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PL
Artykuł przedstawia szerokie możliwości wykorzystania programu PSCAD/EMTDC jako narzędzia pozwalającego na symulowanie przebiegów powstałych w wyniku kołysań mocy. Zaprezentowano dwie metody modelowania zjawiska, opartą na matematycznym opisie zmian napięć źródłowych oraz z wykorzystaniem modelu generatora synchronicznego. Przedstawiono symulacje wpływu automatyki zabezpieczeniowej na zachowanie stabilności lokalnej turbozespołu. Zaprezentowano możliwość praktycznego wykorzystania wyników symulacji w badaniu wpływu kołysań mocy na zabezpieczenia odległościowe.
EN
This thesis shows wide possibility of using PSCAD/EMTDC to simulate waveforms caused by power swing. There were presented two different methods of modeling this phenomena. based on the mathematical description of sources voltages changing and using the model of a synchronous generator. Presented simulations of power system automation influence to maintain the local stability of turbine set. Possibilities of utilize of simulation results, in powers swing influence on distance protection was shown.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono konstrukcję liniowego napędu trójfazowego. Wzbudnik umieszczono na wózku transportowym, poruszającym się ponad bieżnią napędową spełniającą rolę wirnika silnika liniowego, wykonanej z miedzi lub aluminium. Laboratoryjne Stanowisko pomiarowe umożliwia pomiar siły ciągu napędu. Dynamometr zamocowany do wózka z jednej strony oraz elementu sztywnego z drugiej, pozwala na pomiar tej siły. Schemat stanowiska pomiarowego przedstawiono na rys. 1.Artykuł będzie zawierał dwie podstawowe części, opis matematyczny wraz z symulacją w środowisku Ansys, oraz porównanie wyników symulacji z pomiarami w układzie rzeczywistym stanowiska w warunkach laboratoryjnych.
EN
The work presents the construction of a three-phase linear drive. The inductor was placed on a transport trolley, moving over the driving race, acting as a rotor of a linear motor, made of copper or aluminum. Laboratory Measuring station allows measuring the thrust of the drive. Dynamometer attached to the trolley on one side and rigid element on the other, allows you to measure this force. The diagram of the measurement station is shown in Fig. 1. The article will contain two basic parts, a mathematical description with simulation in the Ansys environment, and a comparison of simulation results with measurements in the real system of the laboratory stand.
PL
W artykule opisano problematykę konstruowania filtrów EMI o szerokim paśmie filtracji. Przedstawiono rodzaje zakłóceń jakie występują w urządzeniach elektronicznych. Na przykładowym schemacie przedstawiono elementy odpowiedzialne za filtracje konkretnego typu zakłócenia. Omówiono problematykę wpływu reaktancji pasożytniczych na pojawiające się rezonanse w charakterystyce filtru. Zwrócono uwagę na wpływ impedancji źródła i obciążenia na wartość tłumienia. Na przykładowym pomiarze S21 pokazano wpływ prądu stałego płynącego przez filtr na indukcyjność dławika, a w konsekwencji tłumienie filtra. Zwrócono uwagę na problem sprzęgania się elementów indukcyjnych.
EN
The article describes the problems of constructing wideband EMI filters. The types of interferences that occur in electronic devices are presented. The exemplary diagram shows the elements responsible for the filtration of a specific type of disturbance. The problem of the influence of parasitic reactances on resonances appearing in the filter characteristics is discussed. The attention was paid to the influence of the source and load impedance on the insertion loss value. The example of S21 measurement shows the effect of DC current flowing through the filter on the inductor inductance and, consequently, filter suppression. Attention was paid to the problem of coupling of inductive elements.
