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1
Content available Modern Industrial Robotics
EN
In the past decade, robots have become the basic tools for the automatization and robotization of industrial production, as they used to be in the 70s programmable controllers, in the 80s processor drive controllers, in the 90s of the twentieth century frequency controlled AC motors and in the first years of the 21st century digitization, expressed in the significant advancement and dissemination of computerization, telecommunications and internetization. This role is evidenced by further, beyond conventional robotics, extension of its application and the emergence of new hardware and software solutions oriented towards joint, by robots and human, undertaking of hitherto not rationalized production tasks. This essay is devoted to these transformations in contemporary robotics.
PL
Roboty stały się w mijającym dziesięcioleciu podstawowymi narzędziami automatyzacji i robotyzacji produkcji przemysłowej, tak jak kiedyś, w latach 70. sterowniki programowalne, w latach 80. procesorowe regulatory napędów, w latach 90. XX wieku nastawniki częstotliwościowe silników prądu przemiennego i w pierwszych latach XXI wieku cyfryzacja, wyrażająca się istotnym zaawansowaniem i upowszechnieniem informatyzacji, telekomunikacji i internetyzacji. Świadectwem tej roli jest dalsze, poza obszary konwencjonalnej robotyki, rozszerzanie jej aplikacji i pojawienie się nowych rozwiązań sprzętowych i programowych ukierunkowanych na wspólne, przez roboty i człowieka, podejmowanie dotychczas nie racjonalizowanych zadań produkcyjnych. Tym właśnie przemianom we współczesnej robotyce poświęcony jest ten esej.
EN
Visual servoing define a new methodology for vision based control in robotics. Vision based action involve number of actions that move a robot in response of results of camera analysis. This process is important to operate and help robot to achieve a specific goal. The main purpose of visual servoing consists of considering a vision system by specific sensor dedicated to involve control servo loop and task. In this article, three visual control scheme: Image Based Visual Servoing (IBVS), Position Based Visual Servoing (PBVS) and Hybrid Based Visual Servoing (HBVS) are illustrated. The different terminologies are represented through effective workflow of robot vision. IBVS method concentrate on the image features that are immediately available in the image. This experiment is performed by estimating distance between camera and object. PBVS consist of moving object 3-D parameters to estimate measurement. This paper showcases PBVS using kuka robot model. HBVS uses the 2D and 3D servoing by combining visual sensors also it overcomes challenges of previous two methods. This paper represents HBVS method using IPR communication robot model.
3
Content available remote Inverse kinematics of a spatial mechanismusing multibond graph
EN
Various methods are available to compute kinematics and dynamics in the case of spa-tial mechanisms. These methods are cumbersome and laborious for large and multibodyspatial mechanisms. The bond graph technique is a powerful alternative tool for mode-ling. A four-link closed-chain 3R2S (3Revolute 2Spherical) spatial mechanism stands outamong the other four-link closed-chain spatial mechanisms due to its ability to be used ina number of applications. The main aim of this paper is to compute the inverse kinematicsof the mechanism using the bond graph structure of the system. In this paper, modeling ofa four-link closed-chain 3R2S spatial mechanism has been conducted using a multibondgraph approach. Inverse kinematics of the spatial mechanism, under various applications,has been directly obtained from the bond graph modeling. MATLAB coding for simula-tion has been done directly from the multibond graph without explicitly deriving systemequations. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed using various plots.
