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EN
The specificity of the activities of the Lower Silesian Branch of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute (PGI-NRI) is due to main factors: (1) mosaic-like geological structure of Lower Silesia, (2) the wealth of various mineral resources, (3) centuries-old mining traditions of the region. Initially, the researches included mainly geological cartography, subsequently expanding the scope of work to include regional (structural) geology and deposit geology. The contribution of applied geology, especially hydrogeology and environmental geology, has increased significantly in the previous decades. Three chapters present different periods of the Lower Silesian Branch of the PGI-NRI with its most important milestones for the Polish geology in the last seven decades. This division includes three periods: (1) years of development (1949-1989); (2) years of stagnation (1989-2013), and (3) years of disorganization (2014-2019). The period of intensification of geological researches carried out by the Lower Silesian Branch of the PGI-NRI lasted until the years of the so-called system transformation. During that period, the programs of deep boreholes were finished. In the 1990s, detailed cartographic works in Lower Silesia were completed. Acute shortage of new factographic material caused the necessity to analyze the archival material stored during previous decades at the Lower Silesian Branch. In 2014, it has practically decommissioned the regional branches, including the Lower Silesian Branch. Full centralization has led to the liquidation of both the branches’ independence and their previous focus on the implementation of tasks related to the specificity of a given region. In the forthcoming future, new challenges would depend on a proper organization chart of the PGI-NRI and the position of the regional branches in this scheme.
EN
The occurrence of landforms induced by large-scale mass movements has never been reported from the SE part of the Wałbrzyskie Mts., despite detailed geological field mapping carried out twice in the 20th century. This paper provides the first description of landslide-affected slopes in this area, recognized through the combination of LiDAR DEM interpretation and field work. Fifteen landslides have been identified, ranging in size from less than 1 ha to 10.44 ha. Morphological signatures suggest that they represent various types, including minor translational slides, larger rotational complexes and valley-confined flowslides. Closed depressions typify several landslides. In a few instances the valley blocking by landslides can be inferred.
EN
Lower Silesian Branch of the Polish Geological Institute (OD) was founded in 1949, 70years ago. It conducts geological and hydrogeological research as well as geological cartography in the area of Lower Silesia. In the 1970s until the end of the 1990s, during the period of the OD stabilization, the implementation of regional geological surveys started with the use of geophysical methods and deep drilling. These studies were conducted in the majority of tectonostratigraphic units - in the North Sudetic and Central Sudetic depressions, in the upper Nysa Kłodzka graben, in the Bardo structure and in the area of Foresudetic block. Geological and cartographic works on a scale of1 : 25,000 and 1 : 50,000 covered the entire area of Lower Silesia. In the mid-1990s, the edition of the Map of1 : 25,000 (134 sheets) was finalized, and the reambulation of Maps 1 : 50,000 (43 sheets) in 2009.
EN
Abstract. The main task of research was to quantitatively and qualitatively identify rare and associated elements that occur within a cassiterite-sulphide mineralization zone hosted Precambrian - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic rochi in the Stara Kamienica schist belt making up the part of the Izera-Karhonosze Massif. Over 70 samples from archive boreholes and abandoned Sn-ore mines were examined using modern methods like portable pXRF, geochemical analysis (ICP-MS, WD-XRF, GF-AAS), polarizing microscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and scaning electron microscopy with EDS system (SEM-EDS). Preliminary results show interesting concentrations of associated elements such as Zn (max 0.56%), Pb (max 0.7%), Cu (max 0.33%), As (max 0.55%), and some rare elements like In, Re, Nb, Co, Bi, Pt, V, La and Ce.