EN
The intensifying of the manufacturing process and increasing the efficiency of production planning of parts are the first-priority task in modern manufacturing. The use of various methods for controlling the cutting force and temperature in cutting zone under cylindrical infeed grinding and studying its impact on the quality and accuracy of parts machining can improve machining efficiency. The peculiarity of the work is to the proposal to consider a fast-moving source like a heat source in the plunge grinding process. Based on the Peclet analysis, the further development of the method for calculating the allowance removed at each workpiece revolution by optimizing the cylindrical plunge grinding cycle parameters has been justified. The methodology for determining the optimal parameters of a cylindrical plunge grinding cycle, which based on a simulation of the dynamics of such a process represented by a three-mass model of a 3M151 circular grinding machine has been used in research. The practical value of the study lies in studying the ways of improving the grinding performance of the parts by intensifying cutting modes and optimizing the structure of machining cycles.
EN
In this work a multilevel CFD analysis have been applied for the design of an engine exhaust system include manifold and muffler with improved characteristics of noise reduction and fluid dynamic response. The approaches developed and applied for the optimization process range from the 1D to fully 3D CFD simulation, exploring hybrid approaches based on the integration of a 1D model and 3D tools. Once the best configuration has been defined, the 1D-3D approach has been adopted to confirm the prediction carried out by means of the simplified approach, studying also the impact of the new configuration on the engine performances.
6
Content available remote Inverse kinematics of a spatial mechanismusing multibond graph
EN
Various methods are available to compute kinematics and dynamics in the case of spa-tial mechanisms. These methods are cumbersome and laborious for large and multibodyspatial mechanisms. The bond graph technique is a powerful alternative tool for mode-ling. A four-link closed-chain 3R2S (3Revolute 2Spherical) spatial mechanism stands outamong the other four-link closed-chain spatial mechanisms due to its ability to be used ina number of applications. The main aim of this paper is to compute the inverse kinematicsof the mechanism using the bond graph structure of the system. In this paper, modeling ofa four-link closed-chain 3R2S spatial mechanism has been conducted using a multibondgraph approach. Inverse kinematics of the spatial mechanism, under various applications,has been directly obtained from the bond graph modeling. MATLAB coding for simula-tion has been done directly from the multibond graph without explicitly deriving systemequations. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed using various plots.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przykład opracowanej oceny odporności ogniowej obiektu przemysłowego. Dla rozpatrywanej hali maszynowni o konstrukcji stalowej zaprezentowano wyniki symulacji rozwoju pożaru oraz odpowiedzi mechanicznej konstrukcji. Obliczenia przeprowadzono za pomocą zaawansowanych programów komputerowych. Omówiono wpływ takich czynników, jak nierównomierne ogrzewanie oraz sposób modelowania konstrukcji na szacowaną odporność ogniową. Wskazano także wartości temperatury krytycznej oraz prognozowane modele zniszczenia. Wykazano, że omawiana metoda może być z powodzeniem stosowana w odniesieniu do rozpatrywanej kategorii obiektów.
EN
Both fire development and mechanical response analysis of the steel turbine hall are described. Factors like non-uniform heating and way of structural modeling and their impact on the anticipated fire resistance of the structure are discussed. Moreover, values of the crictical temperature and predicted failure modes are given. As a result it is shown that described method is appropriate for the considered type of buildings.
8
Content available Simulation analysis of rope belaying system
EN
This article describes a technical proposal of anchoring determined for a horizontal belaying system, which was developed to increase the safety of crane operators and maintenance staff in their movements and work at heights. This belaying system can be installed either on the common, already existing footbridge of the overhead travelling crane or on the crane track. Loading of the steel wire rope was investigated by the simulation figurines during various assumed loading regimes. The figurines were attached to the rope belaying system by means of the standard personal protective equipment and the calculation process was realised using the non-linear dynamic FEM analysis.
