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EN
The decision to build a new waterway (strait) in the Polish part of the Vistula Spit was made in 2017. The new connection between the Gulf of Gdańsk and the Vistula Lagoon is planned as an artificial navigable channel with a lock and a small port. During storm surges and wind tides in the gulf or in the lagoon, sluicing will be required for vessels to tackle the Vistula Spit. This procedure does not require significant water flow through the channel in normal conditions. However, in the case of a lock failure or in the case of controlled opening of the gate to increase water exchange in the lagoon or to reduce flood risk in the Vistula Lagoon, high flow rates may occur in the navigable channel and in the neighboring port basin. In order to inves-tigate the hydraulic conditions in such extraordinary situations, numerical modeling of the hydrodynamics during water damming in the gulf or in the lagoon is performed. To analyze the hydrodynamics of the artificial connection between the sea and the lagoon during periods of high water stages, mathematical modeling is required. This paper presents the shallow water equations (SWE) model adapted to simulate the flow through the port basin and the navigable channel. The calcula-tions allowed the relation between the water head and the capacity of the navigable channel to be found, as well as to analyze circulations which may occur in the port basin.
EN
In order to reveal the seepage law of ammonium carboxylate solution in the in-situ leaching process of weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ores, the effects of concentration, pH, temperature, particle size and porosity on permeability were discussed in this paper. The results shown that the seepage of the leaching agent solutions in the rare earth ore follows Darcy's law and displays a laminar flow under the conditions of this experiment and seepage velocity can be increased by changing leaching conditions. The permeability coefficients are inversely proportional to concentrations of ammonium acetate, ammonium tartrate and ammonium citrate whose concentration is greater than 0.7wt%, because the insoluble complexes formed by the reaction of ammonium citrate with RE3+ at lower concentration n decrease the permeability coefficient. The permeability coefficients of ammonium carboxylate solutions increase firstly and then decrease with the pH increased. The maximum of permeability coefficients of ammonium acetate, ammonium tartrate and ammonium citrate solution were 2.92, 1.91 and 2.70, respectively, while the pH of solution were 5, 6 and 7, respectively. Increasing temperature is beneficial for the seepage of ammonium carboxylate solution in orebody, therefore, it is helpful for leaching operation in summer. Moreover, clay minerals particle size and porosity are the key factors affecting the permeability of ammonium carboxylate solution in orebody. The permeability coefficients of ammonium acetate, ammonium tartrate and ammonium citrate solutions are 2.92×104cm/s,1.90×10-4cm/s and 2.69×10-4cm/s, respectively, at the same temperature of 293K, original particle size and porosity of the ore. Ammonium acetate solution has the best permeability in orebody.
EN
Faced with the challenges of sustainable groundwater resource management in the arid zone, the identification of reserves and their monitoring have become vital. This paper aims to identify the Turonian aquifer in the Cretaceous Béchar basin, and calculate its transmissivity, permeability and storage coefficient, as well as its evolution over time. This Turonian aquifer is characterized by marine limestones (gentle dip shelters 45° to the North and 5° to 10° to the South). Pumping tests revealed a transmissivity T of 10–4 to 10–2 m2·s–1, a permeability K of 10–6 to 10–4 m·s–1 and a storage coefficient S of approximately 10–3. Two piezometric campaigns, carried out between (1976–2018), show a converging and constant flow direction from the North–East to the South–West and from the North–West to the South–East towards the outlet of the basin. Decreased values were observed in the North and South–West borders due to isopiezometric lines. However, this water table is not in a stationary state, it shows seasonal and interannual fluctuations in relation to the variable rainfall and the exploitation rate. In terms of facies, the projection of the two hydrochemical campaigns, during 1976 and 2018 on the Piper diagram, did not show any significant evolution, they are concentrated in the chlorinated and sulphated calcium and magnesium facies.
EN
Cascade and variable rotational speed control systems of sewage pumping stations are compared in this article. The range of pump efficiency variations and potential for breakdowns are adopted as criteria. A pumping station including two or three pumps is analysed. A control system at a variable rotational speed and maximum sewage level is presented. Properties of a cascade control system and a system at a maximum head of sewage are compared using the example of any pump performance chart.
