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EN
The aim of the work presented in the article is to determine the effect of the type of fat and the variable protein content of algae on selected physicochemical properties of emulsions determining the stability of the disersion systems. Fat emulsions were prepared in the following three variants: based on hemp oil, based on a mixture of hemp oil and mutton tallow (1: 1) and based on the same fat mixture, but subjected to the enzymatic interesterification process (1: 1). The experimental part of the work included the preparation of animal fat by subjecting it to the bleaching process, and then enzymatic interesterification with hemp oil. Then, 9 variants of emulsions containing hemp oil, nonesterified fat mixture and interesterified fat mixture, respectively, were prepared. Each emulsion had a different algal protein content ranging from 0.4 to 1.2% by weight of the emulsion. The emulsions prepared in this way were tested 24 hours after their preparation and after 1 month of storage. The following parameters of the emulsion were assessed: color, texture, viscosity, and microscopic structure, and the intensity of the light backscattered by the sample was measured with the use of the Turbiscan Lab device. It was noticed that with the increase in the protein content of algae in the emulsions, there was an increase in the value of the b * parameter corresponding to the yellow color for all variants of these emulsions. There was also an increase in droplet size in microscopic examination and a decrease in the stability of the emulsions based on the interesterified fats. There was no unequivocal influence of the algae protein on the following parameters: emulsion adhesiveness, viscosity and hardness.In the study, it was not possible to select an emulsion with high stability, nor to indicate a clear influence of protein on the rheological properties of the emulsions produced, regardless of the type of fat used. In order to produce more stable systems, research should be extended to change the amount or type of protein, or to select a different viscosity modifier which, together with the algae protein, is able to create a synergistic system that stabilizes the dispersion systems produced.
PL
Celem pracy przedstawionej w artykule jest określenie wpływu rodzaju tłuszczu oraz zmiennej zawartości białka z alg na wybrane właściwości fizykochemiczne emulsji decydujące o stabilności układu. Emulsje tłuszczowe wytworzono w trzech następujących wariantach: na bazie oleju konopnego, na bazie mieszaniny oleju konopnego i łoju baraniego (1:1) oraz na bazie tej samej mieszaniny tłuszczowej, ale poddanej procesowi enzymatycznego przeestryfikowania (1:1). Zakres eksperymentalnej części pracy obejmował przygotowanie tłuszczu zwierzęcego (łoju baraniego) przez poddanie go procesowi bielenia, a następnie przeestryfikowanie enzymatyczne z olejem konopnym. Następnie przygotowano 9 wariantów emulsji zawierających odpowiednio olej konopny, mieszaninę tłuszczową nieprzeestryfikowaną oraz mieszaninę tłuszczową przeestryfikowaną. Każda z emulsji zawierała inną zawartość białka z alg w ilości od 0.4 do 1,2% w stosunku do masy emulsji. Tak przygotowane emulsje poddano badaniom po 24 godzinach od ich sporządzenia oraz po 1 miesiącu przechowywania. Przeprowadzono ocenę następujących parametrów emulsji: barwy, tekstury, lepkości, struktury mikroskopowej oraz dokonano pomiaru intensywności światła wstecznie rozproszonego przez próbkę w czasie, z wykorzystaniem urządzenia Turbiscan Lab. Zauważono, że wraz ze wzrostem zawartości białka z alg w emulsjach, nastąpił wzrost wartości parametru b* odpowiadającego za żółty kolor dla wszystkich wariantów tych emulsji. Nastąpił również wzrost wielkości kropel w badaniu mikroskopowym i zmniejszenie stabilności emulsji na bazie tłuszczów przeestryfikowanych. Nie zauważono jednoznacznego wpływu białka z alg na następujące parametry: adhezyjność, lepkość oraz twardość emulsji.W pracy nie udało się wytypować emulsji o wysokiej stabilności, ani wskazać wyraźnego wpływu białka na właściwości reologiczne wytworzonych emulsji bez względu na rodzaj zastosowanego tłuszczu. W celu wytworzenia bardziej stabilnych układów należy rozszerzyć badania w kierunku zmiany ilości lub rodzaju białka, czy wytypowania innego modyfikatora lepkości, który z białkiem z alg jest w stanie stworzyć układ synergistyczny oddziaływający stabilizująco na wytworzone układy dyspersyjne.