EN
The manner and degree of taking over impact energy by the passive safety elements of the vehicle body is the basis for providing conditions for the survival of people using the means of transport (driver and passengers). The elements specially designed for this purpose in the self-supporting body are longitudinals. Their energy-absorbing properties are designed by using a specific shape, by using appropriate connections of their components and by choosing the right material. Determining the degree to which the vehicle (body) ensures safety during collision requires testing. The most complex and expensive tests are the ones carried out on a complete real object (whole vehicle). The solution worth considering is a bench test of individual body elements designed as energy-consuming (for example, longitudinals). In addition, it is also possible to carry out computer simulations in this area. The purpose of this article was to present and compare the results of dynamic studies on model energy-consuming real objects and compare the results obtained this way with the results of computer simulation in the same range. The scope of work was adopted on this basis: passive safety, model energy-absorbing elements of steel self-supporting vehicle body, dynamic tests, computer simulations. For the purpose of this study, a model of vehicle passive safety elements (model longitudinals) was designed for which dynamic tests were carried out on a specially designed test stand (speed of the hammer was up to 9.7 m/s, impact energy was up to 23.6 kJ). This test stand enabled registration of the deceleration during impact and deformation of the tested object. Next, computer simulations were carried out for geometrically and material-identical models. On the basis of the conducted tests, it was found that it is worth considering the replacement of collision tests of the whole vehicle by tests of its individual components. These tests can also be supported by computer simulations.
10
Content available remote Application of the standard STANAG 2021 for assault bridge FEM analysis
EN
The basic prerequisite for collective defense of NATO member states is possibility of interoperability and cooperability within their armies. For unification of military rules and standards there is used STANAG (Standardization Agreement). These standards are concerned from supply chain, through electrical systems up to ammunition or armored protection. For bridging technique, there is a standard STANAG 2021 - Military Load Classification of Bridges, Rafts and Vehicles. Bridging system AM-50 is one of the most common bridging equipment in the Slovak Armed Forces, so its classification in accordance of STANAG 2021 is essential. In this article it is possible to find result of basic FEM analysis of AM-50 bridge load capacity in accordance to standard STANAG 2021.
PL
Podstawowym warunkiem zbiorowej obrony państw członkowskich NATO jest możliwość interoperacyjności i współpracy w obrębie ich armii. W celu ujednolicenia zasad i standardów wojskowych stosuje się STANAG (Porozumienie standaryzacyjne). Normy te dotyczą łańcucha dostaw, systemów elektrycznych, amunicji lub ochrony pancernej. W przypadku techniki mostowej istnieje norma STANAG 2021 - Klasyfikacja obciążeń wojskowych mostów, tratw i pojazdów. System mostowy AM-50 jest jednym z najpopularniejszych urządzeń mostowych w Słowackich Siłach Zbrojnych, dlatego jego klasyfikacja według STANAG 2021 jest niezbędna. W tym artykule można znaleźć wyniki podstawowej analizy MES nośności mostu AM-50 zgodnie z normą STANAG 2021.
EN
The paper deals with the implementation of computer simulation in the assembly plant in terms of an innovative solution for new production planning, workflow optimisation and cost-effectiveness. The paper describes the creation of a simulation project in which a simulation model of the assembly line was created to determine the use of the final assembly operator. Based on the results, an experiment was designed, in which variants (in the simulation model) with different employee utilisation were created. The simulation results from each variant were compared and the variant with a higher percentage of employee utilisation was selected. The selected variant was economically evaluated in terms of effective use of labour costs.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki symulacyjnych badań instalacji przemysłowej przy zastosowaniu różnych sposobów kompensacji mocy biernej oraz wpływ wybranego sposobu kompensacji mocy biernej na koszty energii elektrycznej.
EN
The article presents the results of simulation of industrial installation work with using various methods of reactive power compensation and the influence of selected method of reactive power compensation on electricity costs.
