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PL
Kamienie młyńskie od wieków były głównym elementem systemu roboczego zakładów napędzanych siłą wody i wiatru. Te niezwykle cenne zabytki kultury materialnej rozpoznane są jednak w nieznacznym zakresie. W ostatnich latach widoczna jest intensyfikacja interdyscyplinarnych metod badawczych w molinologii. Jedną z nich są badania petrograficzne kamieni młyńskich. W polskich opracowaniach brak jednak takiego ujęcia. Dla wybranej, skatalogowanej grupy kamieni z terenów Pomorza autorzy obrali za cel określenie rodzaju skał, miejsca ich pochodzenia oraz funkcji w młynie. Spośród 15 kamieni trzy okazały się sztucznym kamieniem, 8 piaskowcem kwarcowym, jedna granitem, jedna anortozytem kwarcowym, dwie skałą osadową krzemionkową. Dla części udało się także określić miejsce pochodzenia z łomów niemieckich i francuskich, niektóre mogły być pochodzenia miejscowego.
EN
Millstones have been the main element of the working system of plants powered by water and wind for centuries. However, these extremely valuable monuments of material culture are recognized to a rather small extent. Recent years have seen a certain intensification of interdisciplinary research in the field of molinology. One of them is petrographic study of millstones. Yet, Polish studies still lack this kind of approach. This paper is aimed at determining the types of rocks, their origins and functions within the mill structure. In a group of fifteen stones, three were made of artificial stone, eight turned out to be quartz sandstones, one is made of granite and one of quartz anorthosite, two proved to be made of sedimentary siliceous rock. Certain rocks have been determined to be of German or French origin, whereas the others could have been acquired locally.
EN
El-Hudi gold deposit, located in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt, represent large vein- type gold occurrence. The representative sample revealed the abundance of quartz as main constituent with minor amounts of mineral impurities. Gold was detectable (12 g/t) as determined using atomic absorption. The petrographic study revealed that the gold grains ranged from 10-40 μm. The grain boundaries of quartz are highly stained with iron minerals as hematite and limonite. Sericite mineral is common in discrete gold-bearing veins. Eroded pyrite was detected with high alteration leaving only cubic-shaped cavities behind. Different techniques for gravity separation were used to separate gold from the quartz mineral. After crushing and grinding of the sample, shaking table was used to upgrade the coarser fractions while Falcon concentrator was employed to upgrade the fine fraction. The best concentrate was obtained through grinding the whole sample to less than 0.2 mm, followed by cleaning steps. The gold content is increased from 12 to 145 g/t with total recovery of 78%.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje wyniki analiz mikrotomograficznych oraz petrograficznych piaskowców czerwonego spągowca pobranych z materiału rdzeniowego z otworów wiertniczych zlokalizowanych na obszarze monokliny przedsudeckiej, w jej części środkowej iźpółnocnej, oraz na granicy monokliny przedsudeckiej i synklinorium mogileńsko-łódzkiego. Do badań wytypowano 3 rejony: Czarna Wieś–Parzęczewo (19 próbek), Środa Wielkopolska–Kromolice (21 próbek) oraz Siekierki–Miłosław (21 próbek). Celem przeprowadzonych badań petrologicznych oraz mikrotomograficznych było zbadanie, w jaki sposób odmienne właściwości zbiornikowe piaskowców znajdą odzwierciedlenie w wynikach zastosowanych metod. Wykazano zdecydowane zróżnicowanie pomiędzy próbkami z rejonu Środa Wielkopolska–Kromolice a pozostałymi przebadanymi obszarami. Dla wspomnianego obszaru otrzymano najwyższą średnią wartość porowatości efektywnej, najwyższy średni udział podsystemów zaliczanych do VII klasy objętości porów, trzykrotnie większą średnią wartość współczynnika porowatości CT oraz największą długość średniej cięciwy. Również pod kątem petrograficznym (skład szkieletu ziarnowego, typ cementu) jest to region, gdzie zaznaczają się wyraźne różnice, zwłaszcza w porównaniu z rejonem Czarna Wieś–Parzęczewo. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników możliwe było uszeregowanie przebadanych rejonów pod kątem własności zbiornikowych – od najgorszych (Czarna Wieś–Parzęczewo) do najlepszych (Środa Wielkopolska–Kromolice). Wyciągnięte wnioski znajdują także potwierdzenie w innych analizach petrofizycznych (np. porozymetria rtęciowa, analizy przepuszczalności). Połączenie otrzymanych wyników mikrotomograficznych i petrograficznych pozwoliło na uzyskanie pełnej charakterystyki badanych próbek – zarówno pod kątem składu mineralogicznego szkieletu ziarnowego, jak też wykształcenia przestrzeni porowej. Dane te, zwłaszcza w połączeniu z wynikami analizy gęstości i porowatości metodami piknometrii helowej oraz porozymetrii rtęciowej, otwierają szereg możliwości przeprowadzenia różnego typu modelowań (porowatość, przepuszczalność) zarówno w skali samej próbki, jak też w skali otworu lub nawet całego basenu, co ma kluczowe znaczenie dla tworzenia strategii poszukiwań złóż węglowodorów.
