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EN
The results of the research on energy usage of the fatty acids distillation residue are presented. Distillation residue constitutes a material of biogenic origin, which is created only as a result of physical processing of animal fats without using additional chemicals. This material exhibits similar physicochemical properties as the heavy heating oil and may be its substitute. Industrial comparative tests of combusting of distillation residue and also of the heavy heating oil in an oil boiler were conducted. The research was conducted at the rated and minimum capacities of the boiler. It has been stated that combusting of the distillation residue of the fatty acids in a tested oil boiler does not bring about any technological difficulties. No threat of the elevated emission of pollutants into the atmosphere was exhibited. Installation of the boiler fulfill all emission standards required for combustion of the liquid fuels. Combustion of fatty acids distillation residue contributes to the reduction of the previous emission of pollutants from burning of the heavy fuel oil, significantly in scope of SO2.
2
Content available remote The numerical analysis of the basic operating parameters of a low-NOx burner
EN
More importance than ever before is attached to reducing harmful gas emissions from industry, both in Poland and worldwide. Rising prices of gas emissions allowances, stricter criteria for suitability for use and the desire to protect the environment are driving the search for new technological solutions and logistics to deliver cost savings and lower emissions. The creation of an appropriate numerical model can translate into real savings as well as having other benefits. This paper presents a numerical analysis of the basic operating parameters of a low-emission swirl burner. The analyzed burner is a typical example of a burner with air staging. The burner was placed in a cylindrical combustion chamber. In the first stage, a cold flow analysis without reaction was performed showing the velocity profile, flow vectors and the flow of coal particles. Then calculations were carried out taking into account combustion of coal dust particles in the chamber. The analysis of combustion products, temperatures prevailing in the chamber and the content of nitrogen oxides is presented.
PL
Decyzja wykonawcza Komisji (UE) 2017/1442 z dnia 31 lipca 2017 r. [1] ustanawiająca konkluzje dotyczące najlepszych dostępnych technik w odniesieniu do dużych obiektów energetycznego spalania zgodnie z dyrektywą Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady 2010/75/UE [2] została opublikowana w Dzienniku Urzędowym Unii Europejskiej (L212) w dniu 17 sierpnia 2017 r. Prowadzący instalacje energetycznego spalania będą zobowiązani do wprowadzenia do praktyki produkcyjnej odpowiednich rozwiązań w celu spełnienia konkluzji BAT do dnia 16 sierpnia 2021 r.
EN
Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2017/1442 of 31 July 2017 [1] establishing the Best Available Techniques Conclusions for large combustion plants in accordance with Directive 2010/75 / EU of the European Parliament and of the Council [2] was published in Official Journal of the European Union (L212) on 17 August 2017. Operators of combustion installations will be required to implement a production practice of appropriate solutions to meet the BAT conclusions by 16 August 2021.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano emisje wybranych zanieczyszczeń gazowych pochodzących z fluidalnego spalania biomasy w chemicznej pętli tlenkowej. Do pomiaru stężenia zanieczyszczeń w gazach spalinowych użyto analizatora Gasmet DX-4000, który wykorzystuje Transformatę Fouriera w podczerwieni (FTIR). Analizator sprzężony jest z programem CALCMET, który posłużył do akwizycji danych. Technologia spalania w pętli chemicznej (Chemical Looping Combustion) charakteryzuje się użyciem stałych nośników tlenu, które cyklicznie poddawane są reakcjom utleniania w reaktorze powietrznym oraz redukcji w reaktorze paliwowym. W przedstawionych badaniach nośnikiem tlenu był ilmenit, który składa się głównie z FeTiO3, TiO2 oraz Fe2O3. Otrzymane wyniki pochodzą z eksperymentu przeprowadzonego na stanowisku badawczym do fluidalnego spalania paliw stałych w pętli chemicznej (FB-CLC-SF) o mocy ok. 5 kW. Eksperyment prowadzony był z użyciem biomasy- zrębków drewnianych jako paliwa.
EN
The paper presents the emission of selected gaseous pollutants from fluidized biomaas in the Chemical Looping Combustion. To measure the concentration of flue gas, the Gasmet DX-4000 analazer used the Infrared Fourier Transform (FTIR). The analyser is linked to CALCMET, which is used for data acquisition. Chemical Looping Combustion is charac-terized by the use of solid oxygen carrier that are cyclically subjected to oxidation reactions in the Air Reactor and reduction in the Fuel Reactor. In the presented studies, the oxygen carrier was ilmenite, which consists mainly of FeTiO3, TiO2 and Fe2O3. The results are based on an experiment conducted on a fluidized bed Chemical Looping Combustion (FB-CLC- SF) test rig with a power rating of about 5 kW. The experiment was conducted using biomass- wood chips as fuel.
