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EN
The paper presents some results of examination of DF CI engine fuelled with kerosene-based fuel (Jet A-1) and propane. The aim was to obtain the maximum engine thermal and overall efficiency and checking the engine emissions for the application of significant share of propane as a main source of energy. The fuel which initiates the ignition was Jet A-1 provided by common rail system during the beginning of compression stroke. Propane was provided to inlet manifold in a gas phase. The method of providing of both fuels to the engine cylinder allowed to create nearly homogeneous mixture and realized HCCI process for dual fuelling with Jet A-1 and propane. It was possible to compare two combustion strategies PCCI and HCCI for fuelling of CI engine with single fuel (Jet A-1) and dual fuelling with Jet A-1 and propane. The results of experiment show that the NOx and soot emissions are much lower than for standard CI or SI engines. The results also show very interesting potential role of propane in control of HCCI dual fuel combustion process which gives the new perspective of dual fuel engine development. The low levels of toxic components in exhaust gases encourage to test and develop this type of fuelling which could radically confine the negative influence on the environment as well as enable to apply an alternative fuels.
EN
In the near future, natural gas may become a fuel, which will see increased use in powering internal combustion engines. Due to its properties, it can be used to power spark-ignition engines without major obstacles. Yet using natural gas to power compression-ignition engines proves to be more difficult. One of the possibilities are the dual-fuel compression-ignition engines running with gas fuel and diesel fuel, enabling ignition through compression and combustion of gas fuel. The article presents the heat release characteristics of the Perkins 1104D-E44TA engine powered by compressed natural gas and diesel fuel. Characteristics of heat release are an image of the combustion process. They affect the engine performance indicators. The determined heat release characteristics for a dual-fuel-powered engine were compared with the heat release characteristics for a diesel engine under the same operating conditions. An analysis of heat release characteristics was carried in the scope of their influence on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of the tested engine. The effect of the relative amount of heat released and the heat release rate during the combustion process in the Perkins 1104D-E44TA engine cylinder running dual-fuel with CNG+diesel on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust, as compared to the values measured when running with diesel fuel only, was demonstrated. Higher share of natural gas in the total amount of energy supplied to the engine cylinders results in greater differences in the course of the combustion process and result in a greater reduction in the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of the tested engine.
EN
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) qualifies as sustainable and secure marine fuel that is reliable in supply. The international standards (IGF Code) and classification regulations have been aligned. First experiences in ship operations and design are now available. Initial reports from the practical ship operations show that the lack of knowledge and misjudgements of original equipment manufacturers (OEM’s), suppliers, consulting services and flag state authorities have led to operational restrictions or expensive retrofitting. The aim of this paper is to illustrate first experiences and operating instructions using this new and different marine fuel; derive recommendations for instructions for education and training programmes at maritime colleges, universities and business partners; present action recommendations for future operational concepts.
EN
The occurrence of knocking combustion is one of the basic problems of dual-fuel compression-ignition engines supplied with diesel oil and gaseous fuel. In order to detect this phenomenon and evaluate its intensity, several methods are commonly used, including the analysis of pressure of working medium in the combustion chamber of the engine or vibrations of certain engine components. This paper discusses the concept of using mass fraction of hydroxyl radicals as the indicator of the occurrence of knocking combustion. Current knowledge on the conditions of hydroxyl radical formation in the engine combustion chamber has been systematized and the results of research on this subject have been presented. Theoretical considerations are illustrated by exemplary results of simulation studies of the combustion process in a dual-fuel compression-ignition engine supplied with diesel oil and methane. The conclusions drawn may be useful for the development of dual-fuel engine control systems.
EN
The dual-fuel engine enables application of various fuels. One of such fuels is propane or its mixture with butane (LPG). Application of such fuels results in reduction of engine operation costs. The paper presents effect of application of such fuel in a turbocharged dual-fuel engine on basic operating parameters, exhaust emissions and basic combustion parameters. Test results in the form of load characteristics for various boost ratios obtained for dual-fuel engine were compared to corresponding results obtained for conventional engine operating on diesel fuel only. The obtained results indicate that it is possible a dual-fuel operation with the propane energy share of 70% for maximum engine loads.