EN
The article presents the results of microtomographic and petrographic investigations of Rotliegend sandstones collected from core material from wells located in the area of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline in its central and northern parts and also on the border of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline and the Mogilno - Łódź Synclinorium. Three areas were selected for the study: Czarna Wieś–Parzęczewo (19 samples), Środa Wielkopolska–Kromolice (21 samples) and Siekierki–Miłosław (21 samples). The aim of the petrologic and microtomographic studies was to investigate how the different reservoir properties of sandstones will be reflected in the results of the methods used. Strong differences between samples from the region of Środa Wielkopolska–Kromolice and the other studied areas have been demonstrated. In the case of this area several key factors were noticed: the highest average value of effective porosity; the highest average content of pores belonging to class VII (pore volume subsystem classification); three times higher average value of the CT porosity coefficient and the largest length of the average chord. Also in terms of petrography (composition of grains, cement type) it is a region where major differences, especially compared to the region of Czarna Wieś–Parzęczewo, can be seen. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to rank the examined regions in terms of their reservoir properties – from the worst (Czarna Wieś–Parzęczewo) to the best (Środa Wielkopolska–Kromolice). These conclusions are also confirmed by other petrophysical analyses (eg. mercury porosimetry, permeability analysis). Combination of the obtained microtomographic and petrographic results allowed to obtain a full characterization of the investigated samples – both in terms of the mineralogical composition of grains, as well as the development of the pore space. These data, especially in combination with the results of density and porosity analyses (helium pycnometry and mercury porosimetry), open up a number of possibilities to carry out different types of modeling (porosity, permeability) both on the scale of the sample itself, as well as the scale of a single well or even the whole basin, which is crucial for creating a hydrocarbon exploration strategy.
EN
The St. Elizabeth of Hungary Basilica is one of the most important and recognizable monuments of Wroclaw - the capital of Lower Silesia (SWpart of Poland). The origin of the church dates back to the beginning of the 13th century. The basilica received its present Gothic form in the 14th-15th centuries. At the foot of the church tower, overlooking the buildings of the nearby Market Square, there is a late-Gothic portal built in 1456. This is the oldest portal of the basilica. Adjacent to it, there are epitaphs of wealthy Wroclaw burghers. These monuments are the top-class works of Silesian stonemasonry and also an interesting example of the use of natural stone in constructing architectural details. From the portal and three epitaphs (devoted to the Krapps’family, Georg Althoff Scholz and Hans Schulz von Wolkovitz), atotal often samples of clastic rock were collected. These were subjected to detailed petrographic and mineralogical studies in order to determine the provenance of the stone material. The research confirmed that these architectural details were made of quartz sandstones. The probable source of this material was the Cretaceous joint sandstones from the North-Sudetic Basin (Conacian, upper joint sandstone - Rakowice type).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przykłady zaawansowanych badań mineralnych materiałów budowlanych pobranych z murowanych obiektów zabytkowych o wartości historycznej. W celu identyfikacji materiałów, ich składu fazowego oraz określenia specyficznych właściwości, w tym stopnia skażenia solami, wykonano badania petrograficzne, obserwacje w mikroskopie skaningowym wraz z analizą dyspersji energii promieniowania rentgenowskiego pierwiastków, a także określono strukturę porowatości. Badania umożliwiające ocenę materiału na podstawie bardzo małych próbek mają ogromne znaczenie w przypadku obiektów zabytkowych, w tym o charakterze martyrologicznym, gdyż obowiązuje wówczas wiele ograniczeń wynikających z konieczności zachowania substancji oryginalnej i zminimalizowania ingerencji związanej z pobieraniem próbek.
