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EN
The paper presents the experimental process of manufacturing individualized prosthetic sockets out of thermoplas‑ tic material, using an additive manufacturing technology of Fused Deposition Modelling. The patient was an adult male with an amputated forearm. His stump was 3D scanned using a low‑cost 3D scanner in a semi‑automated manner. Then, the anthropometric data was used for the creation of a model of a prosthetic socket, which was subsequently manufactured. Three different 3D printers were used, with three different materials (ABS, nylon and PC) and three different sets of process parameters. The paper contains the descriptions of the process, its results and opinions by the patient, leading to the selection of an optimal process course variant.
EN
The paper presents the design and manufacturing process of an individualized wrist orthosis. The patient’s upper limb was 3D scanned and the orthosis was designed using a CAD system. Each part of the orthosis consists of two different materials that fulfill different functions. By using the double-head Fused Deposition Modelling machine it was possible to produce these parts in a single process without the need for additional assembly operations. The orthosis has been tested for mutual fit of parts, strength and comfort of use.
EN
3D polymer-based printers have become easily accessible to the public. Usually, the technology used by these 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). The majority of these 3D printers mainly use acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) to fabricate 3D objects. In order for the printed parts to be useful for specific applications, the mechanical properties of the printed parts must be known. The aim of this study is to determine the tensile strength and elastic modulus of printed materials in polylactic acid (PLA) according to three important printing parameters such as deposition angle, extruder temperature and printing speed. The central composite design (CCD) was used to reduce the number of tensile test experiments. The obtained results show that the mechanical properties of printed parts depend on printing parameters. Empirical models relating response and process parameters are developed. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the validity of models relating response and printing parameters. The optimal printing parameters are determined for the desired mechanical properties.
EN
The main reason for the authors to discuss the subject is the need to fill the gaps in the knowledge regarding the abrasive wear of polymer composites with reinforcement in the form of short carbon fibers that can be used in additive manufacturing technologies. The illustrated design of the extrusion head makes it possible to obtain a composite with a matrix in the form of a thermoplastic and reinforcement as carbon fibers evenly spaced along the extrusion axis. The results of the simulation of heat propagation in the extrusion head and the flow of the matrix material in the nozzle are shown. This paper presents the research on the mixing process of the matrix material in the designed system and describes further planned tests. The output materials were obtained at various amounts of the PLA matrix material fed in at both entrances to the extrusion head. Mixing of materials has been shown by obtaining different colors of the outgoing material using two different colors of one type of input material.
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Content available remote Influence of Printer Head Velocity on FDM Deposited Path Deformations
EN
Fused deposition modeling is a technology, which uses print head’s nozzle that is moved in three dimensions, during extraction of the filament material. The common issue is the fact, that the quality parameters of the deposited model are significantly influenced by the actual material’s flow rate. Although highest accuracy of the model should be obtained when the mass flow rate is directly proportional to an actual velocity of the printer’s head, the discrepancy between expected and real flow rate causes deformations and inaccuracies of the printed path. This phenomena is especially visible during acceleration and deceleration of the printhead. Development of commercially efficient measurement method may be used in software calibration of the material mass flow. In perspective, direct feedback control of material flow rate could increase correlation of quality and print time of deposited models that can lead to an FDM printing process enhancements and refinements in an efficient manner. The influence of the 3D printer’s head velocity on the width of the deposited path is studied using visual methods.
6
Content available remote Tribological properties of 3D printed components
EN
Additive manufacturing technology is developing in many industries, including aviation, automotive and others. 3D printing offers new possibilities in the field of designing and manufacturing of machines and devices’ components. The paper presents the results of tribological investigations of components produced in FDM printing technology. The authors presented the evaluation of sliding properties of the model friction couple – block on ring type – of available thermoplastic polymers and polymers’ composites under dry friction conditions. The authors assessed the influence of material type and printed structure on resistance to motion of prepared samples.
