Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 122

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 7 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  salinity
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 7 next fast forward last
PL
W artykule przedstawiona została metoda wykonanych analiz i badań zabytkowych struktur murów klasztoru i kościoła Karmelitów Bosych w Przemyślu. Przyjęcie programu konserwatorskiego poprzedzone zostało badaniami makroskopowymi oraz badaniami właściwości fizykochemicznych zabytkowych murów klasztoru. Wyniki omówiono w formie dyskusji diagnozy otrzymanych efektów badań. Rozpoznanie zabytkowej materii pozwoliło dokonać wyboru poprowadzonego procesu konserwatorskiego, który pokazany został w sposób syntetyczny. Główna problematyka badawcza uzupełniona została o rys historyczny zespołu kościelno-klasztornego oraz o własne doświadczenia zawodowe pozwalające omówić złożoną problematykę prac reintegracyjnych wykonywanych na obiekcie zabytkowym. W artykule zamieszczono plany, tabele i zdjęcia, które merytorycznie poszerzyły istotę badań.
EN
This paper presents a method of performing analyses and studies of the historical wall structures of the Monastery and Church of the Discalced Carmelites in Przemyśl. The adoption of a conservation program was preceded by macroscopic testing and an investigation of the physical and chemical properties of the historical walls of the monastery. The findings were discussed and coupled with a diagnosis. The identification of historic matter enabled the selection of a conservation process that was presented in a synthetic manner. The primary research subject was supplemented by an outline of the history of the monastery and church complex and the authors’ own professional experience, which allowed them to properly discuss the complex subject matter of reintegrative construction work performed on a historic building. The paper includes plans, tables and photographs which substantively expand upon the essence of the study.
2
Content available remote Szkodliwość soli w zawilgoconych przegrodach
EN
The soils that sustained damage from the mining industry are threatened with high salinity. The aim of the research involved assessing the impact of drilling wastes on the salinity of soils, and the influence of salinity on the germination and growth of various grass species. The research involved the energy, germination capacity and growth of four grass species: tall fescue Festuca arundinacea (cv. Odys), red fescue Festuca rubra (cv. Areta), perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne (cv. Gazon) and smooth meadow grass Poa pratensis (cv. Alicja) in the soils with various amount of drilling wastes addition and different salinity. The drilling waste addition in the amount of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% (v/v) (pH 4.1, EC = 8.84 µS/cm) significantly increased the salinity of the prepared mixtures to the levels of >2.5 dS/m, determined as harmful for most plants. Studies indicated that 5%, 10% and 15% (v/v) drill cuttings addition does not inhibit the growth of the considered grasses, while at the 25% addition of drill cuttings, the length of seedlings and roots is halved in comparison to the control sample without drilling waste addition. The mixture with 30% drilling waste addition, characterized by the salinity of 18 dS/m, inhibits the growth of all considered plant species. The conducted discrimination analysis indicated that cv. Gazon and cv. Odys differ from the other considered grass species, exhibiting the highest resistance to salinity caused by drilling waste addition. In turn, cv. Alicja was characterized by the lowest tolerance to salinity.
EN
The Kushk-e-Bahram Manto-type Cu deposit is located in central Iran, within Eocene to Oligo–Miocene volcanic strata which occur in the central part of the Uremia-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA). Propylitization, silicification, argillization and carbonatization are the main types of alteration to have affected the pyroclastic and volcanic rocks. There are high amounts of oxide minerals, including malachite, azurite, hematite, magnetite and goethite. Three types of primary FIs have been determined in the Kushk-e-Bahram deposit, namely; I: two-phase liquid-rich FIs (L+V), II: mono-phase liquid FIs, III: two-phase vapour-rich FIs which have been identified based on petrographical studies. Based on FI studies of co-existing quartz and calcite, homogenization temperatures (Th) must have been between 67 and 228°C, with an average of 158°C. Moreover, salinity is between 14.0–30.3 wt% NaCl, equivalent to a 19.6% average. Fluid density values vary from 0.8 to 1.1 gr/cm3. Based on FI data and related diagrams, the depth of their trapping was estimated to be <200 m and ore formation occurred at pressures of <50 bars. Consequently, mineralogy, host rock and FIs characteristics in the Kushk-e-Bahram deposit are similar to the Manto-type Cu deposits in Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic belts of Iran and South America.