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy była analiza procesu erozyjnego ubytku masy pojedynczego ziarna węgla podczas jego spalania w różnych warunkach warstwy fluidalnej. W pierwszej części badano ubytek masy ziaren węgla spalanych w trzech temperaturach 850oC, 750oC i 650oC. Wykazano, że wzrost temperatury panującej w komorze paleniskowej znacznie przyspiesza proces ubytku masy spalanych ziaren węgla. Spalanie w strudze materiału inertnego intensyfikuje proces ubytku masy spalanych ziaren węgla. Zwiększenie temperatury w większym stopniu przyspiesza ubytek masy spalanych ziaren niż zwiększanie strumienia materiału inertnego. W drugim etapie analizowano wpływ atmosfery utleniającej na ubytek masy spalanego ziarna. Badania prowadzono w temperaturze 750°C i w atmosferach: powietrza oraz mieszanin: 21% O2 i 79% CO2, 25% O2 i 75% CO2, 30% O2 i 70% CO2. Pomiary prowadzono bez materiału inertnego oraz przy Gs=2,5kg/m2s. Wykazano, że dostarczenie w obszar spalania większej ilości utleniacza przyspiesza proces spalania. Obecność materiału inertnego intensyfikując proces spalania wpływa również na szybkość ubytku masy badanego ziarna. Analizowano również ubytek masy węgla wywołanego mechanicznym oddziaływaniem materiału inertnego (Gs=2,5 kg/m2s oraz Gs=5 kg/m2s). W wyniku przeprowadzonych analiz potwierdzono istnienie ścisłego związku między procesem erozji, a procesem spalania.
EN
The research has been carried out on the specially constructed test stand. For testing manually polished spherical particles chosen from arbitrary real coal particles were used with diameter 10 mm. The mass loss of combust particles with a tensometric branch scale was measured. The inert material was quartz sand. The first part of research has been carried out in three different temperatures of combustion chamber: 850°C, 750°C and 650°C. The research has been performed without inert material and with mass rate flow: Gs=2,5kg/m2s and Gs=5kg/m2s. The results obtained during testing show that higher temperature of combustion chamber accelerates the coal particles mass loss. Mass flow rate of inert material intensifies the combustion process and accelerates the coal particles mass loss. In the second stage of experiment the coal particles mass loss in an oxidizing atmosphere at 750°C was analyzed. The research has been performed in air atmosphere and gas compound: 21% O2 and 79% CO2, 25% O2 and 75% CO2, and 30% O2 and 70% CO2. The research has been carried out without inert material in air atmosphere and with mass rate flow Gs=2,5kg/m2s. The results obtained so far show that higher oxidant content accelerates the coal particles mass loss. Mass flow rate of inert material intensifies the combustion process. In the third stage of experiment the coal particles mass loss caused by the mechanical interaction of inert material was analyzed. The research has been carried out alternately in an nitrogen atmosphere and in air atmosphere, the mass rate flow of inert material was Gs=2,5kg/m2s and Gs=5kg/m2s. The analysis indicates that both erosion process and combustion are strongly correlated.
PL
Przedstawiono przegląd prac prowadzonych nad zastosowaniem boru w szkielecie molekuły materiałów wybuchowych (MW) indywidualnych i w mieszaninach z MW kruszącymi. Mała masa atomowa oraz duże ciepło spalania boru sprawiają, że z energetycznego punktu widzenia pierwiastek ten może stanowić doskonały składnik palny w kompozycjach z MW. Cząsteczki MW składają z węgla, wodoru, tlenu i azotu. Wodór i węgiel pełniące funkcję składników palnych mogą być zastąpione borem. W wyniku rozważań teoretycznych stwierdzono, że istnieją możliwości zastosowania cząsteczek zawierających bor, analogicznych do trinitrobenzenu i trinitrotoluenu. Od lat prowadzone są badania nad zastosowaniem aluminium jako składnika energetycznego w mieszaninach z kruszącymi MW. Jednak istnieją pierwiastki stanowiące konkurencję dla tego metalu, m.in. bor. W porównaniu z aluminium produkty spalania boru BO, B2O2 i HBO2 są gazami, co może prowadzić do zwiększenia parametrów detonacyjnych MW.
