mix proportions are used in this investigation, from 10%, to 50%, at 10% intervals of the granulated blastfurnace slag, replacing cement. The content of granulated blast-furnace slag exhibit remarkable achievement in the mechanical parameters and impact toughness.
EN
The work covers the welding of thermoplastic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and concerns the assessment of the impact of the main welding parameters on joint strength. The strength test of welded joints made of thermoplastic material was carried out. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the main technological parameters of welding, such as: temperature and welding speed, gas stream output, filler rod pressure, diameter and type of hot air gun nozzle on the strength of the obtained joint. The method of sample preparation and testing was performed in accordance with the guidelines of PN-EN 12814-2:2002 "Tests of welded joints in semi-finished products made of thermoplastics ‒ Part 2: Tensile test". Visual evaluation of welded samples and analysis of results obtained from the tensile test made it possible to draw conclusions about the influence of selected welding parameters on joint strength. The decisive influence on the strength of joints was caused by welding defects, in the form of lack of side wall fusion and porosity.
PL
Praca obejmuje zagadnienia spawania tworzyw termoplastycznych polimetakrylanu metylu (PMMA) i dotyczy oceny wpływu głównych parametrów spawania na wytrzymałość złącza. Przeprowadzono badanie wytrzymałościowe spawanych złączy z materiału termoplastycznego. Celem badania było określenie wpływu głównych parametrów technologicznych spawania takich jak: temperatura i prędkość spawania, wydatek strumienia gazu, docisk spoiwa, średnica i rodzaj dyszy palnika na wytrzymałość otrzymanego złącza. Sposób przygotowania próbek i przeprowadzenia badania wykonano zgodnie z wytycznymi PN-EN 12814-2:2002 "Badania połączeń spawanych w półproduktach z tworzyw termoplastycznych - Część 2: Próba rozciągania". Ocena wizualna próbek po spawaniu oraz analiza wyników otrzymanych z przeprowadzonej próby rozciągania, umożliwiła wyciągnięcie wniosków na temat wpływu wybranych parametrów spawania na wytrzymałość złącza. Decydujący wpływ na wytrzymałość złączy mają niezgodności spawalnicze, w postaci przyklejeń brzegowych i pęcherzy gazowych.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono badania nad wpływem niskiej temperatury na wytrzymałość aluminium 5754 i 5083. Wykonano próbę rozciągania statycznego w temperaturze pokojowej oraz ujemnej -20°C. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych prób rozciągania badanych stopów aluminium zaobserwowano niewielki wzrost właściwości wytrzymałościowych, tj. granicy plastyczności oraz wytrzymałości na rozciąganie.
EN
Research on low temperature contribution on the strength of 5754 and 5083 aluminum are presented in this article. Static tensile tests were carried out at room and negative temperature of -20°C. A slight increase in strength properties, i.e. the yield strength and the tensile strength of studied aluminum alloys, was observed on the basis of conducted tensile tests.
EN
Aluminum alloy finds its applications in various sectors of engineering. This paper discusses the investigation of mechanical characteristics of buttweld joints of aluminium alloy AA6063 along with AA5083. An experiment was conducted for different tool rotational speeds of 600 rpm, 800 rpm and 1000 rpm. Specifications of friction stir welding machine were 4 kN axial load and welding speed of 40 mm/min. Friction stir welded (FSW) joints of higher tensile strength, lower flexural strength and lower impact strength with maximum hardness, for the work piece fabricated at 1000 rpm using a high speed steel tool with a cylindrical profile was observed. Better understanding of the effect of tool rotational speed and mechanical properties was illustrated through the experimental result.
PL
W artykule podano wyniki badań próbek murowych z autoklawizowanego betonu komórkowego (ABK) na zaprawie z piany poliuretanowej prowadzonych na Białorusi. Ustalono wytrzymałość muru na ściskanie, ścinanie i rozciąganie przy zginaniu. Porównano te wyniki z otrzymanymi podczas badań próbek na spoinach cementowo-polimerowych oraz z wynikami badań prowadzonych na Politechnice Śląskiej.
EN
The article presents the results of tests of masonry samples of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) on polyurethane mortar carried out in Belarus. Compressive strength, shear and tensile strength during bending of the masonry samples were determined. The test results were compared with sample tests on thin cement-polymer as well as with the research results conducted at the Silesian University of Technology.