EN
In mountain desert ecosystems, wetlands around saline and freshwater lakes allow various organisms to thrive and sometimes serve as the only source of drinking water for wild and domestic animals. We present results concerning diversity and structure of cyanobacterial inoculum from Eastern Pamir Mountains' benthic sediments, collected from small water bodies with contrasting salinity, temperature and other chemical parameters. We used morphological identification and molecular NGS techniques based on the amplification of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene. Only a few cyanobacterial taxa have been identified in the preserved samples, while 27 taxa were successfully isolated and identified from the benthic sediments. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the cyanobacterial contribution to benthic bacterial communities was low. Representatives of the order Nostocales dominated in the samples, followed by Synechococcales, while contributions of Oscillatoriales and Chroococcales was much lower. The correlation matrix for the amplicon-based composition of samples clustered together samples of similar salinity and temperature. However, in hierarchical clustering of taxonomic structure of samples, communities with similar structures were not grouped by salinity or temperature. These results suggest that salinity and to some extent temperature, influence the composition of the inoculum, although the structure of the cyanobacterial communities is further shaped by other factors. Our study also demonstrated that the benthic inoculum for cyanobacterial communities contained potentially toxic taxa characteristic of both benthic and planktonic communities.
EN
Measuring the linear characteristics of chironomid larvae is easier and faster than measuring their mass. The relationships between them are approximated by parabolic equations. Generalized equations are provided for all chironomid larvae. However, these relations vary in different water bodies. Measurements of 1424 chironomid larvae representing several species were taken in Crimean waters with salinity ranging from 0 to 280 PSU. There was a high correlation between three traits. In the case of Baeotendipes noctivagus and Cricotopus gr. sylvestris, dimorphism was found in the “head capsule length– width” relationship. Salinity affects the head capsule. The exponent “b” varied from 1.43 to 3.06 in the “body length-mass” equation for B. noctivagus, and from 1.943 to 2.592 for C. gr. sylvestris. It is inappropriate to use only one coefficient “b” for all chironomid larvae. In B. noctivagus and Paratanytarsus confuses, the mass of one-size larvae decreased with increasing salinity. Salinity is not the only factor affecting the size and mass of chironomid larvae.
EN
This study examined the influences of continental and island river runoff as well as glacial meltwater runoff on the water surface layers of the Kara Sea in different bays on the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago off the coast of Russia. High-resolution satellite and shipboard data obtained in 2015 were used to determine the sources of desalination (glacial meltwaters and river waters), which can be distinguished by the type of correlation (positive, negative, or none) seen between salinity and the coloured dissolved organic matter fluorescencje intensity. Examples of the various situations that can occur in the bays are provided and discussed.
EN
In this paper, the capacity of an Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for predicting salinity of the Tafna River is investigated. Time series data of daily liquid flow and saline concentrations from the gauging station of Pierre du Chat (160801) were used for training, validation and testing the hybrid model. Different methods were used to test the accuracy of our results, i.e. coefficient of determination (R2), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (E), root of the mean squared error (RSR) and graphic techniques. The model produced satisfactory results and showed a very good agreement between the predicted and observed data, with R2 equal (88% for training, 78.01% validation and 80.00% for testing), E equal (85.84% for training, 82.51% validation and 78.17% for testing), and RSR equal (2% for training, 10% validation and 49% for testing).