4
Content available Optimalisation of the blade movement of the mower
EN
This article presents the correct adjustment of the mower’s blade movement relative to the forward movement of the mower. Everywhere around us are gardens, parks and meadow, which gives us reason to solve issues with mowing. The first part of this article shows agricultural machines, which are used today and the principle of correct cut of grass stalks. The next part shows the method of adjusting the mower’s blade speed. Design of a simple model was done with the use of Solid Edge Premium CAD. For computation, MSC Adams was used and post-processing was done with the use of Matlab. The connection between MSC Adams and Matlab was created by co-simulation.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę wyznaczania prędkości punktów znajdujących się na głowie i stopie zęba koła podatnego przekładni falowej. Obliczenia przeprowadzono w funkcji kąta obrotu generatora, przyjmując różne wartości prędkości obrotowych wału wejściowego przekładni falowej z zablokowanym kołem sztywnym. Otrzymane wyniki posłużą w kolejnym etapie badań do określenia prędkości w chwilowych punktach styku znajdujących się na linii przyporu oraz zbudowania charakterystyk kinematycznych tego rodzaju przekładni.
EN
Paper contains information about method of calculation of velocity characteristic points of tooth of flexspline. Velocity is expressed as function of angle of rotation od wave generator. Calculations were made for two different values of rotation speed of wave generator. Calculation result will be used in future researches in purpose of examine kinematics of meshing of flexspline with circular spline.
PL
Omówiono analizę kinematyki docierania powierzchni płaskich w układach jedno- i dwutarczowych. Przedstawiono opracowane modele standardowych układów kinematycznych. Wyznaczono zakresy zmienności prędkości docierania i wartości przyspieszeń w analizowanych układach kinematycznych.
EN
In the paper presented analysis of kinematics of plane surfaces lapping in single-disc and double-disc configurations. The models of standard kinematic systems have been demonstrated. The ranges of variability of machining speed and acceleration in the analyzed kinematic systems were determined.
7
Content available remote Trio Motion Technology – zaawansowana kontrola ruchu
PL
Sterowanie dużą ilością osi stanowi problem dla niejednego przedsiębiorstwa. Zaawansowane aplikacje bardzo często wymagają innowacyjnego sprzętu. W takich aplikacjach istotną kwestią jest czas potrzebny programiście do stworzenia kompletnego, optymalnego kodu. W roku 2018 firma Multiprojekt Automatyka Sp. z o.o. wprowadziła do oferty właśnie tak nowatorskie rozwiązanie, pozwalające na realizację zaawansowanych algorytmów niezbędnych przy maszynach wieloosiowych. A to wszystko z poszanowaniem cennego czasu programisty.
8
Content available remote Modeling the inspection robot with magnetic pressure pad
EN
This article presents the process of designing a robot with a magnetic pressure pad for inspections of ferromagnetic ventilation ducts. In compliance with the assumptions, the CAD design of the robot was developed in a 3D programming environment. The designing proces brought about a mathematical model of the robot with one pair of magnetic drive modules, including simulation in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model accounted for parameters such as rolling resistance force, transverse resistance moment, magnetic attraction force, solid moment of inertia, and other factors. The magnetic pressure pad allowed for moving the robot in magnetic ventilation systems irrespective of slopes and shapes of ducts.
EN
The article presents the possibilities of using easily accessible and inexpensive educational sets in scientific research and the process of robotics education. Such kits allow the exploration of theoretical and practical knowledge taking into account aspects of engineering, such as: mechanics, drive systems, sensor systems, control and programming of robots. Models of robots built from inexpensive components can also be used to test new solutions in the field of construction or control algorithms before they are used in real applications. As an example, the model of the palletizing manipulator for self-assembly was shown, the control of which was based on the Arduino Uno controller, while the drives were implemented using low-cost hobby-grade servos. For the kinematic structure of this manipulator, the forward and inverse kinematics task for the position has been discussed. This constituted the basis for the development of a manual control algorithm implemented in the controller – using a joystick and programmed – based on the data sent to the controller using serial communication from a PC. The article presents the results of the computer simulation of the manipulator kinematics, the hardware and software implementation of the robot model and the effects of its operation. The possibility of expanding the control system with additional elements to increase its functionality was indicated.