EN
Tests of the technical condition of machines sometimes involve the analysis of dynamic phenomena associated with their work. The simplest methods are based on basic measurements, e.g. effective velocities and body vibration accelerations as well as sound pressure levels recorded in close vicinity of the tested object. For analysis, more advanced techniques use signals recorded in a certain period of time representing the studied phenomena. The development of computer techniques has enabled a relatively convenient modelling of technical objects. A well-identified model allows to extend research on real objects to include comprehensive computer analyses, thanks to which we can reduce time-consuming measurements or perform analyses for excitations which are difficult to perform at a test stand. Another application of a model is to generate signals, on the basis of which we can choose parameters of analysis methods to increase the effectiveness of diagnosis or test new analysis and inference algorithms. Several presented examples were implemented in the Matlab Simulink environment. Because the presented methods are universal, they can be used to analyze any physical phenomena described with more or less complicated models.
EN
The paper deals with the problem of vertical kinematic excitations in road vehicle dynamics simulation, with the main focus on reconstruction of random excitations using measured dynamic responses of a car suspension. The possibility of causing excitations adequately in terms of chosen conditions of exploitation and in reliable way is crucial to properly asses ride comfort, ride safety as well as rattle space and fatigue strength of suspension elements. The paper presents a method of generating equivalent kinematic excitation allowing for reconstruction of suspension dynamic responses in simulation. The method uses unsprung mass accelerations acquired during test rides and a model of vertical suspension dynamics. The method uses estimated displacements of unsprung mass as a preliminary approximation of kinematic excitation and tracking control system with a PID controller, which causes corrections of kinematic excitations transforming it to the form that allows for faithful reconstruction of unsprung mass accelerations and, in turn, kinematic excitations. The paper presents the basic structure of kinematic excitations’ reconstruction system as well as a method of tuning PID controller’s coefficients so that the error in estimation is minimized. Research and verification of results were done using a sine chirp signal and constant frequency sine waves. The similarity of estimated road profiles is high with error no larger than 8% of the original signal’s amplitude.
EN
Today, one of the main important tasks is to analyze the states of achievement related to the required levels for marine passenger terminals and their route networks, depending on the influence of the external environment (based on the discretization of processes). This proposal is relevant both to increase the passenger traffic and to change the route network of ferry lines. There is an uneven congestion of individual directions of ferry lines and passenger terminals, which determines the need to select a finite number of states for the efficient operation of the ≪passenger terminal-ferry line≫ system. For the research of changes and assessments, it is proposed to use the process discretization methodology and the formation of a new circos plot intensity diagram. This study focuses on the passenger terminals in the Adriatic Sea and the existing route network in this region. As a result of the analysis, a set of points in time are selected that are characterized by various intensities and passenger traffic. For the selected set of values, a set of new intensity circos plot diagrams are constructed. On their basis, it is possible to analyze the mutual influence of the passenger terminals on each other to analyze the ferry transportation market and the number of shipping companies onit. New scientific approach can improve the quality of research and decision-making process for research of the ≪passenger terminal-ferry line≫ system. The practical results we can see in the form of circos plot diagrams for sea passenger transportation in the Adriatic Sea region and the proposed research methodology for research and operation analysis of the ≪ferry line - marine passenger terminal≫ system based on proces discretization.
EN
The article proposes a phenomenological model of a passenger car. The model includes the biomechanical model of human bodies in the sitting position of Muksian and Nash acting as passengers, while the driver’s weight has been reduced to the concentrated weight of the loading seat. The research carried out in this study consisted of passing the vehicle through a transverse obstacle along the so-called speed bump. Vehicle passes through the threshold at three different speeds: 10km/h, 20km/h, and 30km/h. The purpose of the conducted experiments was to initially estimate the values of accelerations acting especially on the passenger at selected driving speeds. On the basis of conducted tests, it was possible to verify the numerical model of the vehicle overcoming the obstacle on the road. This approach allows the use of the proposed model to verify the forces and accelerations affecting the passenger, specified before any selected specific biomechanical model of the human person, for example, a model of pregnant women in this configuration allows us to estimate the forces and accelerations acting on the embryo while overcoming some obstacles on the road.