PL
W pracy badano zdolność systemu wnioskowania rozmytego opartego na adaptacyjnej sieci (ANFIS) do przewidywania zasolenia rzeki Tafna. Do trenowania, oceny i testowania modelu hybrydowego wykorzystano serie pomiarów dobowych przepływów płynu i stężeń soli ze stacji pomiarowej w Pierre du Chat (160801). Dokładność wyników testowano za pomocą: współczynnika determinacji (R2), współczynnika wydajności Nasha–Sutcliffe’a (E), pierwiastka średniego błędu kwadratowego (RSR) i technik graficznych. Model dał zadowalające wyniki i wykazywał dobrą zgodność między danymi obserwowanymi a przewidywanymi: R2 (88% w przypadku uczenia sieci, 78.01% walidacji i 80.00% testowania), E (85.84% w przypadku uczenia sieci, 82.51% walidacji i 78.17% testowania) i RSR (2% w przypadku uczenia sieci, 10% walidacji i 49% testowania).
EN
The phytotechnology concept that is applied for a bio-desalination reactor become a new desalination technology. The desalination technology can be called as bio-desalination technology to remove ions of Na+ and Cl- in brackish or saline water using mangrove plant. Before the mangrove plants were used in bio-desalination technology, the preliminary phytotoxicity test was conducted. The purpose was to determine the salinity concentration at which the mangrove species of Rhizophora mucronata can survive. The preliminary phytotoxicty test was carried out using a plastic reactor that was designed as a reed bed system. The reactors filled with gravel, sand, and artificial saline water. The variation of the NaCl concentrations were 0 mg/L as control, 10,000; 20,000; 30,000; 40,000, and 50,000 mg/L. The physical observation of the survival condition of Rhizophora mucronata was carried out during the preliminary test for 7 days. The analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) on Rhizophora mucronata was conducted at the end of exposure. The results showed that Rhizophora mucronata could not survive at the concentrations of 40,000 and 50,000 mg/L. Rhizophora mucronata changed the color of the leaves to brown and the stems become softer. Multiple cell damage and the decreasing trend of sodium and chloride amounts occured on roots and stems at the salinity concentration of 50,000 mg/L. In conclusion, the high of salinity concentration (> 30,000 mg/L) can be toxic to Rhizophora mucronata.
EN
Rice is the main crop in the irrigated agriculture zone of the Aral Sea region of Kazakhstan. The rice culture is hygrophytic and requires a large amount of irrigation water as well as a washing irrigation regime, which contributes to the leaching of salts from rice paddies. In the rice crop rotation, an active process of salt accumulation in the soil occurs after the rice stage. This happens because of the secondary soil salinization. The aim of the research was to study the salt tolerance and soil desalting properties of the new varieties of melilot during cultivation in the rice crop rotation in the irrigated area of the Aral Sea region of Kazakhstan. The research conducted in the Research and Development Center for the Microbiology and Virology showed that the cultivation of the “Arkas” variety of white melilot and the “Saraichik” variety of dentated melilot on saline soils in the rice crop rotation in the Aral Sea region of Kazakhstan leads to the soil desalination. According to the results of the research, the content of salt solid residue in the arable layer (0–30 cm) was lower under the “Saraichik” variety of dentated melilot than under the “Arkas” variety of white melilot. The level of groundwater rises and the process of salinization intensifies during the cultivation of crops. The transition from subsaline soils to the soils with a high degree of salinization occurs. The rates of development and growth are slow during the first year in melilot varieties; however, despite the low indicator values, the harvest results in a single mowing were high (229–309 kg/ha of herbage and 57.2–74.3 c/ha of hay). The “Saraichik” variety has large leaves, branching stems and high foliage. The “Saraichik” dentated melilot has a beneficial feature. This variety is able to use groundwater with high salt content more efficiently for its growth and development. It should be noted that the melilot yield of the first year was harvested in the region without irrigation, and it grew using the moisture reserve accumulated in the soil during the previous year from the watering of the previous culture, i.e. rice. Therefore, the results of the study demonstrated that “Arkas” white melilot and “Saraichik” dentated melilot are promising cultures that can be introduced into the rice crop rotation in the areas with saline soils in rice field systems of the Aral Sea region of Kazakhstan.