EN
The paper present examples of advanced studies of mineral building materials collected from facilities located within the area of the former Auschwitz-Birkenau camp. These facilities are characterised by great historical value. In order to identify the materials and their phase composition, and to determine their specific properties, including the extent of salt contamination, petrographic examinations were performed as well as SEM observations along with an energy dispersive X ray analysis and porosity structure. It has been stressed in the paper that testing methods that enable evaluation of the material based on very small samples is of great importance in the aspect of heritage facilities including those associated with suffering where many restrictions are applicable due to the requirement that the original substance should be retained and the interference in connection with the sampling should be minimised.
EN
The importance of rocks and rock aggregates cannot be overemphasized in construction and concrete design globally. This study evaluated the physical and mechanical characteristics of fine grained granite, porphyritic granite, quartzite, granite gneiss, migmatite gneiss and charnockite from ten different locations in Akure for their suitability as construction materials. Field observation, water absorption, specific gravity, shape indices, aggregate impact value (AIV), aggregate crushing value (ACV), Los Angeles abrasion value (LAAV), compressive strength, tensile strength and petrography of the selected rocks were evaluated. The field studies indicate fresh outcrops with little signs of weathering. Porphyritic granite shows a higher water absorption value >1%, suggestive of its unsuitability as foundation materials in water logged areas. The higher flakiness and elongation indices of porphyritic granite, quartzite and migmatite gneiss are detrimental to the higher workability and stability of mixes. AIV (14.79–23.52%), ACV (18.32–28.93%) and LAAV (25.22–34.55%) showed that granite, granite gneiss and charnockite have good soundness and hardness with greater resistance to wear. Higher strength values of all the rocks were found to be satisfactory for use in the production of aggregates for civil constructions. Petrographic analysis revealed similarities in the compositions of the rocks, with quartz being the dominant mineral. The results show that all the rock types possess the required quality standards for use as construction aggregates in highway pavements and foundations. Some of the aggregates (GG1, GG2, GF, GC, MG1, CK1 and CK2) are also suitable for bituminous mixes. Quartzite should be avoided in load bearing masonry units due to its lower strength values. The most suitable rocks proven as road and building stones are fine grained granite, granite gneiss and charnockite because of their low water absorption, low flakiness and elongation indices, low abrasion values, higher strength values (tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength) and sound petrographic characters. Thus, adequate knowledge of rocks and rock aggregates is crucial in order to prevent continuous structural failure around the globe and make the environment friendlier.
EN
The study was carried out in the wall of a cliff that formed as a result of erosional cutting in the western foreland of a moraine landform from the Pomeranian and Gardno phases (Upper Plenivistulian, Rowy-Ustka clifs; northern Poland). Individual lithostratigraphic units have been documented: glaciofluvial delta deposlts, Poddąbie Till, lacustrine-glacial Wytowno Formation (consisting of three facies: deltaic, lower diamicton, and upper diamicton), lacustrine deposits of the Orzechowo Formation with a thick peat layer, and aeolian series at the cliff crest. The Wytowno Formation deposits include the following lithologies: medium-grained sands, fine-grained sands, muddy sands, muds, silty clays, clays, varved clays, fine-grained multi-fraction deposits, and tills (Dębina Till). Very high inclination of the strata is the result of glaciodynamic deformation. The deposits were accumulated in a proglacial lake. They are characterized by mud and clay as well as sand and sand-muddy lithofacies. The vastness of the water body is evidenced by a considerable size of the delta, and by massive structures of the clay layers.