EN
The effect of emulsifier volume on emulsion system stability of plant origin being the basis of diet supplements for animals in winter season was analyzed. For this purpose, measurements of the backscattered light intensity as the function of the measuring cell height were conducted with a Turbiscan LAB optical analyzer. System stability was analyzed on the basis of Turbiscan Stability Index values. A Helos laser analyzer and a Nikon Eclipse E400 POL optical microscope were used to investigate drop size distribution and analyze microscopic pictures. It was shown that emulsion with 10% (w/w) of the emulsifier was the most stable one.
EN
The research focuses on the issues concerning a process of multiphase liquids transport in granular porous media driven by the capillary pressure. The current publication is meant to introduce the results of experimental research conducted to evaluate the kinetics of the imbibition and emulsions behavior inside the porous structures. Moreover, the influence of the dispersed phase concentration and granular media structure on the mentioned process was considered. The medium imbibition with emulsifier-stabilized emulsions composed of oil as the dispersed phase in concentrations of 10 vol%, 30 vol%, and 50 vol%, was investigated. The porous media consisted of oleophilic/hydrophilic beads with a fraction of 200–300 and 600–800 μm. The experimental results provided that the emulsions imbibition in such media depended stronger on its structure compare to single-phase liquids. The increase of the dispersed phase concentration caused an insignificant mass decreasing of the imbibed emulsions and height of its penetration in a sorptive medium. The concentrations of the imbibed dispersions exceeded their initial values, but reduced with permeants front raise in the granular structures that can be defined as the influential factor for wicking process kinetics.
PL
W pracy podjęto próbę oceny możliwości stosowania metody spektroskopii impedancyjnej do szacowania bardzo małych zawartości wody (do 0,02% V/V) w oleju mineralnym o oznaczeniu 20-70. Wcześniejsze badania olejów napędowych potwierdzały taką możliwość, jednak brak możliwości szerszego porównania otrzymywanych wyników skłonił autorów do zbadania innego oleju w ten sam sposób. Przedstawione wyniki pozwalają stwierdzić, że obrana metodologia daje pozytywne rezultaty także w przypadku badanego oleju mineralnego.
EN
In the paper an attempt was made to experimentally verify the possibility of using impedance spectroscopy method for 20-70 type mineral oil moisture assessment. Previous tests’ findings showed that this method can be successfully used with diesel fuel. However, the lack of possibility to compare the obtained results, prompted the authors to investigate another oil in the same way. Tests presented in the paper show that even water quantities below 0,02% V/V can change electrical properties of mineral oil in a way that can be detected with the use of proposed methodology.
5
Content available remote Force interaction of boiling dispersed emulsion particles
EN
In the industry lubricating fluids are widely used, mostly they reduce the wear of cutting tools and improve the quality of working surface, both in metal processin g technology and in other industries [1-3]. To achieve the greatest effect lubricating fluids must have a good surface wettability. This is achieved by introducing into the lubricating fluids the corresponding surface active agents (SAA), which also increase the cooling capacity of the medium. The adsorption phenomenon is based on the lubricating effect of various components of lubricating fluids. For liquids the adsorption is determined by the change in surface tension σ from the concentration of SAA. The desorption phenomena of SAA and particles aggregation of dispersed phase of lubricating fluids, which is an emulsion, determines sedimentation stability of emulsion and its further use [2, 4-7]. To reduce costs it is economically feasible to reuse spent lubricating fluids, but for this, their composition must be brought to normative, i.e. to clear it of mechanical impurities and also get the most stable structure for sedimentation, i.e. it is necessary to obtain the smallest size of the dispersed phase [5, 8-10]. Existing methods for calculating the processes of emulsification and homogenization of lubricating fluids are based on the dynamics of a single particle, which either boils with a sudden change in external parameters [4-6, 8, 11], or is subjected to the action of dynamic impact during the acceleration (deceleration) of flow, as well as is subjected to mechanical effects [7, 9, 11]. The examination of the dynamic interaction of two particles while boiling of light boiling component of the emulsion is given in [12]. Therefore, the study and development of the theoretical grounds of multitude drops breakup of discretely distributed phase is important for the determination of the optimal dispersion modes which results in a significant reduction in energy costs both during the grinding and crushing process, as well as reduction of the financial costs with repeated use of the same lubricating fluids, previously prepared before each cycle of use.