EN
This paper reports on the abundance of primordial radionuclides ( K, Th and U) in characteristic lithologies from the Sowie Mountains (SW Poland). In situ gamma-ray measurements were conducted at 12 localities hosting exposed augen gneiss, flaser gneiss, granulite, homophanized gneiss, hornblendite, layered gneiss, layered migmatite, migmatic gneiss, mylonitic gneiss and mylonitic granulite. The activity concentration of 40K varied from 180 Bq kg-1 (mylonitic granulite) to 845 Bq kg-1 (layered gneiss). The activity concentrations associated with 228Ac (232Th) varied from 10 Bq kg-1 (mylonitic granulite) to 53 Bq kg-1 (homophanized gneiss), while activity associated with 226Ra ( U) varied from 9 Bq kg (mylonitic granulite) to 43 Bq kg (layered gneiss). An augen gneiss adjacent to the Intra-Sudetic Fault showed the highest combined Th + U activity (89 Bq kg-1). The average Th/U ratio (3.6) calculated for gneiss outcrops of the Sowie Mountains falls within the range reported for biotite gneiss (3.5-4). Subsurface outcrops from the Walim-Rzeczka underground complex did not give noticeably higher U activities. The results obtained forthe Sowie lithologies are compared with those obtained by similar methods for similar rocks as reported in literature sources.
EN
A new ichnogenus and ichnospecies Rosarichnoides sudeticus is proposed for a large, exceptionally well-preserved crustacean burrow, which has been found in the Upper Cretaceous (Coniacian) Quadersandstein of the North Sudetic Synclinorium (Czaple quarry). Some of its specimens have been assigned to Thalassinoides saxonicus (Geinitz, 1842). It is unbranched, a characteristic rosary-shaped trace fossil, which consists of alternating chambers (swellings) and constrictions. The burrow is without any wall and usually lack ornamentation and has a passive fill. It should be included in ophiomorphid group sensu Bromley (1996). This unique finding resembles modern crustacean burrows produced by shrimps or crabs. Additionally, Thalassinoides paradoxicus (Woodward, 1830), the starfish Astropecten scupini Andert, 1934, the inoceramids Inoceramus kleini Müller, 1888 and Inoceramus sp. were found in the same sandstones. The trace fossils are indicative of the archetypal Skolithos ichnofacies that is typical of foreshore to middle shoreface settings.
PL
Rejon Lądka Zdroju jest od kilkuset lat znany z występowania i wykorzystywania ciepłych źródeł. Złoże wód geotermalnych występuje tutaj w specyficznych warunkach geologicznych charakterystycznych dla obszaru sudeckiego. Ma ono charakter szczelinowy i występuje w warunkach naporowych. Rozwój Uzdrowiska spowodował potrzebę lepszego rozpoznania złoża hydrogeotermalnego i jego geologicznego otoczenia. W ramach zrealizowanego programu badań wykonane zostały również badania geofizyczne zorientowane na rozpoznanie ogólnych warunków geologicznych złoża i jego otoczenia. Zastosowane zostały metody: magnetyczna, grawimetryczna i geotermiczna, profilowania VLF, sondowania i profilowania elektrooporowe oraz ciągłe profilowania magnetotelluryczne. W ramach prezentowanej pracy wykonany został przegląd wcześniejszych badań geofizycznych oraz wykonano reinterpretację danych magnetotellurycznych z włączeniem interpretacji danych grawimetrycznych. Reinterpretacja obejmowała przegląd prac pomiarowych, weryfikację procedur i wyników przetwarzania danych pomiarowych oraz została zweryfikowana i rozszerzona interpretacja krzywych sondowań w tym inwersyjne modelowania dwuwymiarowe. Badania te pozwoliły na wyinterpretowanie stref uskokowych, wykrycie anomalii temperaturowych i w bardzo ograniczonym stopniu rozpoznanie przestrzenne szczelinowych poziomów wodonośnych.
EN
The Lądek-Zdrój area has been known for several hundred years as a place of occurrence and use of hot springs. A hydrogeothermal reservoir occur there in specific geological conditions characteristic for Sudetes area. The reservoir is of a fracture type and occurs in artesian conditions. The development of the Health Resort caused the need for the better recognition of the hydrogeothermal reservoir and its geological vicinity. The carried out investigation program included, among others, a geophysical survey for the recognition of general geological conditions of the reservoir and its vicinity. The magnetic, gravity and surface geothermic methods were applied as well as VLF profiling, resistivity profiling and soundings and continuous magnetotelluric profiling. The review of the earlier geophysical surveys and reinterpretation of the magnetotelluric data including gravity data were made within the framework of the presented paper. The reinterpretation works a included review of data acquisition, the verification of procedures and results of data processing as well as verification and an extended interpretation of the sounding curves with use of inverse 2D modeling. As results of the survey tectonic zones were interpreted and temperature anomalies were discovered and, within a limited range, space recognition of the fractured aquifer horizons was made.