10
EN
The paper discusses mechanical properties of modern wheeled mobile robots including aspects of kinematics and dynamics. Relevant features of these robots and of used types of wheels are considered. Robots are categorized into six groups according to kinematic structures, which can be obtained using various types of wheels. For each group mechanical properties, which characterize the robots are discussed. Various variants of the robots within particular groups are described and some examples of existing solutions are given. Individual variants of the robots are compared and assessed taking into account the possessed features.
EN
Functional footwear with different unstable profiles has been widely used to mimic barefoot condition and offload plantar loading for pathological or injury prevention. However, little research investigates the effect of unstable structure on particular foot functions. In this study, a prototype of unstable shoe design with unstable element of different stiffness placed at the hallux (a regionalized rocker) was used. The primary objective was to analyse the biomechanical performance of running with hallux unstable shoes, aiming to potentially stimulate and increase the toe gripping function. Methods: The lower limb kinematics and plantar pressure distribution were measured to comparatively analyse the soft (SS) and hard (SH) unstable shoes with flat control shoes (CS). Results: The SS showed increased big toe and reduced forefoot plantar pressure. The SS led to similar lower limb kinematics to baseline CS except for reduced hip abduction, increased rotation range of motion (ROM), increased peak ankle plantar flexion and ROM. The SH presented significantly altered lower limb kinematics across hip, knee and ankle, and laterally distributed plantar pressure. Conclusions: Unstable shoes with soft material led to reduced medial metatarsal loading by increasing the support area and modified joint kinematics minimally. Unstable shoes with stiffer material presented compensatory kinematic movements across all joints and laterally shifted plantar loading distribution. These findings may provide implications on toe grip function training for foot pressure off-loading.
12
Content available Thermodynamic analysis of the conrod-free engine
EN
The paper considers the problems related with the thermodynamic analysis of the conrod-free engine. A mathematical model of the intake system of the conrod-free engine is proposed, which takes into account the kinematics of the slider-crank mechanism. The computational model of the intake system of the engine with the slidercrank mechanism is presented. The model allowed determining dependencies of the mixture temperature in the intake pipeline on the rotation frequency of crankshaft and on the angle of opening of the throttle gate. The total pressure losses in the engine intake system are determined taking into account the kinematics of the slider-crank mechanism. The mathematical model of the intake system of engine allows evaluating the measures aimed at optimizing the engine design and increasing its fuel efficiency.
PL
Wstęp i cele: W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski wynikające z eksperymentu Michelsona- Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea. Materiał i metody: W pracy zastosowano metodę dedukcji matematycznej. Wyniki: W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk. Wniosek: W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki. Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowanie wielu rożnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
EN
Introduction and aim: The entire class of linear time and position transformations was derived in the article. The transformations were derived on the assumption that for the observer from each inferential reference system the conclusions of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiment are met. Material and methods: Mathematical deduction method has been used in the paper. Results: The article shows that there are infinitely many kinematics in which the unidirectional speed of light is always equal to c. The Special Theory of Relativity (STW) kinematics is just one of those infinitely many kinematics. Conclusion: The article shows that the mathematics on which STW kinematics is based can be interpreted differently and this leads to other conclusions about the properties of this kinematics. Derived transformations allow to build many different kinematics compatible with Michelson- Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments.
14
EN
A method is presented for generating the flight path of an aerial target using B-spline curves developed for studying the combat effectiveness of anti-aircraft missiles and air defense systems. A procedure is described for determining the kinematic quantities (velocity, accelerations, angles of spatial orientation) that characterize the motion of an object along a set trajectory. Exemplary simulation results are included.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono sposób generowania trajektorii lotu celu powietrznego z wykorzystaniem krzywych B-sklejanych, opracowany na potrzeby badań skuteczności bojowej rakiet przeciwlotniczych i zestawów rakietowych obrony powietrznej. Opisano procedurę wyznaczania wielkości kinematycznych (prędkości, przyspieszeń, kątów orientacji przestrzennej), charakteryzujących ruch obiektu po zadanej trajektorii. Zamieszczono przykładowe wyniki badań symulacyjnych.