EN
A review, with 35 refs., of B compds. used in the explosives, their prodn. methods, and their properties.
PL
Górnośląski System Informacji o Zagrożeniach Zapadliskowych (zapadliska@gig.eu) jest platformą internetową udostępniającą użytkownikom dane o geograficznym położeniu rejonów dokonanej i zakończonej płytkiej eksploatacji górniczej węgla kamiennego, rud cynku i ołowiu oraz obiektów górniczych (szybów, sztolni) zbudowanych w przeszłości dla udostępnienia złóż tych surowców w obszarze Górnego Śląska. Dane te można wykorzystywać do analiz, badań oraz projektowania działań zmierzających do neutralizacji zagrożeń dla użytkowania terenów zlikwidowanych kopalń węgla kamiennego. Jednym z takich zagrożeń jest utlenianie i spalanie się węgla kamiennego pozostawionego w złożach i związane z nim zmiany warunków geotermicznych w obszarach zlikwidowanych kopalń. Konsekwencją procesów egzotermicznych zachodzących w węglu jest wydzielanie się gazów do atmosfery i deformacje powierzchni. W artykule przedstawiono analizę takiego zagrożenia na terenach północnej części miasta Katowice (dzielnice Wełnowiec-Józefowiec, Dąb, Koszutka i Bogucice), w oparciu o informację geologiczną, górniczą oraz 11 udokumentowanych przypadków wystąpienia zjawisk egzotermicznych na tym obszarze. Wszystkie przypadki wystąpiły w latach 1977 - 2018 na terenach dokonanej płytkiej eksploatacji węgla kamiennego. Ich efektem było wydzielanie się toksycznych gazów do atmosfery, a w czterech przypadkach deformacje podłoża obiektów budowlanych.
EN
Upper Silesian Information System about Sinkhole Hazards (zapadliska@gig.eu) is an Internet platform providing users with data on the geographical location of the completed shallow coal and zinc/lead ore mining likewise about location of mining facilities (shafts, tunnels) built in the past to provide access to these deposits in the area of Upper Silesia. These data can be used for analysis, research and design of activities for the purposes of eliminating threats to the use of post-mining areas. One of such threats is the spontaneous oxidation and combustion of coal left in deposits and changes in geothermic conditions in the abandoned mines. The consequence of exothermic processes occurring in coal is the release of gases into the atmosphere and surface deformations. The paper presents such hazard analysis for the northern part of the city of Katowice (Wełnowiec-Józefowiec, Dąb, Koszutka and Bogucice quarters) based on geological and mining information as well as 11 cases of exothermic processes occurrence in this area. All these phenomena occurred in the years 1977 - 2018 in the areas of shallow coal exploitation. Their effect was the release of toxic gases into the atmosphere and in four cases the occurrence of deformation of the structures’ subsoil.
EN
The article presents the results of tests of the application of magnetic fuel activators, which improve the efficiency of metallurgical furnaces and positively affect the ecological aspects of their work. Energy indicators for metallurgical furnaces during operation before and after installation of magnetic fuel activators as well as the results of composition and concentration of emitted pollutants are included in the paper. The magnetic activation of liquid and gaseous fuels modifies their structure. As a result of the activation, the fuel mixture is selectively saturated with oxygen in the zone of free fuel flow. The combustion conditions were close to optimal, which is confirmed by the reduction of pollutants in the exhaust gases. Fuel saving in the combustion process is also a measurable economic effect. The tests included ovens of several types: pusher furnace, one and two chamber furnaces and a furnace with a rotary shaft. Several-month measurement cycles were carried out on each of them. The experiments consisted in the analysis of gas and heat consumption per month in individual furnaces before and after the use of magnetic fuel activators. The effectiveness of using activators was determined on the basis of the results of the tests carried out. As a result of a twelve-month test cycle on the pusher type furnace, a 36% reduction in gas consumption and a 22% reduction in heat consumption were achieved. After a seventeen-month measurement cycle on chamber furnaces, a 35% reduction in gas consumption and 6% in heat consumption were achieved. The tests on furnaces with a rotary shaft lasted fourteen months and showed a reduction in gas consumption by 8%. An improvement in the composition of fumes in the furnace atmosphere was achieved in all units with magnetic activators installed, as well as a reduction in the emission of harmful pollutants into the atmosphere from the installation.