EN
The article presents the results of the research on the variability of selected physicochemical properties and exploitation parameters of healing waters in Szczawno-Zdrój. Based on the results of physicochemical analyses it was observed that the mineralization of the Mieszko and Marta waters has gradually increased over the years (1963-2017). At the same time, a decrease in the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in these waters was observed. In addition, there was no evidence of a significant relationship between well discharge and the CO2 content. Variations of CO2 concentration are so significant in the Młynarz intake that these waters should be classified as carbonate rather than CO2 - rich water. It has also been shown that the content of this gas in the Młynarz and Mieszko 14 intakes varies considerably depending on the discharge (rh = 0.7). The correlation occurs with less intensity in a smaller Marta and Dąbrówka intakes (rh = 0.3). A declining trend is also observed in the Rn content in the Marta intake. For this parameter there was no relationship with discharge changes. All analyzed springs are characterized by seasonal changes in their discharge. Generally, the variability of the analyzed parameters ranges from about 28% to a maximum of 43% relative to the respective mean values.
EN
Znosko (1981a, b) first stated the important fact that the Sowie Góry "nappe” was lying on the rocks of the Middle Sudetic Ophiolite Complex. In the light of current geophysical and tectonic data, it still remains up-to-date. Both those articles have initiated a new look at the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Sudetes and its surroundings. This article presents an analysis ofpotential boundaries oflithostratigraphic terranes in the Sudetes and the Fore-Sudetic Block, confirmed by the waveforms of gravity horizontal gradients. Gravimetric modelling along the selected profile 3 makes it possible to present the subsurface geological structure. Metamorphic rocks of the Sowie Góry complex can probably reach a depth of almost 5 km on the Fore-Sudetic Block. Below them are mafic and ultramafic rocks, reaching a depth of up to 12 km, which belong to the Middle-Sudetic Ophiolite Complex. The kinematic data from the Sowie Góry metamorphic complex indicate displacement with the top-to-SW and to-S, as in the Middle-Sudetic Ophiolite Complex. Controversy over the origin and the geotectonic environment of the Early Ordovician protolith of the Sowie Góry gneisses, which are probably a magma product of arc-type magmatism formed above a subduction zone of the Tornquist Ocean. The Sowie Góry terrane can be considered as a relic of the Early Ordovician Paleozoic magma arc (the so-called peri-Baltic arc). The Sowie Góry terrane was moved towards the SW and S on obducted dismembered fragments of ophiolite sequences after closing the Rheic Ocean during the Eo-Variscan orogenesis.
EN
Recognition and precise delimitation of landslide-affected areas, especially in the mountains, have been a challenge so far. New opportunities emerged after dissemination of high- resolution Digital Elevation Models generated by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), which are also used to processing and visualization of geological data. This paper touches the issue in both aspects mentioned above, and presents results of morphometric analysis of a landslide on the northern slope of the Drogosz hill within the Zawory Range, in the southern part of the Krzeszów Basin (Central Sudetes). Attempts ofreconstruction ofthe slip surface and estimation oftotal volume of the landslide colluvialfill were undertaken. Furthermore, differential maps were compiled. They were a basis for the spatial distribution of thickness evaluation. The Drogosz hill landslide seems to be strictly related to the geological structure of the research area. The Zawory Range is composed of Upper Cretaceous, Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) and Permian (Rotliegendes) rocks. Lack of recognition of landslide phenomena was probably the main reason of misleading interpretations of the Krzeszów area geology. The paper also provides comments on the existing concepts of the geological structure of the Krzeszów Basin, especially of the Łączna Anticline.