PL
Gaz ziemny jako paliwo do zasilania tłokowych silników spalinowych stanowi ciekawą alternatywę dla benzyn i olejów napędowych. Jest źródłem energii, która jest promowana przez Unię Europejską, w celu zwiększenia jej udziału w transporcie. Dostępne są technologie, które pozwalają na stosowanie gazu ziemnego do zasilania silników o zapłonie wymuszonym, jak również silników o zapłonie samoczynnym. W artykule przedstawiono wybrane wyniki badań silnika o zapłonie samoczynnym Perkins 1104D-E44TA, który został przystosowany na hamowni silnikowej do zasilania dwupaliwowego sprężonym gazem ziemnym i olejem napędowym. Podczas badań silnik pracował według zewnętrznej charakterystyki prędkościowej. Wyznaczone wybrane wskaźniki pracy silnika Perkins 1104D-E44TA przy jego zasilaniu dwupaliwowym, jednocześnie gazem ziemnym i olejem napędowym, porównano z wskaźnikami otrzymanymi przy zasilaniu silnika tylko olejem napędowym. Uzyskano nieznaczne zmniejszenie mocy efektywnej i momentu obrotowego silnika przy jego zasilaniu dwupaliwowym. Poza tym zasilając silnik dwupaliwowo uzyskano zwiększenie godzinowego zużycia paliwa, jednostkowego zużycia paliwa i godzinowego zużycia energii, w porównaniu do jego zasilania olejem napędowym.
EN
Natural gas used as a fuel for piston combustion engines is a noteworthy alternative to petrol and gas oil. This source of energy is promoted by the European Union in order to make it more prevalent in transport. There are available technologies which make it possible to use natural gas for powering positive-ignition and compression ignition engines. The article presents test results for the Perkins 1104D-E44TA compression ignition engine, which was adjusted for dual-fuel compressed natural gas and Diesel fuel feed. During the test, the engine was working according to an external speed characteristics. The motor action indicators of the Perkins 1104D-E44TA, powered with both natural gas and Diesel fuel, were compared with the indicators when the engine was propelled only with Diesel fuel. The result was that the brake horsepower and the torque were slightly decreased when the engine was being bi-fuelled. Furthermore, when compared to running on Diesel fuel only, the engine propelled with both types of fuel increased fuel consumption per hour, specific fuel consumption and energy consumption per hour.
EN
This article presents the possibilities for using alternative fuels to power vehicles equipped with compression ignition (CI) engines (diesel). Systems for using such fuels have been discussed. Detailed analysis and research covered the LPG STAG autogas system, which is used to power dual-fuel engine units (LPG+diesel). A description of the operation of the autogas system and installation in a vehicle has been presented. The basic algorithms of the controller, which is an actuating element of the whole system, have been discussed. Protection systems of a serial production engine unit to guarantee its factorycontrolled durability standards have been presented. A long-distance test drive and examinations of the engine over 150,000 km in a Toyota Hilux have been performed. Operating parameters and performance indicators of the engine with STAG LPG+diesel fuelling have been verified. Directions and perspectives for the further development of such a system in diesel-powered cars have been also indicated.
PL
W artykule rozpatrzono układy napędowe gazowców spełniających wymagania terminalu LNG w Świnoujściu. Wśród funkcjonujących zbiornikowców wyłoniono najczęściej występujące układy napędowe: DRL, DFDE, DFSM. Przedstawiono światowe kierunki rozwoju układów napędowych zbiornikowców LNG. Określono najczęściej stosowane na gazowcach silniki cieplne rozróżniając: turbiny parowe, średnioobrotowe dwupaliwowe silniki o zapłonie samoczynnym, jak również silniki wolnoobrotowe jednopaliwowe stosowane w układach z ponownym skraplaniem gazu. Zaprezentowano przykładowe rozwiązania układów napędowych. Zaproponowano wskaźnik efektywności wykonania zadania transportowego gazowców. Przeprowadzono analizę porównawczą w oparciu o dane reprezentatywnych gazowców. Sformułowano ogólne wnioski dotyczące efektywności transportowej gazowców przeznaczonych dla terminala LNG w Świnoujściu.