EN
In arid areas, with rivers functioning episodically, alluvial resources are the main source of water. Considering the intensified regulation of discharge in montane catchments, supplying the intermittent rivers, in the nearest future alluvial aquifers will gain key importance for the functioning of people in arid zones. The research aimed to investigate the diversified chemistry of alluvial waters typical of large intermittent river valleys in hot arid zones as well as to analyse processes determining the water chemistry and affecting its diversity. The detailed study, carried out in October 2015, covered the Draa river valley (1100 km total length) in the region of the Mhamid Oasis. The examined water was sampled from all wells found in the study area. Concentrations of the main cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NH4+, and Li+, anions: Cl−, SO42−, HCO3−, and NO3−, as well as trace elements: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn, were identified. Results were analysed with statistical, hydrochemical, and geochemical modelling methods. Alluvial waters of the eastern and western part of the oasis differed in concentrations of numerous components, what resulted from the regulation of irrigation. Specific electrical conductivity showed a 3.5-fold increase, from 3800 to 13800 μS/cm, consistent with the direction of water flow in the oasis, from east to west. Even a greater rise was observed for ions: Cl− (6x), Na+ (5.5x), Mg2+ (5.0x), Ca2+, and SO42− (3.5x). Such a composition indicated multiionic hydrochemical type of waters dominated by Na+ and Cl−. Additionally, high Pearson correlation coefficients were recorded for Na+ and Cl− (0.98) as well as Mg2+ and Cl− (0.97). The saturation index suggested that the main water components originated from dissolving of minerals such as halite, anhydrite, sylvite, and gypsum. Groundwater chemistry in the Mhamid Oasis was determined mainly by geogenic processes, such as dissolving of evaporates, precipitation of carbonate minerals, and ion exchange.
EN
Coastal wetlands are ecologically important all over the world, and they are relatively unstable with dramatic changes in aboveground vegetation. However, it is still unclear how the aboveground vegetation changes will influence the functioning of coastal wetland ecosystems, especially the decomposition processes. Here, we carried out a cotton strip experiment to examine the effects of Suaeda salsa community on the soil properties and the associated cellulose decomposition rates in the coastal wetlands of Liao River delta (NE China). Our results showed that S. salsa community significantly affected the contents of soil C, N, P, base cations, organic matter and the soil electrical conductivity (EC), and such effects might vary among different types or densities of aboveground vegetation. The soil cellulose decomposition rate (in terms of cotton strip tensile strength loss, CTSL) was slowed down when aboveground S. salsa communities are experiencing degradation or have been totally replaced by Phragmites australis communities. Moreover, there were positive partial correlations between soil N and CTSL, and between soil EC and CTSL, but a negative partial correlation between soil C and CTSL. Our results emphasized the importance of S. salsa community in determining the soil cellulose decomposition rate in this coastal region. The results suggest that vegetation degradation in coastal wetlands might lead to various changes in soil properties and hence affect other aspects of ecosystem functioning and services, especially nutrient cycling.
EN
The organic pollution of the Upper Vistula waters has been significantly reduced since the mid-20th century. Also salinity has gradually decreased, following an increase observed until the 1990s. Furthermore, the number of alien species has systematically increased. The above-mentioned changes have affected the richness and composition of the benthic fauna. They are particularly remarkable in the river stretch between the town of Oświęcim and the city of Kraków. The improvement of water quality has resulted in the increased number of taxa, mainly those characteristic of moderately polluted water, and the disappearance of taxa typical of strongly polluted or deoxygenated water. Despite the increased salinity level persisting for many years, only three benthic species of brackish waters (Gammarus tigrinus, Paranais frici and P. litoralis) were found in the Upper Vistula. Taxa considered to be euryhaline or halophilous were more numerous. In the 1960s, only one alien species (Physa acuta) was found, but the increased number of non-indigenous species in the last decades is visible, particularly among gammarid crustaceans (Amphipoda, Gammaroidea). The presence of alien species has not caused any visible changes in the species abundance of oligochaetes and mollusks.