11
Content available remote Effect of coarse grain aggregate on strength parameters of two-stage concrete
EN
Two-stage concrete (TSC) is a special type of concrete that the method of its construction and implementation is different from conventional one. In TSC, coarse aggregate particles are first placed in the formwork and voids between them are subsequently injected with a special cementations mixture. TSC has been successfully used in many applications, such as underwater construction, casting concrete sections congested with reinforcement and concrete repair. Coarse aggregate forms about 60% of the total volume of TSC, while coarse aggregate forms about 40% of the total volume of conventional concrete. In TSC stresses are transferred through contact areas between coarse aggregate particles. In this paper coarse aggregate size influence on strength parameters of TSC and comparing it with conventional concrete is done (by uniaxial compressive strength test and Brazilian tensile strength test). According to results of tests in this paper, the TSC with finest grain of coarse aggregate has higher compressive and tensile strength, higher modulus of elasticity and less Poisson’s ratio from conventional concrete.
PL
Beton wykonywany dwuetapowo (TSC) jest specjalnym rodzajem betonu, a jego metoda wbudowania i zastosowanie różnią się od tradycyjnego. W TSC w pierwszej kolejności w szalunku układane jest kruszywo grube, a następnie pod ciśnieniem podawana jest specjalna mieszanka cementowa wypełniająca wolne przestrzenie między kruszywem. Technologia TSC została wielokrotnie zastosowana z powodzeniem w betonowaniu pod wodą do wykonywania zbrojonych elementów konstrukcyjnych oraz jako beton naprawczy. W TSC kruszywo grube stanowi ok. 60%, natomiast w betonie zwykłym ok. 40% całkowitej objętości. W TSC naprężenia przenoszone są przez obszary styku między ziarnami kruszywa grubego. W badaniach wykazano wpływ kruszywa grubego na parametry wytrzymałościowe TSC i porównano je z wynikami badań betonu wykonywanego w sposób tradycyjny (w przypadku jednoosiowego badania wytrzymałości na ściskanie i wytrzymałości na rozciąganie metodą brazylijską). Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników badań stwierdzono, że TSC zawierający ziarna małej średnicy charakteryzuje się lepszą wytrzymałością na ściskanie i rozciąganie, większym modułem sprężystości i mniejszym współczynnikiem Poissona niż beton zwykły.
EN
The paper presents the results of tensile strength tests of AlSi21CuNiMg silumin made on a test stand. Silumin was under examination in an unmodified state and after modification with AlCu19P1.4 master alloy in quantity of 0.2% in relation to the mass of the alloy. Using a scanning microscope, the surface fractures obtained from tensile tests were tested. The structure and profiles of fractures were examined using an optical microscope. Modification of the tested silumin resulted in a favorable fragmentation and regular distribution of the crystals of the primary silicon in the alloy structure, which led to an almost twofold increase in the strength of the silumin samples at the final solidification stage from 3.5 to 6.6 MPa. As a result of these changes, the resistance of silumin to hot cracks should increase, which is of great importance when casting hypereutectic silumin in a metal mould that strongly inhibits the shrinkage of the castings.
EN
Plastic obtained from the discarded computers, televisions, refrigerators, and other electronic devices is termed as e-plastic waste. E-plastic waste is non-biodegradable waste. This paper focuses to investigate the replacement of fine aggregate with plastic aggregate obtained from e-plastic. The paper presents a detailed comparison of concrete properties (i.e.: compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, density and workability) for normal concrete and concrete containing e-plastic fine aggregates. The testing was conducted according to the ASTM standards. 28-day Compressive, Flexural and Split tensile strengths were determined. In addition to the effect of e-plastic fine aggregate, silica fume is added as an admixture to find the effect on strengths. Authors have performed a compressive, flexural and tensile test of concrete mix with various percentages of e-plastic aggregates (i.e., 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and silica fume (i.e.: 0, 5 and 10%) and concrete densities are also considered. It has been concluded that an increase in the e-plastic fine aggregate results in reduction in densities, compressive, flexural and tensile strength values. However, when we add silica fume to the concrete mixture it leads to strength values similar to the control mixture. The optimum obtained concrete blend contained 5% e-plastic fine aggregates and 10% silica fume. The addition of silica fume in concrete mixtures increases the 28-day compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Moreover, the density of concrete decreases with the increase in the e-plastic aggregates.