EN
Nowadays, in order to determine whether given rock properties make it useful for specifi c purposes, the material is examined using relevant test equipment. At the times of Jan Michałowicz, any knowledge in this respect was transmitted by the master to his apprentices, based on the master’s experience. The artist used domestic rock raw materials to sculpt monuments commemorating important persons who were his contemporaries. For the petrographic analysis, the authors selected the most distinguishable works of the artist, which he signed or which are most likely to have been sculpted by him. The authors analysed the materials used by the artist to carve specifi c elements of his works, as well as rock raw materials in terms of their historical and contemporary properties. Consequently, the petrographic study allowed to describe the rocks in greater detail, as well as their properties useful for sculpture purposes, and their durability. Artistic qualities helped determine the sources of stones used by Jan Michałowicz during his projects. These include the quarries near Pińczów (limestone), Kunów (sandstone), Bolechowice (marble), Żurawno (alabaster) and initially quarries in Hungary. The discussed works of Jan Michałowicz provide firm grounds for acknowledging the artist as the leading co-founder to Polish Renaissance art.
EN
This paper summarizes information about recently worked bentonite deposits in Slovakia and presents the results of studies on bentonite from the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field (CSVF). The authors compared the mineralogy of commercial bentonites exploited in the Stara Kremnička (Jelšový potok), Kopernica, and Hliník nad Hronom deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analyses and microscopy showed that the main component is montmorillonite (37–88%), followed by opal C/CT (5–25%), clinoptilolite (up to 15%), feldspars (3–12%), quartz (up to 8%), biotite (2–5%), and kaolinite (up to 2%). The microscopic imaging provided information valuable for the technological assessment of bentonites, particularly the evaluation of mineralogy determined by XRD. The low variability of the mineral composition of commercial bentonites exploited in the western CSVF, together with the significant reserves and localization of deposits close to the Polish–Slovak state border prove that this raw material deserves more attention from Polish industry.
PL
Na użyteczność kruszyw wpływa wiele czynników wynikających bezpośrednio z ich składu i pochodzenia. Aby odpowiednio rozpoznać te cechy, należy wykonać dokładny i szczegółowy opis bazujący na metodach i klasyfikacjach przyjętych w petrografii zgodnie z obecnie obowiązującą normą PN-EN 932-3 Badania podstawowych właściwości kruszyw – Procedura i terminologia uproszczonego opisu petrograficznego.
EN
The usefulness of aggregates is influenced by many factors resulting directly from its composition and origin. In order to properly identify these features, it is necessary to perform accurate and detailed description based on the methods and classifications adopted in petrography, in accordance with the current standard PN-EN 932-3 (Tests for general properties of aggregates – Procedure and terminology for simplified petrographic description).
EN
The Hoanh Bo Basin has developed over multiple periods since the Miocene period in association with the tectonic activity of the Chi Linh-Hon Gai and Trung Luong Faults. The basin is filled with Neogene continental sediments, comprising mainly polymictic conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, claystones, and shales. Coarser-grained polymictic deposits predominate along the northern and western margins of the basin, whereas different types of siltstones, claystones, and sandstones occur in its centre, as well as along its southern and eastern parts, toward the Ha Long Bay. The conglomerates and sandstones are composed mainly of quartz and sedimentary rock fragments, and a small amount of mica. Cement is mainly built of iron-oxide, clay or carbonate mud. The source area for the Hoanh Bo Basin sediments was located in the close vicinity of the basin. It was built of strongly weathered rocks of the Hon Gai, Ha Coi, Cat Ba Formations.