EN
Growth prospects for ocean economy are promising because ocean industries are addressing challenges such as food security, energy security and climate change. However, safety and efficiency are the general challenges of ocean operations. Increased automation is believed to solve these problems. This paper discusses the impact of automation on safety and efficiency. A literature review of ‘Human factors’ mainly from the aviation and maritime industries is presented to untangle the human-machine relationship characteristics when increased automation is introduced to operators. A literature review of Hydrodynamics, Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) technologies is presented to introduce the state-of-art and associated limitations. It is concluded that, if the industry’s drive is safety and efficiency, then full-autonomy is, at present, not the way to go. Remote control, instead, could facilitate a feasible future, while focused research and development are in need.
EN
Recently, the submarine missions are often evolving into operating to littoral areas, which require operating in shallow water. Such shallow water operations strongly contrast with the traditional ones due to the effect of a close to free water surface expressed mainly by surface suction force. This influence is particularly important for submarine maneuverability accounting for restricted area available. The prediction of submarine behavior in similar conditions requires adequate mathematical model and understanding of the additional hydrodynamic load generated near the surface region. The paper is aimed for better understanding of these issues and relating to development of a submarine simulation model, the experimental program of towing and PMM captive tests of DARPA Suboff submarine model were conducted at a towing tank. The influence of phenomenon such as effect of a close to free surface and Froude number at hydrodynamic forces and moments including control surfaces effectiveness were investigated and also was estimated directional stability of motion in horizontal plane.
EN
Considering the demand for mooring larger ships at Brazilian port terminals, both private and public, in a scenario of growing exports, engineering interventions that can provide improvements in the vessel’s maximum allowed dimensions can represent significant profits. Hence, this work presents an approach of Nautical Bottom, defined as the minimum depth in which ships can navigate without significant adverse effects in ship control and maneuverability without physical damage, with the goal of raising the maximum ship draft allowed in nautical spaces with fluid mud beds. Due to its rheological properties, fluid mud, in general, allows for vessels navigate with low or negative under keel clearance, respecting the established Nautical Bottom concepts. In addition, fluid mud layer thickness at port areas can possibly vary according to hydrodynamics and sedimentologic variations. This article presents an analysis of fluid mud thickness variations within the Itajaí Port Complex (Santa Catarina, Brazil) turning basin, where fluid mud layers are up to 2.5 meters thick, by means of analyses of bathymetric surveys and numerical modeling. The Itajaí Port Complex is located at the Itajaí-açu river estuary, which presents high variability of river discharge and suspended sediments. From bathymetric surveys, it is possible to observe fluid mud thickness from 0.5 to 2.5 meters. Numerical simulation results indicate suspended sediment load as a main environmental aspect for fluid mud thickness variations in the study area.
EN
The paper presents some results on investigations concerning development of a hybrid model for assessment of performance of the ro-ro ships in damaged conditions. The model is devoted towards assessing the performance of the damaged ro-ro ships at the preliminary stage of design. The key problems associated with preparing of such the model are associated with working out a method of assessment of the damaged ro-ro ships performance, investigating all the phenomena which associated with the flooding process of the damaged ro-ro ships and preparing the model itself. Introducing the method of assessment of the damaged ro-ro ships performance it has been assumed that there is a dependence between the arrangement of internal spaces of a ro-ro ship and flooding process. The major phenomena which have been decided to take into account when considering flooding of the ro-ro ships are the flooding understood as the flow of external water into the data damaged compartment, impact of the flooding water on the ship structure and damaged ro-ro ship motion. Knowing the damaged ro-ro ship motion characteristics in time domain it is relatively easy to assess the damaged ro-ro ship performance according to the heeling angle and assess the ro-ro ship design according to the data arrangement of internal spaces. The last research issue is to investigate if the proposed model may be appropriate tool for assessing the performance of the ro-ro ships in damaged conditions at the preliminary stage of design. The aim of this paper is to show how to incorporate the dynamics of the damaged ro-ro ships when assessing the ship performance and safety at the preliminary stage of design. The basic information on the model for estimation of the damaged ro-ro ship behavior during the flooding process is presented. The complexity of this model is shown depending on the approach applied to consider the flooding process itself. The model is devoted towards assessment of performance of the damaged ro-ro ships and it is still under the development according to a Ph.D. research at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Gdańsk University of Technology.