PL
Technologia wytwarzania przyrostowego jest rozwijana w wielu obszarach przemysłu, w tym w lotnictwie, motoryzacji i innych. Druk 3D oferuje nowe możliwości konstrukcyjne i wykonawcze urządzeń i elementów konstrukcyjnych. W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki badań właściwości tribologicznych elementów wytworzonych w technologii druku 3D FDM. Autorzy dokonali oceny właściwości ślizgowych modelowego węzła tarcia – typu rolka-klocek – dostępnych polimerów termoplastycznych oraz kompozytów polimerowych w warunkach tarcia suchego. Określono wpływ rodzaju materiału oraz struktury wydruku na opory ruchu wytworzonych próbek.
EN
In vitro tissue model systems have attracted considerable attention in drug discovery owing to their ability to facilitate identification of promising compounds in the near-physiological environment during drug development. Additive manufacturing helps in mimicking com-plex geometries including the microarchitecture of the body tissues. Exploiting this emerg-ing technology, the present study demonstrates a simple and inexpensive approach for the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) in vitro tissue models using a custom-designed automated bioprinting system. The bioink mixture comprised of a novel optimized compo-sition of widely known biomaterials including gelatin, alginate and hydrolyzed type-1 collagen to embed and print the C2C12 myoblast cells. The structural stability and integrity of the cells-laden constructs were found to be significantly consistent for more than 14 days in culture. Rheological and mechanical properties of the bioink blend were characterized to assess its efficacy for the fabrication of cells-laden tissue constructs. Scanning electron micrographs were acquired to analyze porosity of the scaffold for cellular growth and proliferation. The viability of cells embedded within the hydrogel was >80%, 3 h post-printing. We anticipate that the fabricated tissues will serve as an alternative model for in vitro toxicological and drug response studies.
EN
Inter-operational surgery supplies manufactured additively using the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) technology are required to be sterilized before use. After manufacturing, the part should be sterilized using one of commonly used processes, without losing its dimensions and shape. The paper presents studies on manufacturing and sterilizing samples made out of ABS material and influence of the sterilization process on the dimensional accuracy of these samples.
9
Content available Wykorzystanie druku 3D w zastosowaniach automotive
PL
W artykule scharakteryzowano najczęściej stosowane technologie druku 3D: metoda FFF/FDM, metoda SLA, metoda SLS oraz metoda CJP. Przedstawiono możliwości zastosowania druku 3D w przemyśle motoryzacyjnym oraz projektowaniu nowych elementów i części pojazdów. W części badawczej pracy zaprezentowano wybrane próbki elementów wydrukowanych w technologii druku 3D metodą FDM/FFF przy różnych parametrach druku w zakresie uzyskanej powierzchni i geometrii.
EN
The article presents the most commonly used 3D printing technologies: FFF / FDM method, SLA method, SLS method and CJP method. It presents the possibilities of 3D printing in the automotive industry and the design of new vehicle components and parts. In the research part of the work were presented selected samples of elements printed in FDM / FFF 3D printing technology with different printing parameters in the area of obtained surface and geometry.
EN
The purpose of this research is unsatisfactory state of knowledge of the abrasive wear of composites with thermoplastic polymer as matrix material and reinforcing material in the form of short and focused carbon fibers that can be used in additive manufacturing technologies. The paper presents a conceptual design of an extrusion head used in Fused Deposition Technology, which allows for the implementation of appropriately stacked fibers at the level of detail production. Finite element simulation was performed to simulate the thermal effect of the system to demonstrate the effect of head cooling on the system. The assumed extrusion temperature of the material was obtained at a uniform nozzle temperature and stable temperature of the entire system. Flow simulation of thermoplastic polymer was carried out in the designed extrusion nozzle. By supplying 0.5 mm wire of 1.75 mm diameter thermoplastic material to the nozzle, the extrusion rate was 0.192 m/s. The proper design of the extrusion head for the intended applications has been demonstrated and the purpose of further research in this field has been confirmed.