EN
The Rock-Eval source rock characteristics, mineral composition and type-porosity of reservoir horizons, and origin of natural gas in the Devonian of the Lublin and Lviv basins are described. In the Lower Devonian, the TOC content ranges from 0.01 to 1.82 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.01 to 0.45 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. Transformation of organic matter varies from immature in the Lochkovian (Lviv Basin) to mature and overmature in the Emsian (Lublin Basin). The organic matter contains mainly Type-II kerogen, and underwent primary and/or secondary oxidation processes. In the Middle Devonian, the TOC content varies from 0.00 to 1.63 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.02 to 0.64 to 2.35 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. The organic matter contains mainly Type-II kerogen and is immature in the Givetian of the Lviv Basin and mature in the Eifelian of the Lviv Basin and in the Eifelian and Givetian in the Lublin Basin. In the Upper Devonian, the TOC content is from 0.02 to 2.62 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.04 to 1.43 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. Type-II kerogen dominates in both basins. Organic matter is mature in the Upper Devonian in the Lublin Basin and in the Famennian of the Lviv Basin and overmature in the Frasnian of the Lviv Basin. The reservoir horizons in the Devonian of the Lublin and Lviv basins are developed in clastic, carbonate and sulphate rocks. Terrigenous rocks form several separate horizons in the Lower and Middle Devonian of the Lviv Basin, and in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) of the Lublin Basin. Their filtration properties relate to intergranular porosity, while the fracture space has subordinate significance. Carbonate rocks form thick saturated horizons in the Givetian in the Lviv Basin, and in the Eifelian, Givetian and Frasnian in the Lublin Basin. Their filtration properties are produced by fracture porosity. Sulphates and carbonate-sulphate rocks with fracture and cavern porosity play a role as reservoir horizons in the Middle Devonian of the Lublin Basin. The natural gas collected from the Upper Devonian of the Lublin Basin was generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes, from Ordovician–Silurian Type-II kerogen. The gas from the Middle Devonian reservoirs of the Lviv Basin was produced from Ordovician–Silurian Type-II kerogen and partly from the Middle and Upper Devonian mixed Type-III/II kerogen with maturity from about 0.9 to 1.4%. Carbon dioxide was formed by both thermogenic and microbial processes. Molecular nitrogen was generated mainly through thermal transformation of organic matter and also from destruction of NH4-rich illite of the clayey facies of the Ordovician–Silurian strata.
PL
Prowadzone prace rewaloryzacyjne i konserwatorskie pozwoliły na pobranie kilku małych prób skał z grobu Chystusa i z pod fundamentów świątyni Grobu Pańskiego. Stworzyło to wyjątkową okazję do przeprowadzenia szczególowych badań tych skał z wykorzystaniem najnowoczesniejszych metod. Otrzymane wyniki ujawniły kilka intersujących i nie znanych dotychczas szczegułów., Rozpoznano na koamieniu z grobu ślady hematytu ( ślady malowania ochrą?). Stwiedzono także, że kamienie z grobu są odmienne mineralogiczmnie i petrogrfaicznie od wapieni z lokalnego podłoża Świątyni Grobu Pańskiego. Oznacza to, że zostały onę ściagniete z poza tego terenu.
EN
Mineraloghical investigation of stones used for construction of Jesus tomb in Jerusalem were performed using polarizing light microscoe, SEM-EDS method. Additionalya rocks present udner the Temple of Christ Tomb were performed as material for comparison. Obtaioned data document presence of hematite and traces of sculpturing on the stones of tomb. Moreover investiogation confirm the tomb is constructed of limestine not similar to one present under the temple. This means for construction of tomb was used blocks of limestone produced at quarry located at othe place.