EN
This article has examined propulsion systems of LNG tankers which meet the requirements of the LNG terminal in Świnoujście. The most common propulsion types have been selected: DRL, DFDE, DFSM. Global trends of LNG tanker propulsion systems were presented. The heat engines most frequently used on tankers such as: steam turbines, dual-fuel medium speed diesel engines as well as low-speed single-fuel engines used in systems with gas reliquefaction have been defined. Exemplary solutions of propulsion systems have been presented. Transport task management efficiency ratio of gas carriers has been suggested. A comparative analysis based on the data of representative gas tankers has been performed. General conclusions on transport effectiveness of gas tankers for LNG terminal in Świnoujście have been determined.
EN
The results of CFD modelling a dual fuel diesel engine powered with both methanol and diesel fuel is presented in the paper. Modelling was performed with 20 and a 50% energetic share of methanol in the entire dose. The analysis was conducted on both the thermodynamic parameters and exhaust toxicity of dual fuel engine. It was found that the various share of methanol influences the ignition delay of the combustion process and after start of main phase of combustion, the process occurs faster than in case of the diesel engine. It was found that the time of 10-90% burn of the fuel is much shorter than it is in the diesel engine. The dual fuel engine was characterized by higher indicated mean pressure in the whole range of diesel fuel injection timings. While analysing toxic exhaust emission from the dual fuel engine powered with methanol, it was found that the rate of NO formation was significantly higher than from the diesel engine. The combustion process in the dual fuel engine occurs more rapidly than in the conventional diesel engine, which contributes to form areas with high temperature, and in combination with presence of oxygen from the air and oxygen bonded in the methanol, promotes the NO formation. In the case of the dual fuel engine, it was found that soot emission was reduced. The engine running with diesel injection start at 8.5 deg before TDC, the soot emissions were more than twice lower in the dual fuel engine, while the emission of NO was much higher.
EN
The problem of using alternative fueling sources for combustion engines has been growing in importance recently. This is connected not only with the dwindling oil resources, but also with the growing concern for the natural environment and the fight against global warming. This paper proposes the concept for a zero-dimensional model of a multi-fuel engine, enabling the determination of thermodynamic system parameters based on the basic geometric and material object data (complete model). The basic problems in the creation of this model and the modeling of the accompanying subprocesses have been outlined and the methodology of the numerical solution of the obtained mathematical description has been proposed. The basic characteristics of the developed model are: the application of an original model of liquid fraction injection based on normal distribution, a new Assanis correlation for computing the diesel fuel self-ignition delay period in the presence of gas, first-order chemical reaction kinetic equations for describing the course of combustion for combustible components of the gas/air mixture, the implementation of a self-consistency procedure in modeling heat exchange and the effect of exhaust recirculation, the inclusion of both a single liquid fuel injection and the possibility of performing computations for a divided charge.
PL
W ostatnim czasie problem wykorzystania alternatywnych źródeł zasilania silników spalinowych zyskuje szczególnie na znaczeniu. Związane jest to nie tylko z kurczącymi się zasobami ropy naftowej, ale również z coraz większą troską o środowisko naturalne oraz walką z globalnym ociepleniem. W niniejszej pracy zaproponowano koncepcję zero-wymiarowego modelu silnika wielopaliwowego, umożliwiającego, wyznaczenie parametrów termodynamicznych układu w oparciu o podstawowe dane geometryczne i materiałowe obiektu (model kompletny). Nakreślono podstawowe problemy w zagadnieniu tworzenia takiego modelu i modelowania podprocesów towarzyszących oraz zaproponowano metodykę numerycznego rozwiązywania uzyskanego opisu matematycznego. Podstawowe wyróżniki opracowanego modelu to: zastosowanie autorskiego modelu procesu wtrysku frakcji ciekłej opartego na rozkładzie normalnym, nowej korelacji Assanisa do obliczenia okresu zwłoki samozapłonu oleju napędowego w obecności gazu, jednostopniowych równań kinetyki reakcji chemicznej do opisu przebiegu spalania składników palnych mieszaniny gaz-powietrze, implementacja procedury samouzgodnienia w modelowaniu procesu wymiany ciepła i wpływu recyrkulacji spalin, uwzględnienie zarówno pojedynczego wtrysku paliwa ciekłego jak i możliwość prowadzenia obliczeń dla dawki dzielonej.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczących wpływu podziału inicjującej zapłon dawki oleju napędowego w dwupaliwowym silniku o ZS zasilanym propanem. Zaprezentowano zestawienie wyników badań dla czterech różnych proporcji podziału inicjującej zapłon dawki oleju napędowego mierzonych udziałem energetycznym dawki pilotującej, oraz dla przypadku pojedynczej dawki oleju napędowego. Badania obejmowały analizę procesu spalania, oraz emisji spalin. Wykazano że podział dawki oleju napędowego z zachowaniem odpowiednich proporcji dawki pilotującej do dawki głównej, oraz kąt początku wtrysku ma istotne znaczenie dla przebiegu procesu spalania, oraz emisji związków toksycznych spalin. Poprawie ulega zarówno sprawność ogólna jak i emisja tlenków azotu przy nieznacznym wzroście emisji węglowodorów. Ponadto wykazano że zastosowanie podziału dawki oleju napędowego wyraźnie redukuje obciążenia cieplne i mechaniczne silnika.