EN
The potentiometer area in the Annaba basin, covering an area of 264 km2, has declined considerably since 1995. The analysis of the chronological hydrographs (1991–2009) of the piezometric observations shows that this decline is related to about twenty years (20 years) drought that began in 1991. To synthesize hydrological data and study regional changes in aquifer interactions caused by changes in discharge, and determine the contamination of aquifers by salty intrusion in coastal areas, and making forecasts by the year 2023, a multi-layered transient model as well as a solute transport model has been developed. The groundwater flow was modelled using the finite difference method with a horizontal dimension of 500 × 500 m for the cells. The model consists of two layers, the first corresponding to the alluvial phreatic aquifer and the second to the deep confined aquifer, and is calibrated against the steady state groundwater heads recorded before 1996. Model verification was done by history matching over the period 1991–2009. Under steady-state conditions, the correspondence between simulated and observed water levels is generally good (average difference of 0.4 m). For the deep aquifer, the simulated time- -series hydrographs closely match the recorded hydrographs for most of the observation wells. For the alluvial aquifer, the recorded hydrographs cover only a short time period, but they are reproduced. The model indicates that groundwater pumping induced a decrease in natural discharge, a downward leakage in most of the basin and a continual water-level decline. The model has also been applied to the analysis of recharge impact. Simulating the behaviour of the system over the period 1991–2009 without pumping indicated small changes in hydraulic head. These results show that the groundwater reservoir has a low recharge, but excellent hydraulic properties. A solute-transport model was used to study aquifer contamination from salty intrusion in coastal sectors; it was extended to the year 2023 by simulating an optimistic hypothesis that maintains present pumping until 2023. The model indicates that the head decrease of the alluvial phreatic and deep confined aquifers will be 4 m and 5 m respectively. The solute concentration in the deep confined aquifer will increase from 1 g·dm–3 (prior 2009) to 5 g·dm–3 in 2023.
PL
Objęty pomiarami obszar basenu Annaba o powierzchni 264 km2 zmniejszył się znacząco od roku 1995. W wyniku analizy chronologicznych hydrogramów (1991–2009) z obserwacji piezometrycznych wykazała, że za to zmniejszenie odpowiada dwudziestoletnia susza, która rozpoczęła się w 1991 r. Aby dokonać syntezy danych hydrologicznych, zbadać regionalne zmiany poziomów wodonośnych wywołane zmianami w odpływie, ustalić zanieczyszczenie tych poziomów przez napływ zasolonych wód z wybrzeża i prognozować sytuację do 2023 r., zbudowano wielowarstwowy model przejściowy i model transportu substancji rozpuszczonych. Przepływ wód podziemnych modelowano metodą różnic skończonych, stosując horyzontalne komórki o wymiarach 500 × 500 m. Model składał się z dwóch warstw – pierwsza odpowiadała aluwialnemu poziomowi freatycznemu, a druga – głębokiemu poziomowi o napiętym zwierciadle wody i został skalibrowany względem ustalonego poziomu piezometrycznego notowanego przed 1996 r. Model był weryfikowany dopasowaniem historycznym dla okresu 1991–2009. Dla ustalonych warunków zależność między symulowanym a obserwowanym poziomem wody była dobra (średnia różnica 0,4 m). Dla głębokich poziomów wodonośnych symulowane serie hydrogramów były w większości studzienek obserwacyjnych ściśle dopasowane do hydrogramów z pomiarów. W poziomach aluwialnych hydrogramy z pomiarów obejmowały jedynie krótki okres, ale były powtarzalne. Model wskazuje, że pompowanie wód podziemnych powodowało zmniejszenie naturalnego odpływu i przesiąkania wgłębnego w większości obszaru oraz stały spadek poziomu wody. Model wykorzystano również do analizy wpływu zasilania. Symulowanie zachowania systemu w okresie 1991–2009 bez pompowania wykazało niewielkie zmiany wysokości hydraulicznej. Uzyskane wyniki świadczą, że podziemny zbiornik ma niewielkie zasilanie, ale znakomite właściwości hydrauliczne. Model transportu substancji rozpuszczonych użyty do badań zanieczyszczenia poziomów wodonośnych przez solne intruzje z wybrzeża rozszerzono do 2023 r. z optymistycznym założeniem utrzymania aktualnego poziomu pompowania wody. W wyniku modelowania stwierdzono, że spadek wysokości hydraulicznej aluwialnego poziomu freatycznego i głębokiego poziomu o napiętym zwierciadle wody wyniesie odpowiednio 4 i 5 m. Stężenie substancji rozpuszczonych w głębokim poziomie wodonośnym wzrośnie od 1 g·dm–3 sprzed 2009 r. do 5 g·dm–3 w 2023 r.