PL
Ze względu na szerokie rozprzestrzenienie i stosunkowo wysoką jakość piaskowce krośnieńskie należą do najczęściej wykorzystywanych materiałów kamiennych Karpat. Leżące we wschodniej części Beskidu Małego złoża Górka-Mucharz i Skawce stały się przedmiotem badań niniejszego artykułu. Po dokonaniu obserwacji terenowych i badań odbojności do dalszych badań wybrano próbki piaskowców, które zaklasyfikowano na podstawie cech makroskopowych do siedmiu typów petrograficznych, przy czym pięć z nich reprezentowało świeże, niezmienione odmiany, zaś dwa pozostałe objęte były procesami wietrzenia. Kolejne badania polegały na wykonaniu dokładnej charakterystyki mikroskopowej odmian, obejmującej opis składników, ilościową analizę składu oraz granulometrię. Potwierdziły one różnice wykształcenia piaskowców wyróżnionych typów. W trakcie badań laboratoryjnych oznaczono gęstość objętościową, nasiąkliwość wagową oraz wytrzymałość na ściskanie dla próbek nieforemnych, przeliczoną następnie na wytrzymałość na jednoosiowe ściskanie próbek foremnych. Wykonane następnie badania właściwości fizyczno-mechanicznych wykazały odmienność uzyskiwanych wyników dla poszczególnych typów. Najwyższą jakością odznaczały się piaskowce laminowane skorupowo lub poziomo (typy IV i V), osiągając średnie wartości wytrzymałości na ściskanie odpowiednio 115 MPa i 154 MPa, przy wysokiej gęstości pozornej (2,66–2,67 Mg/m3). Wiązało się to z ich drobno- i bardzo drobnoziarnistą teksturą oraz wysokim udziałem spoiwa (20–29% obj.). W jego składzie przeważał węglanowy cement, ale towarzyszyły mu także obwódki regeneracyjne na ziarnach kwarcu i w mniejszym udziale matriks ilasta. Przeciętne wartości parametrów jakościowych, bliskie przedstawianym w literaturze i dokumentacjach złóż, wykazywały drobnoziarniste piaskowce masywne (typ I). Wśród odmian niezwietrzałych najsłabszą odporność na ściskanie (ok. 88 MPa), przy stosunkowo wysokiej nasiąkliwości wagowej (ok. 1,2%), wykazywały piaskowce różnoziarniste (typy II i III), w których spoiwo węglanowe osiągało niewielki udział około 10% obj., zaś cement kwarcowy (1,0% obj.) utworzył zaczątkowe formy obwódek regeneracyjnych. Większe składniki detrytyczne (głównie fragmenty łupków łyszczykowych i skał magmowych) uległy częściowemu lub całkowitemu rozkładowi, rozluźniając szkielet ziarnowy skały zbudowany z okruchów o przeważających wklęsło-wypukłych i prostych kontaktach. W pracy wykazano zasadność wyróżniania typów petrograficznych w złożach piaskowców na podstawie prostych badań makroskopowych, łatwych do wykonania przez geologa górniczego.
EN
Due to the wide distribution and relatively high quality, Krosno Sandstones are the most commonly used stone materials in the Carpathians. Located in the Eastern part of the Beskid Mały Mountains, the Górka-Mucharz and Skawce deposits are the subject of research of this article. After field observations and Schmidt hammer tests, sandstone samples were selected for further study, classified into 7 petrographic types on the basis of macroscopic characteristics, wherein 5 of them represented fresh, intact varieties, and the other 2 were weathered. Subsequent tests involved microscopic studies including a description of components, quantitative analysis of composition and granulometry. They confirmed differences in the distinguished types of sandstones. Laboratory tests included determining bulk density, water absorption and compressive strength for irregularly shaped samples, then converted to the uniaxial compressive strength of regularly shaped samples. The subsequent of physico-mechanical property tests revealed the diversity of the results for the individual types. Convolute or parallel laminated sandstones (types IV and V) were characterized by the highest quality, achieving average compressive strength values, respectively of 115 MPa and 154 MPa, and a high bulk density (2.66–2.67 Mg/m3). It was associated with their fine- and very fine-grained texture and a high proportion of cement and matrix (20–29% by volume). Its composition was dominated by carbonate cement, which was also accompanied by outgrowths on the quartz grains and with a lesser participation of a clay matrix. The average values of quality parameters, close to those presented in literature and documentation of the deposits were found for fine-grained massive sandstones (type I). Among the unweathered varieties, the weakest compressive strength (approx. 88 MPa), with a relatively high water absorption (approx. 1.2%) was found for poorly sorted sandstones (types II and III), in which a small proportion of carbonate cement and matrix reached the level of approx. 10% by volume, and quartz cement (1.0% by volume) created early forms of outgrowths. Larger detrital components (mainly fragments of mica schists and igneous rocks) were partially or completely decomposed, loosening the rock fabric, which was composed of debris with prevailing concave-convex and long contacts. The study demonstrated the validity of distinguishing petrographic types of sandstones in deposits on the basis of simple macroscopic tests, which are easy to perform by a mining geologist.