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki testów zastosowania magnetycznych aktywatorów paliw, poprawiających efektywność pracy hutniczych pieców grzewczych oraz wpływających pozytywnie na aspekty ekologiczne ich pracy. Zamieszczono wskaźniki energetyczne pracy pieców hutniczych w czasie eksploatacji, przed i po zainstalowaniu magnetycznych aktywatorów paliw oraz wyniki składu i stężenia emitowanych zanieczyszczeń. Magnetyczna aktywacja paliw płynnych i gazowych modyfikuje ich strukturę. W wyniku aktywacji w strefie swobodnego przepływu paliwa dochodzi do selektywnego nasycenia mieszanki paliwowej tlenem. Dochodzi do zbliżenia warunków spalania do optymalnych, czego dowodem jest redukcja zanieczyszczeń w spalinach. Wymiernym efektem ekonomicznym jest również oszczędność paliwa w procesie spalania. W ramach niniejszej pracy przeprowadzono badania na piecach wybranych typów: przepychowym, wgłębnym jedno- i dwukomorowym oraz piecu z trzonem obrotowym. Przeprowadzono kilkunastomiesięczne cykle pomiarowe na każdym z obiektów. Badania polegały na analizach jednostkowego zużycia gazu oraz ciepła w poszczególnych obiektach badawczych przed oraz po zastosowaniu magnetycznych aktywatorów paliwa. W oparciu o rezultaty przeprowadzonych testów stwierdzono skuteczność stosowania aktywatorów. W wyniku dwunastomiesięcznego cyklu badań na piecu typu przepychowego uzyskano 36% zmniejszenie jednostkowego zużycia gazu oraz 22% zmniejszenie jednostkowego zużycia ciepła. Po siedemnastomiesięcznym cyklu pomiarowym na piecach typu wgłębnego otrzymano spadek zużycia gazu o 35% oraz zużycia ciepła o 6%. Badania na piecach z trzonem obrotowym trwały czternaście miesięcy i wykazały zmniejszenie poziomu zużycia gazu o 8%. We wszystkich obiektach z zainstalowanymi aktywatorami magnetycznymi uzyskano również poprawę składu spalin w atmosferze piecowej i obniżenie emisji szkodliwych zanieczyszczeń do atmosfery z instalacji.
EN
With the implementation and expansion of international sulfur emission control areas, effectively promoted the marine low sulfur diesel fuel (MLSDF) used in marine diesel engines. In this study, a large low-speed, two-stroke, cross-head, common rail, electronic fuel injection marine diesel engine (B&W 6S35ME-B9) was used for the study. According to diesel engine’s propulsion characteristics, experiments were launched respectively at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% load working conditions with marine low sulfur diesel fuel to analyze the fuel consumption, combustion characteristics and emissions (NOx, CO2 , CO, HC) characteristics. The results showed that: Marine diesel engine usually took fuel injection after top dead center to ensure their safety control NOx emission. From 25% to 75% load working condition, engine’s combustion timing gradually moved forward and the inflection points of pressure curve after top dead center also followed forward. While it is necessary to control pressure and reduce NOx emission by delaying fuel injection timing at 100% load. Engine’s in-cylinder pressure, temperature, and cumulative heat release were increased with load increasing. Engine’s CO2 and HC emissions were significantly reduced from 25% to 75% load, while they were increased slightly at 100% load. Moreover, the fuel consumption rate had a similar variation and the lowest was only 178 g/kW·h at 75% load of the test engine with MLSDF. HC or CO emissions at four tests’ working conditions were below 1.23 g/kW·h and the maximum difference was 0.2 or 0.4 g/kW·h respectively, which meant that combustion efficiency of the test engine with MLSDF is good. Although the proportion of NOx in exhaust gas increased with engine’s load increasing, but NOx emissions were always between 12.5 and 13.0 g/kW·h, which was less than 14.4 g/kW·h. Thus, the test engine had good emissions performance with MLSDF, which could meet current emission requirements of the International Maritime Organization.
EN
In the paper, the effect of water injection and different air/fuel ratio on the gasoline engine performance and emissions was investigated theoretically. A four cylinder SI engine model was built using GT-Power professional software. The gasoline fuel was injected directly to the cylinder and water was injected into the intake manifold with different mass flow rate. The calculated engine parameters were: cylinder pressure and temperature, brake torque, brake power, mean effective pressure, thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrogen oxide emissions. The results of simulations show that the increased water mass flow rate resulted in an improved engine performance and decreased emissions compared to neat gasoline fuel. However, we found that the excessive increase of the water amount inside the cylinder resulted in a deteriorated engine performance and, consequently, poor combustion efficiency.