PL
Tworzywa sztuczne uzyskane ze zużytych komputerów, telewizorów, lodówek i innych urządzeń elektronicznych są określane jako tworzywa sztuczne z odpadów elektronicznych. Tworzywa sztuczne z odpadów elektronicznych to odpady nieulegające biodegradacji. Niniejszy artykuł koncentruje się na kwestii zastąpienia drobnego kruszywa kruszywem z tworzyw sztucznych z odpadów elektronicznych. W pracy przedstawiono szczegółowe porównanie właściwości betonu (tj. wytrzymałość na ściskanie, rozciąganie i zginanie, gęstość oraz urabialność) dla normalnego betonu i betonu zawierającego drobne kruszywa z tworzyw sztucznych z odpadów elektronicznych. Testy przeprowadzono zgodnie ze standardami ASTM. Określono 28-dniową wytrzymałość na ściskanie, zginanie i rozciąganie przy rozłupywaniu. Zbadano wpływ drobnego kruszywa z tworzyw sztucznych pochodzącego z odpadów elektronicznych oraz pyłów krzemionkowych na wspomniane właściwości betonu. Autorzy przeprowadzili test ściskania, zginania i rozciągania mieszanki betonowej dla różnych wartości procentowych kruszywa z tworzyw sztucznych z odpadów elektronicznych (tj. 0,5, 10, 15 i 20%), pyłów krzemionkowych (tj. 0, 5 i 10%) oraz gęstości betonu. Stwierdzono, że zwiększony udział procentowy drobnego kruszywa z tworzyw sztucznych pochodzącego z odpadów elektronicznych prowadzi do zmniejszenia gęstości, wytrzymałości na ściskanie, zginanie i rozciąganie. Jednakże dodanie pyłów krzemionkowych do mieszaniny betonowej pozwala uzyskać parametry wytrzymałościowe podobne do mieszaniny kontrolnej. Otrzymana optymalna mieszanka betonu zawiera 0,5% drobnych kruszyw z tworzyw sztucznych pochodzących z odpadów elektronicznych i 10% pyłów krzemionkowych. Dodatek pyłów krzemionkowych w mieszankach betonowych zwiększa 28-dniową wytrzymałość na ściskanie, zginanie i rozciąganie. Ponadto gęstość betonu zmniejsza się wraz ze wzrostem udziału kruszyw z tworzyw sztucznych z odpadów elektronicznych.
EN
The present study reports on the methods of preparation for HTPB-clay nanocomposites and their mechanical, thermal and rheological properties for their functional utility as an improved binder system for composite propellants. HTPB-clay nanocomposites were prepared by dispersing organoclay Cloisite 30B (1-3 wt.%) in the polymer matrix by magnetic stirring and high shear mixing. Critical parameters like time, temperature and RPM were optimized. These nanocomposites were cured with toluene diisocyanate in the presence of the cure catalyst DBTDL. The dispersion of the nanoclay was evaluated by using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. EDX suggested homogeneous distribution while SAXS revealed partial exfoliation of the clay particles in the polymer matrix. Superior dispersion of the nanoclay was obtained by high shear mixing. The tensile properties of the nanocomposites prepared by high shear mixing showed 10-20% more strength and elastic modulus. The nanocomposites showed thermal stability higher than the pristine HTPB. Swelling behavior revealed increased cross linking, and the rheological behavior exhibited higher viscosity of the nanocomposites. In addition, the clay amount was increased up to 10 wt.% and its effect on the mechanical, thermal and swelling behavior was observed. Theoretical performance predictions of composite propellants with nanocomposites revealed their possible functional utility.
EN
Waterproof breathable laminated fabrics have the special property that permits water vapour to pass through but protects by preventing the entrance of liquid water. Different characteristic properties of the layered constructions of these fabrics have good influence on their hydrostatic resistance and mechanical performance. This research study presents an experiment to enhance the hydrostatic resistance and tensile strength of four different types of hydrophobic membrane laminated waterproof fabrics by considering their breathability as well. For this purpose, water repellent coating based on C6-fluorocarbon resin along with polysiloxane hydrophobic softening agent was applied on these four different types of laminated fabrics using pad-dry-cure method. The coated fabrics were characterised by performing different experiments to evaluate the effect of coating on their hydrostatic resistance and mechanical property as well as on water vapour permeability and air permeability. From the test results and analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was found that hydrostatic resistance and tensile strength of the laminated fabrics were enhanced after coating along with proper water repellent property, whereas there were no significant changes in their water vapour permeability and air permeability.