EN
This paper illustrates an experience related to the use of 3D printing technology during the fabrication of elements for a supporting arm. The arm was a part of a test stand designed for an investigation of rotating wheels in contact with the ground. One of the crucial elements of a supporting arm is the hub, which was originally made from aluminium, however it was decided to replace it by the one made from ABS using 3D printing technology. The author decided to describe difficulties encountered during fabrication of the hub, together with a set of recommendations for future use of 3D printers.
12
Content available remote Analiza wybranych problemów druku 3D metodą FFF
PL
W artykule opisano metodę druku 3D FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication) oraz przeprowadzono analizę wyników badań doświadczalnych, na podstawie których określono dokładność wymiarowo-kształtową otworów wykonanych metodą FFF.
EN
The paper presents the description of 3D printing using FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication) and some experimental studies aiming at the shape and size accuracy optimization and determination of the process limits.
EN
The paper presents results of experiments aimed at determination of range of critical orientation for parts manufactured additively using the Fused Deposition Modelling method, out of ABS material. Numerous previous observations of plastic parts manufactured additively using the FDM process allowed concluding, that change of values of the manufacturing orientation (i.e. direction of layer slicing plane) has large influence on the macrostructure of obtained parts, thus affecting their strength and behaviour under load – the material behaves either as a thermoplastic with a yield point or as a brittle material with no yield point. The paper presents methodology and results of experiments aimed at determination of a certain value or value range, at which transition between the two behaviours occurs. The experiments consisted of tensile tests performed on samples manufactured additively in a pre-selected range of orientations. The obtained results – a value range valid for the selected type of load and sample shape – will be useful in future to help select an optimal orientation of part for a defined task.
EN
Fused Deposition Modelling technology allows to produce elements of very complex shapes without any additional tooling, which is why it has a broad range of industrial applications. Possibility of manufacturing parts with controlled degree of internal filling allows to shorten the manufacturing time and reduce volume of used material. The paper presents influence of layer filling type on part capability of carrying loads and economical coefficients of the manufacturing process. A problem of mechanical properties is important especially in case of elements used as functional prototypes. The paper presents methodology and results of experimental strength tests of samples with various types of internal filling. As a build material for test samples, ABS material was used. Composite samples were also used the ABS matrix produced by Fused Deposition Modelling was filled with chemically hardening polyurethane resin in a process developed by authors. The samples were subjected to destructive testing and their strength properties were compared.
15
EN
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a widespread additive manufacturing technology, which allows to obtain models of complex geometry without any tooling, directly from the digital CAD representation. It has been found out during numerous studies, that strength of products obtained using this technology is lower than strength of products manufactured of the same material, but with conventional technologies such as injection molding. Furthermore, the strength is greatly affected by orientation of part in the working chamber during manufacturing. The paper describes experimental research aimed at examining the influence of the orientation on impact strength of ABS parts produced with this technology. Test samples of various orientations were prepared and subjected to Charpy impact test. Also, a number of reference samples were prepared with injection molding of the same ABS material. Analysis of research results confirmed the assumptions made and allowed to make some important observations regarding strength of models produced with FDM technology.
PL
W artykule opisano badania eksperymentalne mające na celu zbadanie wpływu orientacji na udarność wyrobów z ABS wytwarzanych techniką Fused Deposition Modeling. Próbki wytworzone przy różnych orientacjach poddano testowi udarności młotem Charpy'ego. Oprócz tego wytworzono metodą wtrysku próbki referencyjne z tego samego materiału ABS. Analiza wyników badań potwierdziła wstępne tezy oraz ważne obserwacje dotyczące wytrzymałości wyrobów kształtowanych techniką FDM.