11
PL
W niniejszej pracy scharakteryzowano najczęściej stosowane w Polsce paliwa zawierające w swoim składzie pierwiastek węgiel i przeprowadzono analizę, w jakim stopniu ich spalanie w różnych sektorach gospodarki, przyczynia się do wzrostu emisji tego gazu cieplarnianego. Przedstawiono również porównanie wielkości emisji CO2 oraz innych zanieczyszczeń emitowanych w trakcie spalania paliw kopalnych, biomasy, oleju opałowego i gazu. Dla porównania uwzględniono także emisję z silników spalinowych wykorzystywanych w transporcie.
EN
In this paper, the characteristics of the most commonly used in Poland fuels containing elements of carbon, followed by the analysis of the extent to which their combustion in various sectors of the economy contributes to the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, are contained. The emission confrontation of the CO2 and other pollutants emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels, biomass, heating oil and gas is also presented. For comparison, emissions from combustion in car engines used in transport were also taken into account.
EN
The bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration is the most important by-product, in terms of energy recovery from municipal solid waste. Safe treatment and reuse of this bottom ash in construction materials is one of the ways of its effective use. The specific use precedes the study of the properties of the bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration. In this study, samples of bottom ash were examined via sieve analysis, basic chemical parameters, ecotoxicological property analysis and determination of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn). The sieve analyses of samples showed different contents of individual fractions. Ecotoxicological tests for acute toxicity on Daphnia magna in the raw aqueous extract showed positive results mortality of all individuals after 24 hours. The toxic effect of bottom ash was confirmed by the content of heavy metals.
EN
A study was made of the two-stage combustion of agricultural biomass briquettes (rye straw, miscanthus, hay, corn stover) in a 25 kW wood log gasification boiler. The following correlations for selected fuel loads and biomass types were shown: fluctuation of temperature over time both in the gasification chamber and in the combustion zone, variation over time of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide concentrations, correlation between nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations in the flue gas, and variation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide concentrations versus oxygen concentration and temperature in the combustion zone. Two-stage combustion of agricultural biomass proved to be efficient, as slag was not generated. Relatively high carbon monoxide concentrations in the flue gas resulted from the lack of automated regulation of air supply to the gasification chamber and the combustion zone.
EN
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the impact of injection timing on the parameters of the combustion process and the composition of exhaust gas from a 4-stroke engine designed to shipbuilding. The analysis was carried out based on a three-dimensional multi-zone model of the combustion process. This model has been prepared on the basis of properties of the research facility. The input data to the model were obtained through laboratory tests. Results of calculations showed that the change of the start of injection angle (SOI) from the value of 14 degrees before TDC to 22 degrees before TDC results in changes in the combustion rate and thus an increase in the temperature of the combustion process as well as the increase of nitric oxides fraction in the exhaust gas. Simultaneously the maximum combustion pressure increases also.
EN
Searching for further reduction of fuel consumption simultaneously with the reduction of toxic compounds emission new systems for lean-mixture combustion for SI engines are being discussed by many manufacturers. Within the European GasOn-Project (Gas Only Internal Combustion Engines) the two-stage combustion and Turbulent Jet Ignition concept for CNG-fuelled high speed engine has been proposed and thoroughly investigated where the reduction of gas consumption and increasing of engine efficiency together with the reduction of emission, especially CO2 was expected. In the investigated cases the lean-burn combustion process was conducted with selection of the most effective pre-combustion chamber. The experimental investigations have been performed on single-cylinder AVL5804 research engine, which has been modified to SI and CNG fuelling. For the analysis of the thermodynamic, operational and emission indexes very advanced equipment has been applied. Based on the measuring results achieved for different pre-chamber configurations the extended methodology of polioptimization by pre-chamber selection and the shape of main chamber in the piston crown for proposed combustion system has been described and discussed. The results of the three versions of the optimization methods have been comparatively summarized in conclusions.