6
Content available remote Destruction processes of oil films of emulsion environment
EN
Most of the methods aimed at studying the dynamics of growth of vapor bubbles which occur either in the liquid volume or on a superheated surface [1-3]. A peculiarity of emulsion media boiling is that the formation of a vapor phase occurs on the surface of liquid interface if one liquid (for example, oil) is a superficially active substance or in the emulsion there is a superficially active substance (in multicomponent emulsions), which is based on a decrease in the interfacial tension at the interface between the dispersive medium (water) and the dispersion phase (oil) [1, 3-6]. Experimental data [1, 3] indicate that the process of a new phase (vapor) formation is initiated by an internal thermal impact on the surface of the oil particles. Thus, for example, with a sudden pressure decay, the preheated emulsion will be in the supersaturation state of the thermolabile-water phase (the water is superheated against the saturation temperature at a given pressure), i.e. it will contain an excessive amount of heat [7-10]. This heat excess is expended on the work of vapor layer formation and further vaporization. The effect of oil films is ambiguous: on the one hand, when heated, they play the role of thermal resistance, thus, slowing down the heating process; on the other hand, they are the heat carriers which can be used for the formation and growth of the vapor phase and also they are superficially active substance, which contributes to achieving lower water supersaturation temperatures, i.e. early boiling [5]. The consideration of oil thermal effect plays an important role when regarding heat and mass transfer processes during the boiling of emulsion media. Theoretical description and analysis of heat and mass exchange processes in emulsions, associated with the presence of oil and oil films, allows us to study more in detail the process itself, as well as to offer optimal parameters and characteristics for the processes of obtaining and processing a fine emulsion.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań przepływu rozcieńczonych emulsji olej-woda przez złoże mikrocząstek węglika krzemu (71÷100 µm). Olej mineralny był fazą rozproszoną (5 i 15% obj.), a Tween 40 wykorzystano jako emulgator. Przetłoczone przez złoże emulsje zawierały mniejsze krople oleju i były bardziej jednorodne od emulsji wstępnej. Użyte złoże przede wszystkim spowodowało zanik kropel o średnicy większej od 30 µm. Zaobserwowano również silny wpływ stężenia emulsji na spadek ciśnienia.
EN
The results of study on the flow of diluted o/w emulsions through packed beds of Silicon carbide microparticles (71÷100 µm) are reported. The mineral oil as dispersed phase (5 vol% and 15 vol%) and Tween 40 as emulsifier were used. The emulsions pressed through the packed bed contained smaller oil droplets and were more uniform than the preliminary emulsion. The packed bed used in the study caused mainly the disappearance of droplets with diameters greater than 30 µm. A strong effect of emulsion concentration on pressure drop was also observed.
EN
The transport of liquids driven by capillary suction-pressure and balanced by both viscous drag force and gravity acceleration is known as spontaneous imbibition. The prediction of spontaneous imbibition in porous media is of importance due to its relevance as a fundamental phenomenon in numerous industrial technologies as well as in nature. A vast majority of the experimental results and mathematical models concerning the imbibition process of single-phase liquids are considered and analyzed in the literature. The present research focuses on two-phase liquids transport in porous medium driven by capillary force. The penetrating liquids were surfactant-stabilized emulsions with the different dispersed phase concentrations. The discussed issues are the influence of porous bed composition and inner phase concentration on the height of an emulsion penetration, which allows to predict the velocity of imbibition process. From a practical point of view, the experimental results give the possibility to evaluate: productivity of granular sorbents applied to recover the environment, efficiency of building materials wetting with multiphase liquids, process of oil-derived pollutants migration in porous media, e.g. soil and other rock structures, etc.