EN
This article outlines and describes the mathematical foundations for a method of generating ribbon trajectories using the Matlab environment. An example of their application is given, involving the visualization of velocity and acceleration profiles in program modules used for the planning and analysis of the flight paths of air targets.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono matematyczne podstawy opisu i zarys sposobu generowania trajektorii wstęgowych za pomocą środowiska Matlab. Jako przykład ich zastosowania wskazano wizualizacje profilów prędkości i przyspieszenia w modułach programowych przeznaczonych do planowania i analizowania tras lotu celów powietrznych.
16
Content available remote Podstawy teoretyczne programowania robotów
PL
Manipulatory robotów przemysłowych są mechanizmami składającymi się z kilku członów. Człony te są ze sobą połączone i przemieszczają się wzajemnie w celu uchwycenia lub przeniesienia części lub narzędzia zgodnie z zadawanymi sygnałami sterującymi na podstawie wskazań operatora lub zgodnie z zapisanym i uruchomionym programem robota. We wszystkich tych przypadkach opis ruchu robota wymaga znajomości położenia poszczególnych członów systemu zrobotyzowanego względem siebie w funkcji czasu. W związku z powyższym zagadnienie zarówno sterowania, jak i programowania łączy się nierozerwalnie z koniecznością zastosowania odpowiednich układów współrzędnych, względem których realizowany będzie ruch manipulatora. Niezależnie od konstrukcji robota, zgodnie z normą ISO 9787:2013, możemy wyróżnić kilka standardowych układów współrzędnych stosowanych w robotyce.
17
Content available remote Model of Motion of the Mobile Platform With Three Wheel Drive
EN
In this paper the results of the analysis based on the kinematics and the dynamics models of the three-wheeled mobile robot, with two rear wheels and one front wheel have been included. The prototype model has been developed by the author’s construction assumptions to realize the motion of the platform in a various configurations of wheel drives. The platform dynamical model has been described considering the slippage conditions during the motion of the platform. The motion parameters of the mobile platform have been determined by adopting classical approach of mechanics. The formulated initial problem has been solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth-order.
EN
This article presents the process of designing a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to be applied in the control system for the tracking movement of an omnidirectional Mecanum-wheeled platform, where the tracking movement is defined as the execution of a specific movement of the omnidirectional Mecanum-wheeled platform along a preset path. The conventional PID controller, which is a popular choice for control systems, was replaced with a control algorithm featuring fuzzy logic elements. The findings from numerical testing of the control system with the applied FLC were compared with the results of numerical testing using a variant of a conventional PID controller. The comparison led to a feasibility study of the FLC for the kinematic control of the omnidirectional Mecanum-wheeled platform. The article compares the results of applying an FLC and a variant of a conventional PID controller for the tracking control of an omnidirectional-wheeled platform with mecanum wheels. It was assumed in this work that kinematic equations would be sufficient in this case to plan the trajectory (path) of a characteristic point for the omnidirectional-wheeled platform.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę i wyniki badań w zakresie kinematyki rusztu ruchomego schronowego zaworu przeciwwybuchowego. Badano rozwiązanie zaworu typu automatycznego o dużym wydatku. Badanie wykonano za pomocą szybkiej kamery wizyjnej. Uzyskane wyniki stanowią podstawę do określenia sposobu doskonalenia rozwiązania.
EN
The method and experimental results about the kinematics of the move ring of the explosion-proof shelter valve is presented in this paper. The valve solution automatic type with high air delivery was searched. The experiment was executed by fast vision camera. The achievement results are the base to make any perfection manner of the valve solve.
EN
One of the mechanisms of joint relative manipulation with five degrees of freedom is considered. An approach to solving the direct positional problem is described. A simplified 3D model was created to verify the correctness of the solution. The results of a comparison of calculated and experimental data are presented.
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