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EN
Comparative analysis of harmful compounds emission of classical and distributed propulsions applied on the AOS motor glider, taking into account the perspective of the development of hybrid propulsions. A novel path is indicated by so-called distributed aircraft propulsion. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of solutions are presented, as well as the conceptual design of the distributed propulsion for the AOS 71 motor glider. In the paper there were compared the emissions of harmful compounds generated by a hybrid power unit developed for the airframe of AOS 71 motor glider - traditional propulsion, so-called focused (one-propeller) and dispersed propulsion (multi-propelled). Functional diagrams of both types of propulsions solutions are presented. Construction and aerodynamic constraints of both propulsions are discussed and comparative analysis is made. In the traditional version of the propulsion (so-called focused propulsion). the propeller is driven by an Emrax 228 electric engine with effective parameters: N = 55 kW, M = 120 Nm. The power source is a battery set with a capacity of 16 Ah and a range extender powered by a LCR 407ti rotating piston engine with maximum power of 28 kW. In the variant of the distributed propulsion. Ten electric engines of AXI 8120 type were used to drive small propellers arranged along the wingspan. The power source in this variant is analogous to the variant with the Emrax electric engine. For the adopted variant of the flight mission of the motor glider. a flight trajectory model was developed, which was used to determine the load of the power unit. In laboratory conditions. emission tests of both propulsions were conducted. The results are summarized in charts and discussed in the conclusions.
EN
Comparative analysis of combustion and hybrid propulsion unit in aviation application in terms of emission of harmful compounds in the exhausts emitted to the atmosphere. For the propulsion of the AOS 71 motor glider, two types of propulsion were planned as development versions. The first analysed propulsion is based on a combustion engine, but of the Wankel type (LCR 814 engine with the power of 55 kW). The second designed propulsion is an hybrid based on a LCR 407 combustion engine with a power of 28 kW, which is connected in series with an electric generator propelling the engine (Emrax 228 engine), total power of the propulsion is 55 kW. The comparison of emissions of harmful compounds emitted to the atmosphere generated by the combustion and hybrid power unit intended for assembly in the AOS 71 motor glider, assuming various loads and methods of hybrid propulsion control, was made. The tests were conducted in laboratory conditions. Several different programs were designed to simulate different energy management methods in a hybrid system, depending on the predicted mission and load of the motor glider. On the basis of laboratory tests, exhaust emission was determined from both propulsions as a function of rotational speed and load. Then, based on the assumed flight trajectory and collected test data, the emission for both propulsions variants was determined. The values of emission parameters were compared and the results were presented in diagrams and discussed in the conclusions.
EN
Analysis of the possibility of using an engine with a rotating piston as the propulsion of an electric generator in application to a motor glider propulsion The paper presents an analysis of the possibilities of application of a rotating piston engine (Wankel type) as a propulsion for an electric generator in the motor glider propulsion system. This generator would be a part of the propulsion system of a hybrid motor glider using the AOS 71 motor glider airframe. In the research, the rotational characteristics of the LCR 407ti engine were determined experimentally. Driving torque run, power and fuel consumption were determined as a function of engine speed. The obtained results are presented in diagrams. The conceptual diagram of the hybrid drive is presented. The current generator was selected and the effectiveness of the generator and the entire propulsion were assessed from the motor glider's performance point of view. On the basis of the conducted research, conclusions were drawn and there were indicated the objectives and directions of further research on hybrid propulsion with specific aerodynamic and mass limitations of the aircraft.
PL
W nawiązaniu do badań nad ekologicznymi źródłami napędu dla samolotów przeprowadzono energetyczną analizę porównawczą dla zespołów napędowych korzystających z rożnych źródeł zasilania. Do analizy wykorzystano płatowiec motoszybowca AOS-71. Obliczenia przeprowadzono dla różnych zespołów napędowych: spalinowego, elektrycznego, hybrydowego spalinowego oraz hybrydowego z ogniwem wodorowym. Podstawowym założeniem była taka sama masa startowa samolotów wynosząca 660 kg. Dokonano wyznaczenia energii zgromadzonej na pokładzie, a następnie długotrwałości i zasięgu lotu dla każdego rodzaju napędu. Analizę przeprowadzono dla dwóch trajektorii lotu. Wyniki przedstawiono na wykresach i omówiono we wnioskach.
EN
In reference to the research conducted on environmentally friendly sources of propulsion for aircrafts, there was carried out an energetic comparative analysis for power units using various power sources. For this analysis, the AOS-71 glider airframe was used. The calculations were done for different variants: a combustion engine, an electrical engine, a hybrid combustion engine and a hybrid engine with a hydrogen cell. The research was based on the assumption of the same aircraft take-off weight of 660 kg. The energy accumulated on board was determined, and then the duration and range for each type of propulsion for two flight trajectories. The results were presented in diagrams and discussed in the conclusions.
5
Content available remote Koncepcja hybrydowego układu zasilania napędu elektrycznego motoszybowca
PL
Motoszybowce są rozwiązaniem pozwalającym częściowo uniezależnić się od typowych problemów występujących podczas lotów szybowcem. Jednak najważniejszą zaletą motoszybowca jest możliwość samodzielnego startu. Takiej możliwości nie posiadają klasyczne szybowce. Zastosowanie silnika elektrycznego napędzającego śmigło daje taką możliwość. Jednak typowym problemem z którym należy się zmierzyć jest dobór pojemności baterii akumulatorów. Autorzy proponują koncepcję zasilania hybrydowego napędu elektrycznego. W koncepcji zasilania hybrydowego przewidziano zastosowanie stosu ogniw paliwowych jako podstawowego źródła zasilania pozwalającego na utrzymanie motoszybowca na pułapie przelotowym przez określony czas. Bateria akumulatorów pełni rolę bufora który ma dostarczać dodatkową energię podczas startu motoszybowca. W artykule zaprezentowano wybrane wyniki badań stosów ogniw paliwowych przewidzianych do zastosowania w hybrydowym układzie zasilania motoszybowca.
EN
The motor gliders are a solution which allow partially eliminating typical problems which occur during flights of classic gliders. Nevertheless, the ability of self-launching is the biggest advantage of the motor gliders and classic gliders don not have such ability. An electric motor which drives a propeller gives such possibility. However, a selection of accumulators capacity is a typical problem which should be tackled. Authors propose the concept of supply method of hybrid electric drive where a fuel cell is used as a primary source of energy which allows maintaining the motor glider on a specified altitude during specified time period. Accumulators are an additional source of energy to deliver missing energy during a motor glider launch. In the paper, chosen results of tests of fuel cells for hybrid supply system of motor glider were presented.
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