9
Content available remote The hydrodynamics of a fluidised bed reactor
EN
This article presents results concerning the hydrodynamics of a reactor with a porous fluidised bed (group D according to Geldart). Pressure drops were experimentally determined by gas flow through the bed and empty column. Using equations from literature flow resistance on the bed and gas distributor, critical velocity and terminal velocity were calculated and the obtained results were compared with experimental data. The equation which best described the work of the tested fluidised bed was identified through a process of trial and error. The influence of sieve being operated on pressure drops occurring during the process was determined and its applicability in the other conditions was verified.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki dotyczące hydrodynamiki reaktora z porolitową warstwą fluidalną (grupa D wg Geldarta). Eksperymentalnie wyznaczono spadki ciśnienia przy przepływie gazu przez złoże i pustą kolumnę. Korzystając z równań literaturowych, obliczono opory przepływu na złożu, dystrybutorze gazu, prędkość krytyczną i prędkość wywiewania oraz porównano otrzymane wyniki z danymi doświadczalnymi. Metodą prób i błędów znaleziono równanie najlepiej przedstawiające pracę badanego układu fluidalnego, określono wpływ eksploatowanego sita na spadki ciśnienia występujące w trakcie procesu oraz zweryfikowano jego stosowalność w innych warunkach.
PL
Przedstawiono uzyskane metodą PIV (particle image velocimetry) wyniki badań rozkładu prędkości cieczy w mieszalniku z ekscentrycznie umieszczonym mieszadłem w dyfuzorze. Stwierdzono występowanie cyrkulacji okrężnej powstającej w wyniku wypływu cieczy przez boczny otwór wypływowy. Zaobserwowano również, że strumień cieczy pompowany w kierunku dna mieszalnika porusza się promieniowo w kierunku ścianki mieszalnika i w jej pobliżu krzyżuje się ze strumieniem okrężnym. Na podstawie zmierzonych prędkości chwilowych obliczono również naprężenia turbulentne. Największe wartości tych naprężeń występują w miejscu krzyżowania się strumieni cieczy oraz przed wlotem bocznym i w strumieniu cieczy wypływającej przez otwór boczny.
EN
Characteristics of liq. mixing in a tank equipped with a propeller stirrer were exptl. tested and compared with the Rushton turbine. Particle image velocity method was used to det. the velocity distribution of the liq. in the tank equiped with an eccentrically placed propeller in a diffuser. The measurements showed that the liq. stream pumped towards the bottom of the tank moved radially to the wall and crossed the circular stream near it. On the basis of measured instantaneous velocities, turbulent stresses were also calcd.
11
Content available remote Badania przepływu pęcherzy gazowych w cieczach newtonowskich
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań eksperymentalnych dotyczących właściwości hydrodynamicznych pęcherzy gazowych przepływających w cieczy newtonowskiej. Zbadano średnicę powstających pęcherzy oraz wyznaczono ich prędkość i trajektorię wznoszenia. Właściwości hydrodynamiczne pęcherzy wyznaczono opierając się na pomiarach wykonanych z użyciem bezinwazyjnych metod optycznych wykorzystujących rejestrację filmu z wysoką częstotliwością. Otrzymane wyniki eksperymentalne porównano z wynikami uzyskanymi przy użyciu korelacji dostępnych w literaturze.
EN
The air flow (1-3) 10-8 m3/s was bubbled through a layer of water in a lab. stand equipped with nozzles (diam. of 1-3 mm). The diams. of the bubbles, their velocities and trajectories were detd. by using a video camera coupled with a computer. The exptl. results were compared with the calcd. values obtained from the correlations available in the literature. The best correlation with the smallest differences between calcd. and exptl. values of parameters were selected.