EN
According to statistics, the marine passenger transportation sectors (both cruise lines and ferry lines) show a significant increase of passenger traffic and the intensity of ship routes. But new features of the conditions for passenger traffic growth require the development of new methodological transport models for cruise and ferry networks and new practical forecasting methods. Changes are observed in the fleet composition, mostly in the direction of increased. New approach for forecasting has to be based on the interaction of such systems as ≪city‒sea passenger port‒cruise and ferry lines. This condition now determines new need to describe the principles and forms of organization of maritime ferry networks and changes under the influence of the external environment. The object of the research is the Baltic Sea region and the existing route networks of cruise and ferry lines. Exploring this system, the usage of new mathematical apparatus based on correspondence matrices and agent-based simulation was justified for estimating the workload on transport infrastructure around the passenger port and for the existing ferry or cruise route network. The practical results of new simulation model, on the one hand, justify the need for a comprehensive study of the conditions for the formation of ferry and cruise route networks in changing conditions. On the other hand, these new results could improve the quality of decision-making process in forecasting the route network on the basis of the research of passenger traffic between systems city‒sea terminal-cruise line or ferry line.
18
Content available remote The application of NiMH batteries in a light-duty electric vehicle
EN
This article presents the results of experimental tests and simulations of a light-duty electric vehicle, in which the original lead-acid battery pack was replaced with a lightweight pack of nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries, which enabled a significant increase to the vehicle’s load capacity. The research was mainly focused on the aspect of electricity consumption and prediction of the range of the vehicle equipped with a new battery pack. The operation of a vehicle with total weights of 500 kg and 740 kg was analysed. Recorded vehicle speed waveforms were used to simulate vehicle motion in the Matlab/Advisor environment. The experiments showed a reduction in the specific energy consumption of a vehicle of lower weight, while simulation tests showed good compliance of the results of electricity consumption with experiments in relation to both the considered total vehicle weights.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki badań eksperymentalnych i symulacyjnych lekkiego, elektrycznego pojazdu użytkowego, w którym oryginalny zestaw akumulatorów kwasowo-ołowiowych został zastąpiony lekkim pakietem akumulatorów niklowo-metalowo-wodorkowych, co pozwoliło znacznie zwiększyć ładowność pojazdu. Badania skupiono głównie na aspekcie zużycia energii elektrycznej i predykcji zasięgu pojazdu wyposażonego w nowy zestaw akumulatorów. Analizowano zachowanie pojazdu o masie 500 kg oraz 740 kg. Przebiegi zmian prędkości zarejestrowane podczas jazd testowych użyto do przeprowadzenia symulacji ruchu pojazdu w środowisku Matlab/Advisor. Wyniki badań eksperymentalnych wskazały na ograniczenie jednostkowego zużycia energii przez pojazd o mniejszej masie, natomiast w badaniach symulacyjnych uzyskano dobrą zgodność zużycia energii z rezultatami eksperymentów w obu analizowanych przypadkach.
EN
In this paper, a method for the automatic creation of bidirectional paths for AGVs in the Delmia QUEST software application is presented. The layout of transportation subsystem can be prepared in a spreadsheet. Based on it the file with input data is generated. Using programming languages included in QUEST, procedures were created and based on these procedures, a macro was built. This macro allows reading input data from the file and creates the transportation paths automatically. This enables the simulation model building to be less time consuming.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę automatycznego generowania dwukierunkowych dróg transportowych w programie Delmia QUEST dla autonomicznie sterowanych robotów mobilnych. Układ i rozmieszczenie dróg transportowych są projektowane w arkuszu kalkulacyjnym, a następnie zapisane jako dane wejściowe w postaci pliku tekstowego. Wykorzystując języki programowania zawarte w programie QUEST, opracowano odpowiednie procedury. Zostały one następnie wykorzystane do budowy macro, które wczytuje dane z pliku i w automatyczny sposób generuje całą sieć dróg transportowych. Dzięki temu budowanie modelu symulacyjnego może być uproszczone i przyspieszone.
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