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EN
Kielce is a city situated in the centre of the Holy Cross Mountains, one of the most interesting geological areas in Europe. For this reason, institutions related to mining and geology have been operating here for over 200years. After the establishment of the Polish Geological Institute in 1919 in Warsaw, one of its founders, Jan Czarnocki, took steps to establish a regional branch of the Institute in Kielce, whose aim was to conduct scientific and exploratory research in the Holy Cross Mountains area. These activities were successfully completed in 1937, and since then, with a short break due to the Second World War, a branch of the Polish Geological Institute has been operating in Kielce. Since 1961, its headquarters have been located in a modern building, designed entirely for its needs, which has recently been modernized and expanded. Several dozen people employed in the Holy Cross Branch of the PGI-NRI carry out tasks in the field of applied geology and scientific research, focused on the study of an almost complete succession of Phanerozoic rocks in this region - from the Cambrian the history of the Holy Cross Branch of the PGI-NRI, and to present the most important to the Quaternary. The aim of this article is to provide a brief introduction to data related to the research and accomplishments of the geologists working in Kielce.
EN
The Polish Geological Institute was established in 1919 as the national geological survey within the Ministry of Industry and Trade. The initiative of a group of parliament members to appoint the Polish Geological Institute was supported by the Polish Parliament on May 30, 1919, and the official opening of the Institute took place on May 7, 1919. Two years later the PGI status and budget were accepted by the Polish government and Józef Morozewicz has received director’s nomination from the Head of State Józef Piłsudski. In March 1938, the President of Poland accepted a new decree concerning geological survey of Poland which was composed of the Polish Geological Institute and the State Geological Council. The role of the PGI grew and the budget substantially increased, but this positive trend was stopped due to the beginning of World War II. During the first post-war years, regional and basic studies made it possible to establish a geological model of Poland leading to great discoveries of mineral deposits in the fifties. The decree of October 8, 1951 adjusted the organization forms of the geological survey to the system of central planning and the domination of state property, and the institute (with the name changed to the Geological Institute) became a scientific institution. During the first years the institute experienced good conditions of development, and a great progress in the knowledge of geology of Poland combined with the basic and regional studies that led to significant discoveries and documentation of mineral deposits. However, already in the seventies the first signs of crisis in geology became evident. In 1985, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Mineral Resources was established, the Central Board of Geology was disbanded, and many tasks of geological survey returned to the institute, hence this turned out to be appropriate to return to the historical name, Polish Geological Institute, which took place on June 19, 1987. Since January 1, 2012, the Polish Geological Institute has served as the Polish geological survey on the basis of the Act of June 9, 2011, and earlier, since January 1, 2002, legally specified tasks of the Polish geological survey has been assigned to the PGI. On February 24, 2009 the Council of Ministers gave the PGI a status of National Research Institute, and this implied the adding this new status to the name of the Polish Geological Institute. For the century the Polish Geological Institute has successfully fulfilled all the basic responsibilities and commitments that are conventionally assigned to national geological surveys, and is a model example of modern national geological survey of very wide expertise.
EN
The major goal of the project “The evolution of terrestrial environments of the Upper Silesian Keuper as biotopes of vertebrates”, granted for Grzegorz Racki by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (2009-2013), was an exhaustive, integrated study of the bone-enriched middle Keuper interval in terms of stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry. The new website “Bone-bearing Keuper of the Upper Silesia, southern Poland” (http://www.ing.pan.pl/Keuper/Bone-bearing_Keuper-1.htm)presents in English the results of this project. The significant achievements are only a starting point to a comprehensive presentation of the complex Keuper themes, jointly with an extensive repository of regional literature (above 420 full-texted publications since 1790). In addition, the main results of the grant, as well as diversity of their implications for future studies are summarized herein, with emphasis on controversial geochronological aspects in vertebrate paleontology (how many bone-rich levels?), and in a broad historical context.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozwój kartografii geologicznej Sudetów i Dolnego Śląska począwszy od wydanej w 1791 r. pierwszej mapy geologicznej Karkonoszy, opracowanej przez J. Jiraska, poprzez mapy L. von Bucha, C. von Raumera i A. Kalužy z początku XIX w., przez liczne wydania atlasowe ukazujące się w całym XIX w., kończąc na szczegółowych mapach w skali 1 : 25 000, opracowywanych już w XX w. Były one później bazą do opracowania map reambulowanych, powstających po 1945 r.