EN
The wastewater produced by the metal industry is often present in the form of oil-in-water (O/W) or water-inoil (W/O) emulsions. These fluids contain a certain amount of valuable oil that can be recovered in the recycling process. Therefore, the development of novel, efficient, and low cost processes for the treatment of metalworking fluid is necessary. Demulsification to separate oil/water mixtures is a very interesting option because it allows the recovery and reuse of the lubricant oil and effects in cleaner, easily treatable wastewater.Chemical destabilization is the most common way of demulsification of metalworking fluids. As an example, inorganic salts can be used as demulsifiers. In the presented work the efficiency of treatment of cutting emulsions with chemical demulsification with usage of aluminum sulfate (IV) is described. The emulsion was prepared with Emulgol-ES12 self-emulsyfing oil delivered by Orlen S.A. In the research the feasibility of the demulsifier was checked. The novel in this paper is determination of the optimal dosage of emulsifier using the TurbiscanLab® apparatus. It is relatively quick and precise method that can be applied in the industry.
11
PL
Przeanalizowano wpływ zawartości emulgatora na rozkład wielkości cząstek mieszaniny olejków miętowego i eukaliptusowego oraz witaminy A. Układ dyspersyjny homogenizowano przy stałej liczbie obrotów mieszadła. W badaniach wykorzystano dyfraktometr laserowy HELOS BR. Stwierdzono, że im wyższe było stężenie emulgatora, tym mniejsza była średnica Sautera i średnica objętościowa, a tym samym mieszanina była lepiej zhomogenizowana.
EN
The effect of emulsifier content on particle size distribution in the mixture of mint and eucalyptus oils and vitamin A was studied. The systems were homogenized at a constant stirrer rotational seed. HELOS BR laser diffractometer was used in research. It was proved that the Sauter and volumetric mean diameters, and consequently, the better homogenization of mixture were smaller for the higher emulsifier concentration.
PL
Rozwój przemysłu metali lekkich wymusza prowadzenie prac nad doskonaleniem technik przetwórstwa aluminium i jego stopów. Jednym z podstawowych procesów dedykowanych do wytwarzania drutów, prętów i rur aluminiowych jest proces ciągnienia. W praktyce przemysłowej do procesu ciągnienia stopów aluminium, realizowanego metodą konwencjonalną, powszechnie stosowane są głównie różnego typu oleje o wysokiej gęstości często przekraczającej 150 CSt zapewniające obniżenie współczynnika tarcia, a tym samym redukcję parametrów siłowych procesu ciągnienia. Stosowanie olejów zapewniają prawidłową separację powierzchni narzędzia i wyrobu ciągnionego, jednakże przyczynia się do zanieczyszczenia powierzchni wytwarzanych wyrobów. W związku z powyższym w ramach niniejszej pracy przeprowadzono szereg badań koncentrujących się wokół możliwości zastosowania emulsji w procesie ciągnienia aluminium w gat. EN AW-1370.
EN
The development of light metal industry forces carrying out work on the improvement of techniques for the processing of aluminum and its alloys. One of the basic processes dedicated to the production of wires, rods and tubes of aluminum is cold drawing process. In commercial practice, for cold drawing of aluminum alloyscarried out with the use of conventional method, various types of oils are commonly used with high density that often exceeds 150 CSt. With a decrease of friction coefficient, force parameters of drawing process are also reduced. Use oflubricants provide proper surface separation of tool and drawn product, but it also results in a creation of surface impurities. Accordingly, within this work, several studies were focused on the possibilities to use emulsion as lubricant in the cold drawing process of EN AW-1370 grade aluminum.
EN
The issue of emulsion flow through porous media plays an important role in the development of land purification methods from various oily substances, as well as during the oil extraction process. The concentration of the emulsion dispersed phase exerts a strong influence on the rheological properties. The oil in water emulsions (O/W), that have a concentration of less than 0.5 (or 50%), show Newtonian behavior, and those with higher concentrations non-Newtonian. The flow of such systems through the structure of the porous medium is, therefore, also dependent on the variable rheological properties of the liquid. When the emulsion flows through the porous medium, a reduction of the relative permeability occurs. Due to that the transport may be very effectively limited, as the pores of deposit are being blocked by oil droplets. The paper presents studies on emulsion flow, with various concentrations, through a granular bed. It allowed to track changes in the permeability of the deposit over time. The results of experimental studies of transport and elution of highly concentrated emulsions from granular structures are also presented. This enabled tracking of changes in flow resistance of the emulsion through the porous bed in time. Moreover, the development of the mathematical model, which allows us to define the relationship between the bed blockage degree and the concentration of the emulsion internal phase could be the result of the experimental works. The results of such studies are very widely used in practice, among other things, in the issues of migration of pollutants, such as petroleum substances, in the soil layers. The development of knowledge in this field may contribute to the optimization of existing oil recovery techniques and methods of remediation of soil from organic substances.