PL
Utwory czerwonego spągowca, ze względu na obecne w nich złoża gazu, są od dziesięcioleci przedmiotem intensywnych badań geologicznych. Współcześnie obszar występowania tych utworów (dotychczas kojarzony ze złożami konwencjonalnymi) budzi zainteresowanie również pod kątem złóż niekonwencjonalnych (ang. tight gas). W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań petrograficznych i granulometrycznych dla ponad 400 próbek, które przyporządkowane zostały facjom: eolicznej, fluwialnej, plai (jeziornej) oraz tzw. białego spągowca. W celu zbadania relacji pomiędzy składnikami szkieletu ziarnowego, spoiwami a rozkładem uziarnienia dokonano analizy korelacyjnej. Uzyskane wyniki powiązać będzie można z rezultatami analiz petrofizycznych (porowatość, przepuszczalność), co ułatwi stworzenie cyfrowych modeli 3D i umożliwi lokalizację potencjalnych złóż gazu.
EN
Rotliegend sandstones are well known conventional gas reservoirs and have been a subject of intense geological investigation for decades. Nowadays, even more attention is paid to Rotligend sandstones as they may also be reservoirs for unconventional gas – tight gas. This paper presents the results of petrographic and granulometric analyses for over 400 samples that have been described as sediments related to aeolian, fluvial, playa and so called “white Rotliegend” deposition systems. In order to investigate the relationships between the components of grains, cements and particle size distributions, correlation analysis was performed. Presented results may be directly linked with petrophysical (porosity, permeability) features of analyzed rocks, which enables to create detailed, digital 3D models of Rotliegend sediments. These models are powerful tools that can be used to locate new wells and new areas of interest.
PL
Z uwagi na dynamiczne zmiany klimatyczne, które częściowo spowodowane są użytkowaniem węgla, ważne jest badanie zawartości substancji szkodliwych. Niebezpieczne zanieczyszczenia powietrza, powstające podczas spalania węgla (np, As, Se, Hg, Pb, Sb), są często związane z minerałami siarczkowymi w węglu. Przedmiotem badań były siarczki, które występują w polskim węglu kamiennym. Siarczki są jedną z form występowania siarki w węglu. Przeprowadzona praca skupiła się głównie na charakterystyce form występowania siarczków w skali makroskopowej i mikroskopowej, a także analizie chemicznej w mikroobszarze. Badania były prowadzone dla pokładów 301–308 ze wschodniej części Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego, stratygraficznie zaliczanych do najwyższej części warstw orzeskich s.s. (westfal B). Zostały opróbowane pokłady węgla w wyrobiskach podziemnych kopalń Jan Kanty, Sobieski Jaworzno III , Wesoła i Ziemowit. [...]
EN
Due to dynamic climatic changes resulting, among others, from the use of coal, the content of harmful substances in coal is of particular importance. Dangerous air pollution resulting from the burning of coal (e.g. As, Se, Hg, Pb, Sb) is often associated with sulfide minerals in coal. The study focused on the sulphides occurring in Polish hard coal deposits. Sulfides are one of the forms of occurrence of sulfur in coal. In this paper, an emphasis has been placed on the characteristics of forms of occurrence of sulphides on both macroscopic and microscopic scale and on the chemical analysis in the micro area. The study has been conducted for the No. 301–308 seams from the eastern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, stratigraphically belonging to the highest part of the Orzesze Beds s.s. (Westphalian B). The coal samples have been collected from the coal seams in the underground excavations of the following coal mines: Jan Kanty, Sobieski Jaworzno III , Wesoła and Ziemowit hard coal mine. [...]