EN
The article presents the results of empirical research and their analysis regarding the impact of diesel oil and diesel oil mixture with bioethanol on coking the test injector nozzles of the XUD9 engine from PSA. The research included three fuel deals: diesel fuel as the base fuel and diesel oil mix with ONE10 bioethanol (10% bioethanol plus diesel oil (V/V)), ONE20 (20% bioethanol plus diesel oil (V/V)). They were conducted on the basis of CEC PF-023 developed by CEC (Coordinating European Council). Each of the abovementioned fuels was tested using a new set of injectors. The propensity of the fuel for coking the injector tips was expressed as a percentage reduction in the air flow through the nozzles of each injector for the given sheer increments. The test result was the average percentage of airflow reduction for all nozzles at 0.1 mm spike increments and was measured according to ISO 4010 "Diesel engines. Calibrating nozzle, delay pintle type”. The test results for individual atomizers of the above-mentioned test engine in the area of sediment formation from flowing fuel shown a lower tendency to coke the injectors using diesel fuel-bioethanol in comparison to the use of pure diesel oil. Based on the CEC PF-023 test, it can be noticed that the level of contamination of the tested injectors for ONE10 fuel is about 3% lower, and for ONE20 fuel is about 4% lower than the level of pollution for diesel fuel.
17
Content available History of fire
EN
The history of fire is an important and fascinating topic, yet it is not covered in any school or university syllabus. In the present article, the author argues a case for its inclusion in chemistry teaching programs. He outlines some key points relating to investigations on the nature of combustion processes and the discovery of oxygen. Details are included for a class experiment with gunpowder, which is suitable for school pupils aged 13 to 15.
EN
Experimental Real Time X-ray Radioscopy (RTR) investigation of dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion of end-burning pyrotechnic charges confined in the fuze body, utilized in the delay systems of 40 mm grenade fuzes, are presented. These pyrotechnic delay systems delay the arming distance pyromechanism and the self-destroying timing assembly. The charge in the delay arming distance pyromechanism was a black powder pellet supported by the safety pin kept in constant position by its driving compressed spring. The self-destroying timing assembly comprised three pyrotechnic segmented columns connected at their ends with ignition relay channels, creating a zig-zag firing train. The following dynamic phenomena were detected and registered by RTR at a frequency of 30 FPS: (i) combustion zone travelling along the pyrotechnic charges, (ii) displacements of the pyromechanism safety pin caused by either the pressure of its spring after burning out of the black powder pellet or by pressure of the combustion products escaping from the zig-zag firing train, (iii) transfer of the ignition impulse between the adjacent pyrotechnic columns, (iv) pressure action of the combustion products on the pyrotechnic columns during transfer of the ignition impulse, and (v) transfer of the final output ignition impulse from the last (third) pyrotechnic column through the channel leading directly to the chamber used for accommodating the fuze detonator.
EN
The validation of the consistency of combustion front propagation along confined, low-gas, curved, pyrotechnic paths pressed into the grooves of the disc bodies of artillery and rocket ammunition fusing systems, is of critical importance as it concerns the functional reliability and safe usage of such types of ammunition. To validate the above consistency, Real Time X-ray Radioscopy (RTR) was utilized for the recording of the combustion process of curved pyrotechnic paths comprising two delay time segments. To confirm the observations obtained by the RTR technique, visual (VIS) recording was utilized for the unconfined pyrotechnic path. Due to the RTR and VIS techniques, evolution of the combustion process was recorded as a combustion front travelling along the pyrotechnic path. The combustion front had a convex shape. Using the VIS technique, a conical, bright tail was also observed behind the combustion front. The mean velocity of the propagation of the combustion front along each delay segment of the confined pyrotechnic path was determined on the basis of the RTR recordings. Using the RTR and VIS techniques, it was possible to quasi-continuously detect and record the combustion front movement along the confined and unconfined pyrotechnic paths, respectively. The VIS observations confirmed the RTR recording of the convex shape of the combustion front. In addition, the VIS technique allowed us to record the bright, conical tail.
EN
In Poland, incineration is a relatively new method of waste treatment. Modern installations for waste incineration have two functions: they reduce the quantity (volume) of the waste and are a source of electricity and/or heat. During all combustion processes including waste incineration, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD/Fs) (well known as dioxins) are formed. These compounds are considered to be extremely dangerous for living organisms including human beings. Dioxins are formed in any process of combustion of solid and liquid fuels in the presence of chlorine, oxygen and organic matter at appropriate temperatures. Combustion processes also occur during cigarette smoking, which is also a source of dioxin emissions. Although smoking has been classified as a less important source of dioxins in the environment, it directly affects our health. This work’s aim is to determine and compare the degree of harmfulness caused by the amount of inhaled dioxins: cigarette smoking or living near a waste incineration plant. Based on literature and experimental data, the concentration of dioxins in cigarette smoke and exhaust gases generated by municipal waste incineration plants as well as number of dioxins absorbed per day by the body will be presented.
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