EN
In July 2016 in the Three-city agglomeration a rainfall episode of over a day duration and 150 mm summary rainfall height, occurred. This situation, extreme as for Polish conditions, caused significant freshets in rivers and streams running into Gdansk Bay, the Baltic Sea, and serving as collectors of rainfall waters for the sea-coast towns. In many areas of the Three-city flood phenomena and overflows took place. The flood also occurred in the catchment area of the Kacza river in Gdynia. The passing of flood water rise caused damage of many infrastructure objects located along the river valley. The estuary section of the river suffered most, especially sea-shore belt together with beach around the estuary which were significantly washed out. In this paper an approach was made to answer to the question on direct causes of the situation which occurred at the estuary of the Kacza river. To this end, there was worked out a hydrodynamic model of the considered section of the river, based on the solving of two-dimensional differential motion equations of free-surface liquid, and simulations of water flow propagation along the river’s valley were performed for a few variants of hydraulic engineering infrastructure of river bed. Numerical hydraulic analysis made it possible to determine a role of the hydraulic engineering objects in forming the flood water rise as well as their impact on location and range of washout zones of sea-shore belt.
EN
Studying hydrodynamic processes is necessary for understanding the sediment erosion-deposition mechanism in mangrove areas. The hydrodynamic effects within the mangrove area of the Dong Tranh Estuary in the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam are very complicated and are caused by the mixed impacts of waves, tides, currents and suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs). In this study, the measurements of hydrodynamics such as waves, currents and SSCs were conducted in the dry (Feb. 2012) and wet (Jun. 2014) seasons. Three stations were set up within the estuary, mud-flat and mangrove forest. The analysed results showed that the hydrodynamics in all three stations were strongly influenced during the first dry monsoon season and the next wet one. The waves were the main factor during the dry season and contributed more SSC turbulence in the mud-flat, potentially causing erosion at the study site. Meanwhile, the current velocities in both the estuary and mud-flat sites were major factors during the wet season. In the mangrove forest, the SSC during the dry season changed due to the tidal cycle. Additionally, two measurements for the change in the topographies and shorelines were conducted from 2014 to 2017. The results show that the study site has been eroding rapidly (0.61 m month-1). Although this study shows a soil retention role for the mangrove forests, the wave energy dissipation occurs mainly within the mud-flat due to the bottom topography. The study site is proven to be eroding.
EN
The article is aimed at the development of the analytical approach for evaluating the parameters of the Basset force acting on a particle in two-dimensional fluid flow induced by the oscillating wall. By applying regression analysis, analytical expressions to determine complementary functions were established for evaluating the Basset force. The obtained dependencies were generalized using the infinite power series. As a result of studying the hydrodynamics of a two-phase flow, analytical dependencies to determine the Basset force were proposed for assessing its impact on particles of the dispersed phase in a plane channel with the oscillating wall. It was discovered that the Basset force affects larger particles. However, in the case of relatively large wavelengths, its averaged value for the vibration period is neglected. Additionally, the value of the Basset force was determined analytically for the case of relatively small wavelengths. Moreover, it was discovered that its impact can be increased by reducing the wavelength of the oscillating wall.
EN
The paper focuses on the modelling of bromate formation. An axial dispersion model was proposed to integrate the non-ideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions from the Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon (TFG) ozone decay model with direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organic matter and its reactions with aqueous bromine. To elucidate the role of ammonia an additional set of reactions leading to bromamine formation, oxidation and disproportionation was incorporated in the kinetic model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to obtain information on reliability of the reaction rate constants used and to simplify the model.
EN
Validation results of a theoretical model that describes the formation of bromate during ozonation of bromide-containing natural waters are presented. An axial dispersion model integrating the nonideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions from the Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon ozone decay model with direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organic matter and reactions of dissolved organics and aqueous bromine was verified. The model was successfully validated with results obtained both at a laboratory and a full scale. Its applicability to different water supply systems was approved.