EN
Geochemical studies on trace elements in thermal waters from Cieplice, Karpniki and Staniszów (Jelenia Góra Geothermal System, Sudetes, Poland) revealed a presumably regional relation between germanium and silicon. The Ge:Si ratios in waters of Cieplice are likely controlled by the chemical equilibrium process of silicate minerals transformation in granite aquifer-rocks. Geochemical inverse mass balance modelling using main rock-forming minerals of actual composition shows that incongruent dissolution ofprimary silicate minerals with forming secondary (clay minerals, silica forms) phases is responsible for thermal water chemistry in Cieplice. Available data on germanium in silicate minerals combined with the results of geochemical modelling give Ge:Si ratios close to real values. A chemical non-equilibrium, and a gradual decrease of both the germanium content and the Ge:Si ratio have been identified in the thermal waters from two new intakes (Karpniki, Staniszów).
PL
Autorzy przedstawiają wyniki badań terenowych i analiz geomorfometrycznych nieznanych form osuwiskowych położonych w dolinie Kaczawy pomiędzy Sędziszową a Nowym Kościołem na Pogórzu Kaczawskim w Sudetach Zachodnich. Na obszarze badań rozpoznano zespół osuwisk o łącznej powierzchni ok. 21 ha na północnych stokach wzgórza Wielisławka (376,3 m n.p.m.), a także kilka mniejszych form na wschodnich stokach góry Wołek (381,7 m n.p.m.), Wygorzel (333,5 m n.p.m.) oraz osuwisk położonych w miejscowości Różana i na południowych zboczach doliny Piekiełko. Morfologia osuwisk sugeruje ich różną genezę. Rozpoznano osuwiska rotacyjne i translacyjne, jak i koluwia płytkich zsuwów i spływów gruzowo-błotnych. Rozpoznanie i wyznaczenie zasięgu form osuwiskowych w dolinie Kaczawy ma znaczenie dla dalszego poznania geologicznych i geomorfologicznych uwarunkowań rozwoju ruchów masowych w Sudetach.
EN
The authors present the results of field studies and geomorphometric analyzes of unknown landslide forms located in the Kaczawa river valley between Sędziszowa and Nowy Kościół (Kaczawskie Foothills, Western Sudetes). In the study area we recognised a landslide complex with a total area of about 21 ha on the northern slopes of Wielisławka hill (376.3 m a.s.l.), as well as several smaller forms on the eastern slopes of Wołek (381.7 m a.s.l.) and Wygorzel (333.5 m a.s.l.) hills and landslides located in the town of Różana and on the southern slopes of the Piekiełko valley. Morphology of recognized landslides provides evidence of different types of gravitational movements including rotational and translational landslides as well as shallow slides and earthflows. Recognition and delimitation of the landslide extent in the Kaczawa river valley is significant for further investigations of the geological and geomorphological conditioning of mass movements in the Sudetes area.
13
PL
Autorzy przedstawiają opis górnictwa złota w rejonie masywu ryolitowego Wielisławki na Pogórzu Kaczawskim, na podstawie wyników kwerendy kartograficznej i bibliograficznej, analiz numerycznych modeli terenu LiDAR, a także prac terenowych. Niniejszy materiał wzbogacają m.in. dwie unikalne mapy, które należą do najcenniejszych dzieł kartografii górniczej na terenie Polski. Powstały one około 1556 r. jako materiał pomocniczy dla rozpatrzenia konfliktu, do jakiego doszło pomiędzy właścicielami ziemskimi a górnikami z kopalni złota na Wielisławce.
EN
This paper presents the history of the gold mining activity within the Wielisławka Hill in the Kaczawskie Foothills. The results are based on a cartographic study of bibliographical research, LIDAR DTM analysis and field work. The article contains e.g. two unique maps from the collection of the State Archive in Prague which belong to the most relevant works of the cartography of mining in Poland. They have been drawn in or around 1556 as a supplementary material for the settlement of a dispute between land owners and miners from the Wielisławka gold mine. The article demonstrates that the gold mining in the Wielisławka massif had taken place on a much larger scale than hitherto expected. The mining operation has left relics in the form of sink hole fields, heaps, adits and underground galleries entering the massif of the hill by the Kaczawa river. The Wielisławka massif is nowadays a valuable destination for geotourism.