EN
The Upper Cenomanian mixed siliciclastic-carbonate succession of the High-Tatric Unit was deposited during the initial stage of basinal closing of the Tatric area, part of the Zliechov (Križna) Basin (Inner Carpathian domain). As a result of tectonic activity taking place at the northern Veporic margin, pulses of siliciclastic input interrupted marine carbonate sedimentation. The siliciclastic material, part of the Zabijak Formation, has been studied along two sections (Pisana Gully and Zdziarski Gully) in the Western Tatra Mountains. Microfacies, petrographic and geochemical analyses reveal a variability of siliciclastic material composed of various types of granitoids and medium- or high-grade metamorphic rocks, with schists and gneisses. Such interpretation is confirmed by the results of elemental chemical analyses, in which immobile trace elements, such as REE, Th, Cr, Co, Zr, and Y were used as indices for sediment provenance. The parent rocks sustained moderate to intense chemical weathering, documented by chemical weathering indices (CIA, PIA, CIW, R). The weathering occurred in a humid climate with relatively high precipitation that caused strong leaching of particles. Chemical indices related to sorting processes suggest that the recycling of the source material was a minor significance. The siliciclastic input displays a waning upward tendency in the sections, which can be associated with diminishing of the source area by gradual inland progradation of a carbonate platform, caused by a global sea level rise during the Late Cenomanian.
EN
The Niestachów profile is located in the southwestern part of the Holy Cross Mountains and exposes lower Ludlovian greywacke sediments of the Niewachlów Beds that occur above graptolitic claystones of the Prągowiec Beds. Within the sequence of lithologically diversified Niewachlów Beds, more than 400 m thick, 11 characteristic lithologic complexes were identified. The lower and upper parts of the Niewachlów Beds comprise fine- and medium-grained greywacke sandstones with mudstone interbeds, whereas the middle part contains coarse-grained greywacke sandstones and conglomerates. The sediments were transported by “turbiditic currents” from the southwest. Petrographic examination of the upper part of the Prągowiec Beds and the Niewachlów Beds indicates that the greywacke conglomerates and sandstones of the Niewachlów Beds are composed primarily of volcanic and sedimentary lithoclasts, with subordinate metamorphic and scarce plutonic lithoclasts. The sandstones and conglomerates were derived from an orogen containing sandstones and mudstones as well as from the magmatic rocks of a continental volcanic arc, characterized by acidic-intermediate volcanism.
EN
The paper presents results of petrographic analyses of glacial tills in the western part of the Kleszczów Graben and the attempt of their stratigraphic interpretation. Petrographic coefficients have allowed the identification of five till lithotypes: T1, T2A, T2 and T2B – assigned to the South Polish Complex (Elsterian) and T4 correlated with the Middle Polish Complex (Saalian). The well-expressed tills that represent the South Polish Complex, occur at the bottom of the section. A new till lithotype, T2B, has been distinguished, corresponding to the Kuców Formation. It supplements the Pleistocene lithostratigraphic section of central Poland and corresponds to the Sanian 2 Glaciation. Among the younger tills, the T4 one (Odranian Glaciation) is well developed. The uppermost tills of the Wartanian cold stage have been reduced by glaciofluvial and fluvial erosion. It is, to some extent a consequence of the existence of a depression in this area, called the Szczerców Basin. The paper highlights the interpretational difficulties concerning the rank and the number of ice sheet advances during the Polish and Middle Polish Complexes in central Poland.
EN
The paper presents the results of erratic boulders studies in the area of Trójmiejski Landscape Park (TLP) located west of the Gulf of Gdañsk. The research objects were boulders protected as natural monuments (66 erratics) and all boulders with long axis ³ 50 cm within two testing areas (1100 erratics). Results show that erratics of the TLP often occur in clusters and their spatial density is even near 300 items/km2 in some areas. The authors selected 44 boulders which may be interesting research objects and/or have high values for geotourism. Nine erratics reveal features potentially suitable for the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) dating. Moreover, high number of boulders in the TLP area gives the possibility for investigations of the directions of glacial paleo-transport based on indicator erratics and analysis of glacial striae. Distinctive zones of significant clusters of boulders characterised by high attractiveness and diversified values were also indicated.
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