17
EN
There are a lot of energy saving devices for ships on the market, but few have seen wide adoption on naval ships, with one exception: the bulbous bow. The bulbous bow was developed for naval ships in the early 20th century and is now widespread on a variety of ship designs. Many have wondered if the effect of the bulbous bow — reducing the resistance of a ship by reducing the bow wave — could be replicated somehow at the stern — by reducing the stern wave. This is exactly what is done by a novel and patented energy saving device called Hull Vane. Invented by Dutch hydrodynamicist Dr Peter van Oossanen for an America’s Cup sailing yacht in the early 21st century, research over the years has shown that this wing-shaped appendage works best on ships that combine a relatively high displacement with a relatively high top speed requirement — even if most sailing hours are done at half speed. Examples are certain offshore vessels, superyachts, patrol vessels and naval ships. On offshore patrol vessels, the resistance reduction from the Hull Vane ranges typically from 10 to 20% over the entire useful speed range. In this paper, the working principles of the Hull Vane will be described to give a better understanding of the device. An overview will be given of the work carried out on naval ships and coastguard ships (25 to 142 m), based on Computational Fluid Dynamics studies, model tests and full-scale applications. The question ‘Why?’ will be answered by translating the hydrodynamic effects to concrete capability improvements for naval ships: a lower fuel consumption, a longer range, reduced signature, a higher top speed and improved seakeeping. The question ‘When?’ will zoom in on whether a Hull Vane® is something to be included in a newbuild or if it is something to be retrofitted to an existing ship. Finally the answer to the question ‘How?’ will explain the process of either integrating a Hull Vane in a newbuild project or retrofitting it during a midlife upgrade of an existing ship.
PL
Istnieje wiele urządzeń energooszczędnych dla statków dostępnych na rynku, ale niewiele z nich znalazło szerokie zastosowanie na okrętach wojennych, z jednym wyjątkiem: bulwiastym dziobem. Bulwiasty dziób został opracowany dla okrętów na początku XX wieku i obecnie jest szeroko rozpowszechniony na różnych konstrukcjach statków. Wiele osób zastanawiało się, czy efekt bulwiastego dzioba — zmniejszający opór statku przez zmniejszenie fali dziobowej — mógłby zostać w jakiś sposób zreplikowany na rufie — poprzez zmniejszenie fali rufowej. Dokładnie tak jest to wykonywane przez nowe, opatentowane urządzenie energooszczędne o nazwie Hull Vane. Skonstruowane ono zostało przez holenderskiego hydrodynamika dr. Petera van Oossanena dla jachtu biorącego udział w America’s Cup na początku XXI wieku. Badania z ostatnich lat wykazały, że występ w kształcie skrzydła najlepiej sprawdza się na statkach, które łączą stosunkowo dużą wyporność z wysokim zapotrzebowaniem na maksymalną prędkość — nawet jeśli większość godzin żeglarskich odbywa się z połową maksymalnej prędkości. Przykładami są niektóre jednostki przybrzeżne, superjachty, jednostki patrolowe i okręty marynarki wojennej. Na przybrzeżnych jednostkach patrolowych redukcja oporu z Hull Vane® waha się zwykle od 10 do 20% w całym zakresie użytecznych prędkości. W artykule zostaną opisane zasady działania Hull Vane® w celu lepszego zrozumienia urządzenia. Dokonany będzie przegląd pracy wykonywanej na okrętach i jednostkach straży przybrzeżnej (od 25 do 142 m) w oparciu o badania Computational Fluid Dynamics, testy modelowe i aplikacje na pełną skalę. Udzielona zostanie odpowiedź na pytanie „dlaczego?” poprzez wytłumaczenie oddziaływań hydrodynamicznych na udoskonalenia konkretnych zdolności okrętów wojennych: mniejsze zużycie paliwa, większy zasięg, zmniejszone pole magnetyczne, wyższą prędkość maksymalną i udoskonaloną dzielność. Pytanie „kiedy?” skupi się na tym, czy kadłub Hana Vane ma być częścią nowej konstrukcji, czy też jest czymś, co należy zmodernizować na istniejącym statku. Na koniec odpowiedź na pytanie „jak?” wyjaśni proces integracji Hull Vane® w nowo budowanym projekcie lub modernizacji w trakcie zmian w połowie eksploatacyjnego życia istniejącego statku.