EN
The paper presents the results of experimental study – part of research of additive technology using thermoplastics as a build material, namely Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Aim of the study was to identify the relation between basic parameter of the FDM process – model orientation during manufacturing – and a dimensional accuracy and repeatability of obtained products. A set of samples was prepared – they were manufactured with variable process parameters and they were measured using 3D scanner. Significant differences in accuracy of products of the same geometry, but manufactured with different set of process parameters were observed.
EN
The paper presents information on manufacturing processes of plastic components. Basic subtractive and additive methods are described. There were also manufactured elements of fan housing by using this two types of methods. Then, the elements were measured using a touch probe. The obtained results were analyzed, on which a comparison of components’ geometric accuracy was performed.
PL
Modelowanie uplastycznionym tworzywem sztucznym to technika wytwarzania przyrostowego pozwalająca na uzyskanie modeli o skomplikowanej geometrii bez oprzyrządowania technologicznego, bezpośrednio na podstawie reprezentacji cyfrowej CAD. Ważnym parametrem tego procesu przyrostowego jest orientacja części w komorze roboczej podczas wytwarzania - wpływa ona na szereg wskaźników techniczno-ekonomicznych gotowego wyrobu. W artykule opisano badania eksperymentalne, w których sprawdzano wpływ orientacji na wytrzymałość na rozciąganie wyrobów wykonywanych tą techniką z materiału ABS. Przygotowano próbki wykonywane w różnej orientacji i poddano je próbom wytrzymałościowym. Przygotowano również próbki referencyjne z materiału ABS korzystając z metody wtrysku i również poddano je próbom. Analiza wyników badań potwierdziła przyjęte hipotezy i pozwoliła na dokonanie kilku ważnych obserwacji dotyczących wytrzymałości wyrobów wykonywanych techniką modelowania uplastycznionym tworzywem sztucznym.
EN
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology, which allows to obtain models of complex geometry without any tooling, directly from the digital CAD representation. An important parameter of FDM process is orientation of part in the working chamber during manufacturing - it influences a number of technical and economical coefficients of the end product. The paper describes experimental research aimed at examining the influence of the orientation on tensile strength of ABS models produced with this technology. Test samples of various orientation were prepared and subjected to tensile tests. Also, a number of reference samples were prepared with injection molding of the same ABS material. Analysis of research results confirmed the assumptions made and allowed to make some important observations regarding strength of models produced with FDM technology.
PL
Modelowanie uplastycznionym tworzywem polimerowym pozwala wytwarzać wyroby o bardzo skomplikowanych geometriach bez jakiegokolwiek oprzyrządowania technologicznego, dzięki czemu znajduje szerokie zastosowanie w przemyśle. Możliwość produkcji wyrobów z regulowanym wypełnieniem pozwala skrócić czas wytwarzania oraz zmniejszyć ilość zużywanego materiału. W pracy przedstawiono wpływ strategii wypełnienia warstw na dokładność odwzorowywania kształtu oraz na wskaźniki ekonomiczne procesu produkcji. Kwestia dokładności odwzorowania jest istotna szczególnie w przypadku wyrobów stanowiących wzorce mechanizmów lub elementy sprawdzianów pomiarowych. W ramach prac opisanych w artykule zbadano także odkształcenia termiczne wyrobów związane z dyssypacją ciepła wewnątrz komory roboczej. Próbki wykonano z tworzywa polimerowego ABS, a do pomiarów dokładności odwzorowania zastosowano skaner optyczny 3D.
EN
Fused Deposition Modeling technology allows to produce elements of very complex geometry out of thermoplastics, with no need for special tooling. Thanks to this, it is frequently used in the industry. Possibility of manufacturing products with regulated filling allows to shorten manufacturing time and volume of used material. The paper describes an influence of strategy of layers filling on shape and dimensional accuracy and economical coefficients of the production process. The problem of accuracy is crucial especially in case of elements used as prototypes of mechanisms or elements of measure tests. During research described in the paper, thermal deformation of products related to heat dissipation inside the working chamber was examined. As a model material for samples, ABS material was used. Measurements of accuracy were performed using 3D optical scanner.
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