EN
The paper presents results of a research on the effect of the diesel fuel dose division in a dual-fuel CI engine operating on propane. It presents test results obtained for four various proportions of the diesel fuel dose distribution, measured in form of the pilot dose energy shares in the total energy of diesel fuel, and results obtained for the case of a single diesel fuel dose. The investigation comprised an analysis of the combustion process and exhaust emissions. It has been shown that the diesel fuel dose distribution in adequate proportions of a pilot dose to the main dose, and the injection angle are important for the combustion process and toxic exhaust emissions. The obtained results showed better overall efficiency and lower nitrogen oxide emission with a slight increase of hydrocarbon emission. Moreover, it was showed that the diesel fuel dose division reduces significantly the thermal and mechanical load of the engine.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono analizę wpływu energetycznego udziału gazu ziemnego na parametry użytkowe, ekologiczne i hałaśliwość pracy samochodowego silnika o zapłonie samoczynnym. Badania przeprowadzono na nowoczesnym silniku Fiat 1.3 MultiJet zasilanym dwupaliwowo – gazem ziemnym CNG i olejem napędowym. Gaz ziemny był dostarczany przez sekwencyjny wtrysk do kolektora, w okolicę zaworu dolotowego. Zmiany udziału gazu realizowano przez różne czasy otwarcia wtryskiwaczy. Mierzone w czasie badań udziały energetyczne gazu wynosiły 10÷45%. Analizie poddano stężenia toksycznych składników spalin (CO, THC, NOx, zadymienie), hałaśliwość pracy i wybrane parametry użytkowe silnika. Wyniki badań mogą być wykorzystane w adaptacjach silnika do zasilania CNG.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of the impact the energy share of natural gas on operating parameters, environmental and acoustic noise automotive diesel engine. The study was conducted on a modern engine Fiat 1.3 MultiJet dual fuelling, CNG and diesel oil. Natural gas was supplied by sequential injection in the collector in the area of the intake valve. Changes in the share of gas was carried out by the different opening times of the gas injectors. The measured during the tests of gas energy shares amounted from 10 to 45%. Analyzed the concentration of toxic components of exhaust gases (CO, THC, NOx, smoke), acoustic noise and selected operating parameters of the engine. The test results can be used in the engine adaptations to CNG fuelling.
EN
Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI) engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.
EN
This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode , i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol . Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets , bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. The considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels : petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. The tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. The other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. The tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters ( maximum power and torque ). In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI ( petrol) engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS ( diesel) engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx – for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.
