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The linear programming (LP) approach to solve the Bellman equation in dynamic programming is a well-known option for finite state and input spaces to obtain an exact solution. However, with function approximation or continuous state spaces, refinements are necessary. This paper presents a methodology to make approximate dynamic programming via LP work in practical control applications with continuous state and input spaces. There are some guidelines on data and regressor choices needed to obtain meaningful and well-conditioned value function estimates. The work discusses the introduction of terminal ingredients and computation of lower and upper bounds of the value function. An experimental inverted-pendulum application will be used to illustrate the proposal and carry out a suitable comparative analysis with alternative options in the literature.
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Content available remote Hierarchical sliding mode control for a class of SIMO under-actuated systems
A hierarchical sliding mode control approach is proposed for a class of SIMO under-actuated systems. This class of under-actuated systems is made up of several subsystems. Based on this physical structure, the hierarchical structure of the sliding surfaces is designed as follows. At first, the sliding surface of every subsystem is defined. Then the sliding surface of one subsystem is defined as the first layer sliding surface. The first layer sliding surface is used to construct the second layer sliding surface with the sliding surface of another subsystem. This process continues till the sliding surfaces of the entire subsystems are included. According to the hierarchical structure, the total control law is deduced by the Lyapunov theorem. In theory, the asymptotic stability of the entire system of sliding surfaces is proven and the parameter boundaries of the subsystem sliding surfaces are given. Simulation results show the feasibility of this control method through two typical SIMO under-actuated systems.
Content available Pyro-adaptive impact energy absorber
The paper contains a proposal of energy dissipation density controlling in lightweight thin walled structures by reducing their crushing stiffness during an impact process. For small scale laboratory experiments, low-energy-dissipation absorber was developed. Prismatic absorber made of thin lead sheets can dissipate the impact energy at two energy density levels. Moving the concept to the real steel or aluminum structures can lead to satisfying value of the Specific Energy Absorption indicator with possible control of the energy dissipation. Experimental and FE explicit simulation results showing controllable impact process of a thinwalled prismatic absorber with rectangular crossection are presented. The control of crushing forces proved to be possible and efficient. Adaptivity ratio achieved in the presented example was 35%. The idea of the presented absorber was based on automotive front rail shape. The experimental tests have to be re-conducted. Geometry of the tested absorber should be modified to facilitate the detachment process of the stiffening members.
Content available remote Oprogramowanie NC1131 - nowe możliwości przemienników częstotliwości Vacon
Firma VACON Oyj., fiński producent przemienników częstotliwości niskiego napięcia, wprowadziła nowatorskie narzędzie programistyczne do modyfikacji istniejących lub tworzenia własnych aplikacji sterujących, wykorzystywanych w zaawansowanych układach napędowych AC.
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