Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the main results of own research in 3 principal aspects indicating that the research is up to date and modern. This relates to nanotechnologies, modern biomedical materials and rapid manufacturing techniques used for the production of, in particular, microporous materials applied for medical and dental purposes. The paper comprises the explanation of structural mechanisms and phase transformations taking place in newly created engineering nanostructural and microporous materials under the influence of the applied, advanced technological processes newly developed, and especially nanotechnological processes, using the most modern scientific and research equipment being at disposal of modern materials engineering, in particular with the common use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of investigations into the formation of the structure and surface properties results according to a different thickness scale of coatings or surface zone, from several hundred nanometres to several millimetres, are presented in the paper, including PVD and CVD coatings and laser treated surface on the steels and light alloys substrates. The paper also describes the nanostructural effects in solid materials, and especially the counteraction of cracking of new-developed high-manganese austenite steels Fe-Mn-Si-Al by twinning or/and martensitic transformation induced by the cold plastic deformation. The article also outlines the results of research of the development of special micro and nanocomposite materials designed mainly for use in regenerative medicine and regenerative dentistry. The studies of the structure and the properties of newly obtained materials and originally developed technologies are included to present the author’s contribution into materials science, nanotechnology, surface engineering and biomedical engineering including the usefulness of the newly developed nanoengineering materials and their applicability, in particular, in regenerative medicine, as well as tissue engineering. The described outcomes of the research constitute a basis for creating, apart from rigid porous implant-scaffolds, an innovative generation of rigid and elastic biological-engineering composite materials for regenerative medicine. Design/methodology/approach: The article discusses the key aspects of own research performed over the last decade in scope of nanotechnologies, modern biomedical materials and rapid manufacturing techniques used for the fabrication of, in particular, microporous materials applied for medical and dental purposes. The conditions for the performance of the research according to the scope mentioned were ensured by implementation of investment projects for constructing and equipping research and didactic laboratories in scope of nanotechnology, technologies of material processes and computational materials science, including LANAMATE (2010-2014) and MERMFLEG (2010-2013), and also BIOFARMA (2010-2012). Practical implications: The obtained materials and technologies are of high practical importance, which was confirmed in many cases with the results of laboratory tests and investigations at a semi-technical scale, and in some cases with the initiation of implementation works. The results of research in scope of bioengineering and dental engineering may find their applications in tissue engineering, in bone surgery, for threedimensional tissue scaffolds and in dentistry or oncology, to replace the natural tissue removed because of a cancer with the possibility of applying a therapeutic agent. Originality/value: The present paper is the original report from a personal own research and explains the concept, scope and results of own research of a new obtained microporous and nanostructural materials and coatings, including hybride solid-porous products and newly obtained materials processing and additive technologies. Some of the mentioned research results are protected by patents or patent applications, and many of them were awarded over 60 prizes and medals at international fairs of innovation, invention and rationalisation in many countries.