EN
Since ship-bank interaction affects the manoeuvrability of a ship navigating close to a bank, the determination of hydrodynamic derivatives is of great importance to assess the ship manoeuvrability. To obtain the hydrodynamic derivatives of the KVLCC2 model ship with different water depths and ship-bank distances, the simulation of PMM tests are carried out using an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) based solver. Hybrid dynamic mesh technique is proposed to realize the simulation of pure yaw tests in confined water. Studies on the grid convergence and time-step-size convergence are firstly performed. Hydrodynamic derivatives for the ship in different water depths and ship-bank distances are compared. The course stability is investigated based on time-domain simulations and eigenvalue analysis, and the results show that the ship-bank interaction and shallow water effect have a remarkable influence on the course stability.
EN
The paper explores the possibility of creating an underwater apparatus in the form of a body of rotation. The form of the device will allow to effectively examine the found underwater objects, the bottom topography, measurement of other parameters of the underwater environment or objects. The devices of a different streamlined body form are considered. The apparatus in the form of a rotation body is proposed. The geometric shape of the proposed apparatus, the system of motion and control are investigated. Methods for calculating the motion parameters, methods for the vehicle positioning in the flow and the underwater vehicle movement in the vertical plane are proposed. The study confirms the ability of the underwater vehicle to move under water in a horizontal and vertical directions. The study confirms that the device possess stability at rectilinear motion, good turning ability and at the same time it is able to position itself during the flow.
PL
Od lat 90. ubiegłego stulecia trwają intensywne badania nad dodatkiem nonocząstek do membran polimerowych. W ostatnich latach prowadzone są prace badawcze związane z wytwarzaniem i zastosowaniem tlenku grafenu (graphene oxide GO). Celem pracy było opracowanie technologii wytwarzania membran polimerowych z dodatkiem nanostruktur węglowych reprezentowanych przez tlenek grafenu. Membrany preparowano z użyciem komercyjnego GO z firmy Sigma Aldrich. Warstwą podporową membrany była tkanina polipropylenowa lub poliesterowa. Matryca polimerowa była formowana z fluorku winylidenu jako polimeru (polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF) rozpuszczonego w rozpuszczalniku organicznym dimetyloacetamidzie (dimethyl acetamide DMA). Glikol polietylenowy (polyethylene glycol PGE) dodawano jako plastyfikator. Membrany preparowano metodą inwersji fazowej z dodatkiem lub bez GO. Warstwę aktywną z tlenkiem grafenu wytwarzano trzema sposobami: przez rozpylenie (spraying), dodając do objętości masy polimerowej matrycy i przez wylanie supercienkiej warstwy na matrycy (casting). Zawartość tlenku grafenu w membranie wynosiła około 10 μg/cm2. Dla wytworzonych membran określano grubość, wielkość największych porów, wytrzymałość mechaniczną na rozciąganie i morfologię. Testy związane z transportem wody prowadzono na laboratoryjnym urządzeniu do ultrafiltracji - OSMONICS KOCH. Po badaniach hydrodynamiki obliczano: objętościowy strumień permeatu oraz opór membrany dla membran referencyjnych i z dodatkiem tlenku grafenu.
EN
Since 1990 until the present time there is intensive research on nanoparticles addition to membrane materials. In recent years, many research centres conducted research on production and application of graphene oxide. The aim of the paper was to develop production technology of polymeric membranes with addition of carbon nanostructures represented by graphene oxide. Membranes were prepared using graphene oxide (GO) purchased from Sigma Aldrich. The support membranes was polypropylene or polyester textile. The polymeric matrix was formed using polymer dissolved in an organic solvent, namely polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) in dimethyl acetamide (DMA). Polyethylene glycol (PGE) was added as plasticizer. The membranes were prepared by phase inversion with and without GO. The active layer with the GO was produced by three ways: spray method, addition to mass of basic polymer matrix and casting a super thin layer on the polymer matrix. GO content in the membrane was about 10 μg/cm2. The membrane thickness, sizes of the largest pores, mechanical tensile strength, morphology and hydrodynamics of membranes were investigated. Research on water transport were performed on the ultrafiltration experimental setup - OSMONICS KOCH. After experiments the following parameters were calculated: volumetric permeate flux, membrane resistance for the reference membrane and with the addition of graphene oxide.
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