EN
The Hamadian groundwater table ensures water supply for the agricultural perimeter of Wadi Mehiya region in the North-East of Tindouf city. In order to determine the behaviour of this groundwater table, a piezometric map have been realized, followed by physicochemical analyses to assess the chemical facies, the suitability of this water for irrigation and drinking purposes, as well as its vulnerability to different pollutants. This groundwater table is essentially composed of fine to coarse and clayey sands, surmounted by a silicified limestone slab. It is a free groundwater table with a thickness of 18 to 99 m. The sampling has been done in June 2010. Then, the physicochemical analyses have been performed on 7 samples taken from 7 boreholes. The piezometric study proved that the flow of groundwater table follows a North-East to South- -West direction, towards the Sebkha of Tindouf. The graphic representation of chemical facies, using Piper and Schoeller– Berkaloff diagrams, reveals that the water of Wadi Mehiya contains mainly magnesium sulphate. The graphical representation of irrigation water quality, using Wilcox diagram, revealed an acceptable quality with a high salinity. Moreover, this water is potable with hard-mineralized character. Nitrates contamination has been also noted, which is a logical result of the excessive use of chemical fertilizers.
PL
Poziom wodonośny Hamadi zapewnia dostawy wody dla rolniczych terenów regionu Wadi Mehiya na północny wschód od miasta Tindouf. W celu określenia właściwości poziomu wodonośnego wykonano mapę piezometryczną, a następnie przeprowadzono analizy fizyczne i chemiczne do oceny składu wody, jej przydatności do nawodnień i zaopatrzenia ludności w wodę pitną, jak również podatności zasobów na różne zanieczyszczenia. Poziom wodonośny znajduje się w warstwie gliniastego piasku o zmiennym uziarnieniu podścielonego warstwą krzemionkowo-wapienną. Jest to poziom o swobodnym zwierciadle wody o miąższości od 18 do 99 m. Próbki wody pobrano w czerwcu 2010 r. Analizy fizyczne i chemiczne wykonano w 7 próbkach pobranych z 7 odwiertów. Badania piezometryczne wykazały, że woda gruntowa płynie z północnego wschodu na południowy zachód w kierunku Sebkha k. Tindouf. Graficzna prezentacja wyników z wykorzystaniem diagramów Pipera i Shoellera–Berkaloffa dowodzi, że w składzie chemicznym wody Wadi Mehiya dominuje siarczan magnezu. Graficzne przedstawienie jakości wody do nawodnień wg diagramu Wilcoxa wykazało akceptowalną jakość z dużym zasoleniem. Ta wysoce zmineralizowana woda nadaje się do celów spożywczych. Zanotowano także zanieczyszczenie azotanami, co jest skutkiem nadmiernego stosowania nawozów mineralnych.
EN
Chickpea is supposed to be a prospective crop for soil reclamation. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of tillage and humidification conditions on the chickpea desalination properties. The study was conducted by using the randomized split plot method in four replications during 2012–14 at the Agricultural Cooperative Farm «Radianska Zemlia» of Kherson region in Ukraine. The results of the study showed that the maximum salts uptake of 2.516 t ha-1 from the 0–50 cm soil layer and the maximum chickpea grain yield of 3.33 t ha-1 were provided under irrigated conditions with moldboard plowing on the depth of 28–30 cm. It was established that the higher chickpea grain yield is, the greater the salts uptake rate from the soil. It was also proven that the plowing depth has no significant effect on the chickpea grain yield and desalination properties. It should be mentioned that chickpea showed limited desalination properties. The crop was not able to adsorb all the sodium from the soil when irrigated with saline water.