EN
Supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing, a new type of anhydrous dyeing method, has a lot of advantages, mainly conservation of energy, prevention of pollution, reusability of dye, and many more. This study presents a viable method for the dyeing of an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a medium. Five hydrozono propanenitrile dyes that are functional colorants having antibacterial activity were applied for the dyeing of the UHMWPE fabric in scCO2 at a pressure of 20 MPa and at temperature of 120°C. The dyeability of UHMWPE fabric under scCO2 was evaluated by color measurement, whereby the color strength K/S was calculated. As the treating time and concentration of dye increased, the dyeability of the UHMWPE fabric displayed the tendency to continually improve. As decaline was added into scCO2 as the cosolvent, we obtained higher K/S. Furthermore, color fastness to rubbing and sublimation of the dyed UHMWPE fabric were determined according to Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) L 0849 2 and JIS L 0854, and the trend showed that the increase in fastness corresponded to the increase in duration of the treatment. The influence of scCO2 dyeing on the mechanical properties of UHMWPE was also examined. Consequently, it was found that dyeing in scCO2 containing decaline reduced the crystallinity of the UHMWPE fabric and the breaking strength decreased. The antimicrobial property of UHMWPE dyed with N′-(2-chloro-4-methylphenyl)-2-oxo-2-(p-tolyl)acetohydrazonoyl cyanide was tested against three different microorganisms, and the results have been reported.
EN
The present study addresses the utilization of induction furnace steel slag which is an anthropogenic waste, for enhancing the mechanical properties of a commercial aluminium alloy A356. Different weight percentage (3wt%, 6wt%, 9wt%, and 12wt%) of steel slag particles in 1 to 10 μm size range were used as reinforcing particles in aluminium alloy A356 matrix. The composites were prepared through stir casting technique. The results revealed an improvement in mechanical properties (i.e. microhardness and tensile strength) and wear resistance with an increase in weight percentage of the steel slag particles. This research work shows promising results for the utilization of the steel slag for enhancing the properties of aluminium alloy A356 at no additional cost while assisting at same time in alleviating land pollution.
EN
In this study, ODS ferritic stainless steels were fabricated using a commercial alloy powder, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were studied to develop the advanced structural materials for high temperature service applications. Mechanical alloying and uniaxial hot pressing processes were employed to produce the ODS ferritic stainless steels. It was revealed that oxide particles in the ODS stainless steels were composed of Y-Si-O, Y-Ti-Si-O, and Y-Hf-Si-O complex oxides were observed depending on minor alloying elements, Ti and Hf. The ODS ferritic stainless steel with a Hf addition presented ultra-fine grains with uniform distributions of fine complex oxide particles which located in grains and on the grain boundaries. These favorable microstructures led to superior tensile properties than commercial stainless steel and ODS ferritic steel with Ti addition at elevated temperature.
EN
The friction stir welding process is an innovative technique for joining metals using plasticity, without presenting the fusion. It was first applied to aluminum alloys, for example copper, steel alloys, polymers and others. In this work the effects of the rotational speed, the speed of travel and the axial force of the tool were grouped in a mathematical model to quantify their influences on the weld seam. In this context and with of the experimental tests, the desired objective through this study is to describe the tensile strength of the cord resulting from this welding operation, for the qualification of this type of parts with an optimum adapted to a given application.
EN
Purpose: This paper aims to assess microstructures and mechanical properties of annealed and un-annealed Al-Li alloys (AA8090) and provide valid information regarding influence of anisotropy on tensile properties, fatigue lives. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology included investigating the influence of annealing on grain size, tensile strength and fatigue lives of AA8090. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were utilized to analyse the crystallographic texture. Findings: The results showed that the un-annealed alloy exhibited much finer grain structure in three directions, namely longitudinal (L) rolling direction, L-45° and Long transverse (LT) combined with stronger crystallographic texture. Regarding to mechanical properties, un-annealed alloy presented superior tensile strength with strong anisotropic behaviour. L and LT grains direction showed highest tensile strength value of 550 MPa and L-45° showed lowest tensile strength value of 420 MPa. Results of fatigue test revealed that annealed Al-Li alloy has lower fatigue lives with high influence of test direction on fatigue properties. Higher variation in fatigue life to failure links with un-annealed alloy over annealed alloy. Examination of fractured surface showed that the morphology of fractured surface is a mixture of ductile and brittle fractures in both annealed and un-annealed alloys with more brittle behaviour in un-annealed alloy. Research limitations/implications: The main challenge of this work is the determination of the test direction (test angle in respect to rolling direction), which is necessary to provide correct information regarding mechanical properties. Further study of low cycle fatigue can be done in future, which will be an excellent indication to mechanical properties of this alloy since it provides more understanding to the behaviour of the material and better comprehend crack propagation and strain stress concentration. Practical implications: AA8090 alloy is an important candidate for aerospace and aircraft industries. Influence of annealing heat treatment and rolling direction on mechanical properties of AA8090 alloy provides more accurate information to the manufacturers who deal with this alloy. Originality/value: This study is affording a significant information regarding the effect of annealing and anisotropic behaviour on mechanical properties of AA8090. To our knowledge, there are few reports that study this combination of factors on AA8090 alloy.
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