EN
The paper presents the development of the geological mapping of in the Sudetes and Lower Silesia, starting from issuing in 1791 the first geological map of the Karkonosze Mountains, developed by J. Jirasek and issued in 1791, through maps of L. von Buch, C. von Raumer and A. Kaluža from the beginning of the 19th century, through and numerous editions of atlases published throughout the 19th century, ending with the detailed maps produced at the scale of 1 : 25,000 in at the beginning of the 20th century. The latter maps were the basis for the geological maps prepared after 1945.
PL
Pierwszą, bardzo ogólnikową, mapę geologiczną Górnego Śląska opracował von Buch (1797/1802), natomiast Schulze z Eisleben (1816) opracował przekrój geologiczny od Hulczyna do Bytomia i jako pierwszy wprowadza podział stratygraficzny, wyróżniając m.in. Steinkohlengebirge. Staszic (1815) na swojej mapie odnotowuje na tym obszarze obecność charbon de terre. Za pierwszą nowoczesną mapę Górnego Śląska należy uznać mapę Oeynhausena (1822), która zawiera 18 wydzieleń o charakterze litologiczno-stratygraficzym. W dalszej kolejności na uwagę zasługują mapy Puscha (1836) oraz Carnalla (1844). Za największe dokonanie XIX wieku w kartografii geologicznej Górnego Śląska należy uznać 12-arkuszowy atlas opracowany pod kierunkiem Roemera (1870) wraz z dwutomowym tekstem opisującym geologię tego obszaru. Kolejnym opracowaniem tej rangi było dzieło Michaela (1913), również obficie ilustrowane mapami. Z autorów polskich II. połowy XIX w. należy odnotować mapy opracowane przez Hempla (1857), Łempickiego i Gatowskiego (1891), Zaręcznego (1894) i Wójcika (1909). W niepodległej Polsce pierwszą mapę opisywanego obszaru opracował Przesmycki (1923). W okresie międzywojennym znakomitym znawcą geologii Polskiego Zagłębia Węglowego był Saryusz-Makowski, którego rękopiśmienny dorobek został zniszczony w czasie działań wojennych w 1939 r. W latach 20. XX w. rozpoczął swoje prace Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki, który badał obszar Górnego Śląska przez około 50 lat, a jego mapa Arkusz Grodziec (1934) staje się wzorcowym opracowaniem kartograficznym obowiązującym przez wiele lat.
EN
First, very general geological map of Upper Silesia was elaborated by von Buch (1797/1802). On the other hand Schulze from Eisleben (1816) prepared geological cross-section from Hulczyn to Bytom, where he introduced first stratigraphic division, distinguishing among others Steinkohlengebirge. Staszic (1815) noticed on his map the presence of charbon de terre in this area. Oeynhausen map (1822) should be regarded the first modern geological map of the Upper Silesia, as containing 18 lithological-stratigraphical divisions. Further attention should be paid to maps of Pusch (1836) and Carnall (1844). Next important work was greatest achievement of geological cartography of the Upper Silesia in XIX century is the 12-sheet Atlas developed under the direction of Roemer (1870) together with two-volume text, describing the geology of this area. Next important work was done by Michael (1912) which was also profusely illustrated with maps. Among the Polish authors of the second half of XIX century, maps elaborated by Hempel (1857), Łempicki and Gatowski (1891), Zaręczny (1894) and Wójcik (1909) should be noted. In the independent Poland, the first map of this area was compiled by Przesmycki (1923). Between the World Wars, an excellent expert in the Polish Coal Basin was Saryusz-Makowski whose manuscripts, documentations and maps were destroyed during the war in 1939. In the 20´s of XX century, Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki started his researchers. He has studied the area of Upper Silesia for almost 50 years. His map Grodziec (1934) has become the standard of geological cartography art for many years.