EN
The genus Petunia is a plant of high economic importance in the world-wide horticulture. These ornamental plants are often exposed to soil salinity that negatively affects their development. Chitosan is a biopolymer with multiple applications in plant breeding but it also minimizes the adverse effects of abiotic stresses on plant growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan on petunia shoots development under salt stress in vitro. In the first experiment, four types of chitosan with molecular weight of 3.33, 8, 10 and 970 kDa in the concentrations of 0, 10, 15 and 20 ppm were supplemented into MS medium. In the second experiment, petunia shoots were grown on MS medium with the addition of different molecular weight of chitosan in the concentration of 15 ppm each and 100 mM NaCl. The results indicated that all of chitosan types and concentrations stimulate the plant growth in comparison to control. However, 15 ppm chitosan concentration was more effective than other concentrations used. Salinity caused a significant reduction in shoot and root length, fresh and dry mass, plant water contents, while chitosan (970 kDa) adjusted the salt toxicity. It is concluded that chitosan would be able to stimulate the growth of petunia shoots in vitro independent of their molecular weight. It was observed that the addition of chitosan of 970 kDa to MS medium under salinity conditions may alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on the plant growth.
EN
Miocene deposits in the eastern portion of the Greater Ughelli, Central Swamp and Coastal Swamp depobelts contain well-developed brackish-water trace fossil assemblages. Twelve ichnogenera have been identified, namely: Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, Gyrolithes, Thalassinoides, Lockeia, Palaeophycus, ?Conichnus, Planolites, Siphonichnus, Skolithos and Diplocraterion. In addition, common non-descript, passively filled burrows and fugichnia (escape structures) have also been observed. The above-mentioned ichnogenera and associated non-descript structures can be arranged into six distinct and recurring ichnoassociations within the Greater Ughelli, Central Swamp and Coastal Swamp depobelts. Each ichnoassociation is comprised of a group of trace fossils which collectively reflect specific environmental conditions during deposition of these Miocene strata. All trace fossil assemblages illustrate deposition in nearshore, restricted settings. Ichnological and sedimentological criteria which may be utilized to recognise brackish-water deposits are discussed and illustrated in pictures of the cores studied.
19
Content available Wysychanie zasolonej ceramiki zabytkowej
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wpływ zasolenia na kinetykę wysychania ceramiki budowlanej. Podjęto próbę wykazania, iż stopień zasolenia znacząco wpływa na szybkość wysychania zabytkowej cegły.
EN
This paper intends to report the experimental work carried out with brick specimens, aiming to evaluate the effect of salt solution in the capillary absorption of brick specimen in comparison with water. Also the experiment was conducted to define the kinetics ratio of brick samples drying and determine the influence on the degradation of historical material.
PL
Zasolenie odpadów wiertniczych jest czynnikiem determinującym wybór opcji ich zagospodarowania. Wpływa również na koszty ich utylizacji. Większość soli obecnych w odpadach wiertniczych wykazuje dużą dynamikę i łatwość ługowania. Określenie poziomu zasolenia tych odpadów powinno stanowić istotne kryterium możliwości ich zagospodarowania nie tylko w środowisku gruntowo-wodnym, w geotechnice, ale także w inżynierii materiałowej. Zwrócono uwagę na szczególnie dużą zawartość łatwo ługowalnych soli w odpadach wiertniczych, których odsalanie jest koniecznym etapem utylizacji.
EN
Some elements contained in aq. and non-aq. drilling liqs. were detd. by std. elution test. Chem. compns. of eluates as well as their electrolytic cond. were detd. by at. absorption spectrometry and conductometry, resp. The eluates derived from aq. waste contained much more Na, K, Ca, Cl ions and revealed better electrolytic cond. than the non-aq. eluates. A preliminary desalination of the wastes was recommended.
first rewind previous Strona / 7 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.