PL
Celem zabiegów kwasowania wykonywanych w formacjach węglanowych jest zmniejszenie współczynnika „skin" dzięki wytworzeniu kanałów o dużej przepuszczalności, zwanych otworami robaczkowymi. Na ich formowanie znaczący wpływ ma szybkość reakcji cieczy kwasującej ze skałą w warunkach złożowych. W wielu przypadkach ze względu na wysoką temperaturę złoża zachodzi konieczność spowolnienia tej reakcji. W artykule przedstawiono metody stosowane w celu opóźnienia tej reakcji i zapewnienia głębszej penetracji kwasu w formację przed jego wyczerpaniem. Zaprezentowano również ciecz technologiczną - emulsję typu kwas w ropie opracowaną w Zakładzie Stymulacji Wydobycia Węglowodorów Instytutu Nafty i Gazu - PIB, która została z powodzeniem zastosowana na krajowym złożu węglanowym.
EN
Matrix acidizing treatments are performed in carbonate formation in order to reduce „skin" by creation conductive channels called wormholes. Reaction rate of acidizing liquid and rock has a significant impact on their creation. In many cases it is necessary to slow down the reaction due to the high temperature of the reservoir. This paper presents the Ssang Yong methods used to slow down this reaction and allows the acid to penetrate deeper into the formation before spending. This paper presents the internal phase emulsion with crude oil developed at the Department of Production Stimulation by the Oil and Gas Institute - National Research Institute, which had been successfully applied in our national carbonate reservoir.
PL
Określono strukturę emulsji wytworzonej w rozpylaczu wirowym. Badania przeprowadzono dla emulsji o udziale objętościowym oleju od 0,1 do 0,3. Wykazano, że wartości charakterystycznych średnic wzrastają ze wzrostem udziału objętościowego fazy rozproszonej oraz ze wzrostem strumienia objętościowego emulsji. Duże znaczenie miały wymiary rozpylacza. Zarówno zwiększenie wysokości, jak i średnicy komory wirowej skutkują na ogół zwiększeniem wartości średnic kropel fazy rozproszonej.
EN
The structure of emulsion produced in a pressure-swirl atomizer was determined. The studies dealt with emulsions of oil volume fraction in the range between 0.1 and 0.3. It was shown that values of characteristic diameters increased with the increase of dispersed phase volume fraction and the increase of emulsion flow rate. The atomizer sizes were very important parameters. The increase of height and diameter of swirl chamber generally results in the increase of dispersed phase droplet diameter.
EN
Tested two-phase liquids represented stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with dispersed phase concentrations of 10 vol.%, 30 vol.% and 50 vol.%. During the experiments, correlations between the level of medium saturation and the height of emulsion front and between the initial concentration of dispersed phase and process time were defined. The porous media oversaturation was observed mostly for him < 0.04 m due to a layer formation on the external surface of sorbent sample. Moreover, the level of saturation also varied with time, but the registered sorbent saturation level of 65+85% was obtained within the first 600 s. For equilibrium time, i.e. 900 s, the lowest saturation level equal to 0.88 was observed for 10% emulsion and the height range of 0.04 m < hjm < 0.06 m. The sorbents imbibed with 50% emulsion had the highest level of saturation. Changes of saturation with time were described by the appropriate equation.
PL
Badane układy dwufazowe były stabilnymi emulsjami o stężeniach fazy rozproszonej: 10, 30, 50% obj. Określono zależności między stopniem saturacji a poziomem nasycenia oraz między początkowym stężeniem fazy rozproszonej a czasem trwania procesu. Stwierdzono, ze stopień saturacji może być większy od 100% dla wysokości him ≤ 0,04 m w wyniku formowania się warstwy cieczy na zewnętrznej powierzchni sorbentu. Stopień saturacji zmieniał się w czasie, ale wartości 65÷85% uzyskano już po 600 s. Dla czasu równowagowego 900 s najniższy poziom saturacji równy 0,88% obserwowano dla emulsji o stężeniu 10% dla wysokości 0,04 m ≤ him ≤ 0,06 m. Najwyższy poziom saturacji uzyskano dla emulsji 50%. Zaproponowano równanie określające zmiany saturacji od czasu.