EN
Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere, as well as increasing the share of renewables in the overall energy balance, forces the search for new, alternative energy sources. One of the fuels, which presents high potential for combustion engines are biomethane or biogas, with methane as the main flammable component. Biogas can be obtained from different products and using a variety of technologies which results in its wide availability and relatively easy manufacture. The largest sources of biogas can be animal farms or sewage treatment plants and waste dumps in which significant quantities of biogas are obtained as a result of naturally occurring processes. Biogas can also be obtained from processing of energy crops or waste processing in agricultural, food and meat processing plants. In this article, the possibility of using biogas as a fuel for CI engines has been examined. In such engine, combustion of biogas (methane) requires the use of dual fuel supply system, in which in addition to methane, liquid fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, in order to initiate the self-ignition of gaseous fuel. The paper presents exemplary results of the impact of the proportion of different fuels and biogas composition on the efficiency of the engine work cycle.
PL
W pracy przedstawiony został przygotowawczy etap prac związanych z problematyką przeprowadzania symulacji numerycznej procesów spalania w pojedynczej komorze spalania silnika o zapłonie samoczynnym zasilanym dwupaliwowo. Na potrzeby symulacji stworzono model geometryczny komory spalania silnika oraz wygenerowano odpowiednią siatkę numeryczną z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania firmy ANSYS. Wykonano także analizę numeryczną przepływu powietrza w komorze spalania uwzględniającą ruch tłoka i zaworów.
EN
In the paper a preparatory stage of work on the issue of the numerical simulation of combustion processes in the bi-fuel powered diesel engine was presented. For the purposes of the numerical simulation a single geometric model of the combustion chamber of the engine was created and a corresponding numerical grid by means of Ansys software was generated. Numerical simulations of the air flow in a single combustion chamber of self-igniting diesel engine including movement of the piston and valves was also carried out.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy zagadnień wpływu stopnia sprężania dwupaliwowego silnika o zapłonie samoczynnym zasilanego gazem naturalnym CNG na wybrane parametry procesu spalania. W ramach badań dokonano rejestracji przebiegu ciśnień w komorze spalania w funkcji obrotu wału korbowego dla różnych wartości stopnia sprężania. Zarejestrowane charakterystyki pozwoliły na wyznaczenie takich parametrów procesu spalania jak: ciśnienie maksymalne Pmax, średnia szybkość narastania ciśnienia (∆p/∆α)śr,maksymalna szybkość narastania ciśnienia (dp/dα)max, w funkcji momentu obrotowego M, oraz stopnia wypalenia dawki x w funkcji obrotu wału korbowego α. Analiza uzyskanych wyników wykazuje silną ich zależność od wartości stopnia sprężania ε silnika dwupaliwowego.
EN
The present paper relates to the problem of the effect of compression ratio of a dual-fuel compression ignition engine fuelled with natural gas (CNG) on selected combustion process parameters. In the course of investigation, there were registered pressure values in the combustion chamber versus crankshaft angle for various compression ratios. The obtained characteristics enabled to determine such combustion process parameters as: maximum pressure Pmax, mean rate of pressure rise (∆p/∆α)śr, maximum rate of pressure rise (dp/dα)max, versus torque M, as well as fuel burnout ratio x versus crankshaft angle α. Analysis of the results indicates strong relationship between the above mentioned parameters and the compression ratio ε of a dual-fuel engine.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy zagadnienia wpływu stopnia sprężania w dwupaliwowym silniku o zapłonie samoczynnym zasilanym gazem ziemnym i olejem napędowym, na podstawowe parametry jego pracy. W artykule przedstawiano przyjętą koncepcję zmiany stopnia sprężania silnik, oraz zaprezentowano wybrane wyniki w formie charakterystyk: obciążeniowych jednostkowego zużycia energii, sprawności ogólnej, cieplnej, mechanicznej, zawartości składników w spalinach, a także charakterystyki prędkościowej momentu maksymalnego. Analiza wyników badań prowadzi do wniosków że stopień sprężania w dwupaliwowym silniku o ZS wpływa w sposób istotny na opisane parametry pracy dlatego też powinien być starannie dobrany.
EN
The present paper relates to the problem of the effect of compression ratio of a dual-fuel compression ignition engine fuelled with natural gas (CNG) on basic operational parameters of this engine. There is presented an established concept of the engine compression ratio variations and the obtained results are presented in the form of the following load characteristics: specific energy consumption, overal, thermal and mechanical efficiencies, harmful exhaust emissions as well as speed characteristic of the maximum torque. Analysis of the obtained results permits to conclude that the compression ratio in a dual-fuel compression ignition engine influences substantially the above mentioned parameters. Therefore, it should be set precisely.