EN
Balthasar Hacquet, French physician and naturalist, Austrian army officer and inspector of mines in this country, has marked the history of natural science. Also as Professor of the Universities in Lviv and Cracow, he distinguished himself in many disciplines (botany, geology, anthropology and medicine), and particularly in the descriptions of the nature of the Carpathians and the Alps. This important person in the République des savants does not have the place in the contemporary historiography of science. His correspondence with French naturalists Georges Cuvier and Philippe-Isidore Picot de Lapeyrouse, as well as his autobiography and numerous documents, preserved in various archives, help to better understand his role in the development of natural sciences.
EN
Leopold Jan Szersznik (1747–1814) – a Silesian priest, teacher, researcher and collector, was a leading figure in the Age of Enlightenment. He is known mainly as a founder of a great and commonly available library of manuscripts, ancient books and maps, and one of the first Polish public museums. The Szersznik’s Museum was founded in 1802 in Cieszyn to collect art, antique weapons, instruments and nature specimens, forming so-called Naturalienkabinet. Naturalienkabinet contained more than four thousand minerals, rocks and fossils. The collection was designed to illustrate the natural history and was characterised by excellent systematization and description of type, place of origin and number of specimens. Szersznik planned to create a full catalogue of natural history collections, but unfortunately he could not finish his project. The only remaining part of the mineralogical collection is stored at the Museum of Geology of Deposits in Gliwice (Poland), being one of the oldest geological collections in Poland. Unfortunately, the state of preservation and arrangement of collections at the time of their transfer to the Museum was far different from its original state. The collection has been inventoried and described scienti- fically in recent years. Among the studied geological specimens are both well-known rocks and minerals from classic locations and unusual mineralogical specimens.
EN
The paper presents research findings on the stay and scientific work of Pierre Berniard in Poland. This French chemist lived in Poland for about twenty years in the late eighteenth century. He was hired as a scientist by the rich aristocratic Wielopolski family from Pińczów. The authors analysed his publications and unpublished correspondence with Jean Hermann, a scholar and the founder of Cabinet of Natural History in Strasbourg. They have identified a large network of Berniard’s scientific correspondents and his contribution to geology. The existence of a written account of his stay in Poland, now lost, was raised by his letters to Hermann.
EN
In the eighteenth century the King of Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski wanted to reform the medical education system and organizing public health service. The project of this reform was entrusted to a Swiss scientist Jean-Frédéric von Herrenschwand. He addressed the project to many scientists in Europe by asking their opinion in the matter. Jacob Reinbold Spielmann, a naturalist from Strasbourg sent to Herrenschwand his remarks. He proposed requiring teachers to do field trips and reap the natural history specimen and create a position of professor of mineralogy. It was the oldest proposition of Earth science teaching in Poland.
EN
The paper presents Graffenauer’s, Alsatian physician and naturalist, stay in Poland as a Napoleonic officer. The authors present the context of Natural History work during the Napoleonic Wars and the biography of this scientist. His writings are analyzed in terms of history of geology. Letters of Graffenauer constitute a precious document for the history of science. The authors emphasize the importance of information about amber, the biography of George Forster, the history of Natural History collection of Gdansk They also highlight the importance of the testimony of the Napoleonic era in the history of Natural Sciences in Poland.
11
PL
Artykuł przedstawia rezultaty badań dotyczące kontaktów i współpracy naukowej polskich i francuskich geologów w połowie XIX wieku. Związane są one z dwoma wybitnymi geologami tego okresu: L. Zejsznerem - profesorem Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego oraz E. Hébertem – profesorem Sorbony, w Paryżu. W szczególności dotyczą one: zbioru skamieniałości z ziem polskich w kolekcji Sorbony, informacji o Polakach - członkach Francuskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego, nieznanych francuskich listach E. Héberta do polskich geologów, mowy pośmiertnej poświęconej L. Zejsznerowi, wygłoszonej przez E. Héberta na posiedzeniu Francuskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego.
EN
The paper presents results of studies on contacts and cooperation of Polish and French geologists in the middle of the XIX century. The data gathered so far show that the connections were especially close in the case of two outstanding geologists of these times: L. Zejszner, professor at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, and E. Hebert, professor at Sorbonne in Paris. The cooperation is well shown by fairly rich collections of Polish fossils at Sorbonne, information on activities ofL. Zejszner as a member of the Geological Society of France, recently discovered letters of E. Hebert to L. Zejszner and his assistant, and speech delivered by E. Hebert at the meeting of the Society in 1872 to commemorate L. Zejszner.
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