EN
Current targets in reducing CO2 and other greenhouse gases as well as fossil fuel depletion have promoted the research for alternatives to petroleum-based fuels. Pyrolysis oil (PO) from biomass and waste oil is seen as a method to reduce life-cycle CO2, broaden the energy mix and increase the use of renewable fuels. The abundancy and low prices of feedstock have attracted the attention of biomass pyrolysis in order to obtain energy-dense products. Research has been carried out in optimising the pyrolysis process, finding efficient ways to convert the waste to energy. However, the pyrolysis products have a high content in water, high viscosity and high corrosiveness which makes them unsuitable for engine combustion. Upgrading processes such as gasification, trans-esterification or hydro-deoxynegation are then needed. These processes are normally costly and require high energy input. Thus, emulsification in fossil fuels or alcohols is being used as an alternative. In this research work, the feasibility of using PO-diesel emulsion in a single-cylinder diesel engine has been investigated. In-cylinder pressure, regulated gaseous emissions, particulate matter, fuel consumption and lubricity analysis reported. The tests were carried out of a stable non-corrosive wood pyrolysis product produced by Future Blends Ltd of Milton Park, Oxfordshire, UK. The product is trademarked by FBL, and is a stabilized fraction of raw pyrolysis oil produced in a process for which the patent is pending. The results show an increase in gaseous emissions, fuel consumption and a reduction in soot. The combustion was delayed with the emulsified fuel and a high variability was observed during engine operation.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu zawartości pyłu aluminiowego na prędkość detonacji i intensywność powietrznych fal podmuchowych generowanych w wyniku detonacji emulsyjnych materiałów wybuchowych. W pierwszej fazie badań zoptymalizowano zawartość mikrobalonów, dla której prowadzono dalsze eksperymenty z dwoma rodzajami pyłów aluminiowych. Oszacowano również parametry termodynamiczne testowanych mieszanin wybuchowych przy użyciu programu MWEQ.
EN
The paper presents results of research on the impact of the dust content of aluminum on detonation velocity and the intensity of the air blast wave generated by the detonation of emulsion explosives. In the first study phase content of the microballoons is optimized and the further experiments were carried out with two types of particulate aluminum. Also the thermodynamic parameters of tested explosive mixtures using MWEQ programme were assessed.
EN
According to world statisties on the oil production about 25-35 % of the volumes are appearing in the form of an emulsion. Oil emulsions cause the great impediment in the operating time as a result of inereasing the viscosity even to 200 times towards oil. For a commercial product, it is necessary to prepare oil for processing, which involves the separation of a stable emulsion. In the industry various methods of dividing are applicable, among others: mechanical, chemical, electric. The article describes the types of emulsion, the reasons for its creation. The methods of demulsification of crude oil were characterized, the construction of demulsifiers, and their influence on the processes of exploitation of oil. The aim of the author's laboratory tests was demulsifiers selection to the crude oil produced in the deposit Lubiatów on Polish Lowlands.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań procesu emulgowania roztworów mieszanin związków powierzchniowo czynnych z olejem silnikowym, maszynowym i hydraulicznym. Zbadano zdolności emulgujące kompozycji myjących sporządzonych z udziałem różnych surfaktantów. Przebadano wpływ rodzaju homogenizatora na stabilność emulsji. Trwałość otrzymanych emulsji zależy od rodzaju zastosowanych surfaktantów, sposobu otrzymywania emulsji, w tym od prędkości obrotów i rodzaju homogenizatora. Rodzaj zanieczyszczenia organicznego ma w dużym stopniu wpływ na szybkość rozdziału faz. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników badań stwierdzono, że roztwory wybranych mieszanin surfaktantów dobrze dyspergowały badane zanieczyszczenia.
EN
Seven com. surfactants were used for studying formation of aq. emulsions of mineral oils at 7000–21000 rpm. The highest emulsification capacity was found for ethoxylated alkylphenyl Na sulfosuccinate, ethoxylated C8–C10 fatty alcs. alkyl polyglycosides and ethoxylated C11–C12 fatty alcs.
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