EN
In the paper are discussed test results of dual fuel spark ignition engine with multipoint injection of alcohol and gasoline in area of inlet valve. Engine fuelling was accomplished through a prototype fuel supply system comprising duplex injectors controlled electronically. Implemented system enables fuelling of the engine with pure gasoline, with pure methanol, or simultaneous combustion of the both fuels mixture with any fraction of the alcohol. The tests were performed on four cylinder, spark ignition engine of Fiat 1100 MPI type. In the paper are presented criteria to be fulfilled in dual fuel spark ignition engine run on gasoline and methyl alcohol. The criteria were developed on the base of engine testing performed on engine dynamometer. When developing the criteria, one took assumption of energetic equity of fuel doses in traditional and dual fuel supply system in every operational point of the engine. The second criterion consisted in maintaining a minimal elementary dose of gasoline and alcohol injectors, which would assure stable operation of the engine. In result of the performed analysis one proposed a map of possible ranges of dual fuel feeding of the engine with methyl alcohol and gasoline.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań dwupaliwowego silnika o zapłonie iskrowym z wielopunktowym wtryskiem alkoholu i benzyny w okolice zaworu dolotowego. Zasilanie silnika realizowano przez prototypowy układ dolotowy zawierający podwójne wtryskiwacze sterowane elektronicznie. Zastosowany system umożliwia zasilanie silnika benzyną lub alkoholem oraz równoczesne spalanie mieszaniny obydwu paliw o dowolnym udziale alkoholu. Badania wykonano na 4-cylindrowym silniku o zapłonie iskrowym Fiat 1100 MPI. W artykule przedstawiono kryteria, jakie należy przyjmować przy stosowaniu dwupaliwowego zasilania silnika o zapłonie iskrowym przy używaniu benzyny i alkoholu metylowego. Kryteria opracowano na podstawie badań hamownianych silnika. Przy opracowaniu kryteriów przyjęto założenie równości energetycznej dawek paliwa z zasilaniem tradycyjnym i dwupaliwowym w każdym punkcie pracy silnika. Drugim kryterium było zachowanie minimalnej dawki jednostkowej wtryskiwacza benzyny i alkoholu, zapewniającej stabilną pracę silnika. W wyniku przeprowadzonej analizy zaproponowano mapę możliwych zakresów dwupaliwowego zasilania silnika alkoholem metylowym i benzyną.
PL
Konwersja silnika diesla na zasilanie dwupaliwowe olejem napędowym i gazem ziemnym wiąże się ze zmniejszeniem kosztów eksploatacji. Jednakże w przypadku pośredniego wtrysku gazu do układu dolotowego pojawiają się ograniczenia w ilości zastąpienia oleju napędowego paliwem gazowym. Związane jest to ze zwiększoną emisją składników toksycznych spalin oraz z zagrożeniem wystąpienia spalania stukowego. Wynika to m.in. z przedostawania się niespalonego gazu do układu wylotowego spalin oraz z małym uwarstwieniem mieszanki w komorze spalania. Alternatywą dla takiego sposobu zasilania jest wtrysk bezpośredni gazu do komory spalania. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań trójwymiarowego modelu dwupaliowego silnika diesla z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania AVL FIRE. Wykonano analizę procesu tworzenia mieszanki w silniku zasilanym pośrednim i bezpośrednim wtryskiem gazu.
EN
The operation of the Diesel engine becomes cheaper when such an engine is converted to run on a Diesel oil and natural gas. However, if a gaseous fuel is directly injected into an intake system, the amount of a Diesel fuel to be replaced by a gaseous fuel is limited. This is due to the increased emissions of toxic compounds in exhaust gases and the risk of knocking as a result of entering an unburnt amount of a gaseous fuel into an exhaust system and a negligible mixture stratification in a combustion chamber. The direct injection of a gaseous fuel into the combustion chamber is an alternative method. The paper studies mixture formations for an indirect and direct gaseous fuel injection in an AVL FIRE 3D model of a dual-fuel Diesel engine.
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