EN
Detailed morphological and geochemical studies of placer gold grains and other heavy minerals from Cenozoic fluvial clastic sediments in the area of the Zimnik Creek drainage basin (North Sudetic Trough, Lower Silesia) allowed the description of their specific features: shape and morphology, flatness index, internal textural features and chemical composition of the gold grains. It enables an estimation of the distance from the source area and determination of the source of the ore mineralisation, along with establishing the feeder areas for placer mineralisation including Rote Fäule-related gold hosted by Rotliegend-Zechstein transitional sediments. The comparison of the heavy mineral contents of placer grains from the Zimnik Creek drainage basin makes it possible to identify the area of origin for the gold particles. The crystalline Au-Ag-Pd-Hg (polymetallic) alloy grains of fluvial gold are assumed to come from the transitional sediments between the Rotliegend and the Zechstein in the North Sudetic Basin. The morphological and geochemical features of the polymetallic grains strongly suggest that the grains from the upper course of the Zimnik Creek valley sediments represent what has eroded from the local gold mineralisation and this mineralisation is probably in the vicinity of the upstream sampling site. The bimodal chemical composition of the Au-Ag-Pd-Hg alloy grains with electrum and medium-Ag grains (<15 wt.% Ag) found in the study area is typical of the Rote Fäule and Kupferschiefer-related gold mineralisation on the southern side of the North Sudetic Trough and the Sieroszowice-Polkowice copper mining district of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. The study of the Ag contents of placer grains from the Zimnik Creek drainage basin highlights the contrast between the placer gold grains derived from Paleozoic orogenic gold mineralisation in the Sudetes (typically simple Au-Ag alloys containing between 5 and 20 wt.% of Ag) and the one formed by the oxidizing chloride hydrothermal systems. The grains identified in this manner as originating from the oxidizing hydrothermal system of the transitional zone can be distinguished from the placer gold derived from other styles of mineralisation, which are not Rote Fäule-related. It is particularly important considering the ongoing reconnaissance exploration in the North Sudetic Trough (SW Poland), which employs gold grain analyses as a prospecting tool for the detection of potentially economic primary gold mineralisation.
EN
A volcanosedimentary succession of the Młynowiec-Stronie Group (MSG) in the Orlica–Śnieżnik Dome (OSD), the Sudetes, NE Bohemian Massif underwent multiple folding and shearing during the Variscan Orogeny. In the sheared domains, there are less deformed pods in which rocks preserve better records of metamorphic events prior to the regional temperature peak. In one such pod, near Gniewoszów on the western limb of the dome, marbles enclosed by massive amphibolites occur. In these rocks, zoned plagioclase with actinolite and epidote inclusions and zoned amphibole grains allowed recognition of three mineral assemblages and three P-T stages at: (1) 310°C/3–4 kbar, (2) 480–500°C/10.5 kbar, (3) 500–530°C/6–6.5 kbar, based on isopleth intersections and checked against conventional thermobarometry. These define a steep clockwise P-T path and a geothermal gradient of 17°C/km before peak conditions were attained, which suggests subduction of the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks (Stronie Formation of the MSG) on the western limb of the OSD, with a transient yet discrete higher pressure episode. Mineral relicts capable of demonstrating a higher pressure event are scarce in the supracrustal rocks of the dome, mainly because they became more thoroughly equilibrated and obliterated during the temperature peak at mid-amphibolite facies conditions and the subsequent ubiquitous greenschist facies overprint.
EN
The paper presents the results of geological mapping and a detailed structural analysis carried out in the Łączna Anticline. This elevated region coincides with the Zawory (Cz. Závora) mountain range in the Central Sudetes (SW Poland). The Łączna Anticline separates two minor geological units (depressions) within the northwestern part of the Intrasudetic Synclinorium – the Krzeszów and the Police brachysynclines. In numerous exposures of Triassic and Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, several brittle and a few soft-sediment deformation structures have been recognized. Their orientation and spatial distribution suggest that the Łączna Anticline is a horst-like, intra-basinal high, formed due to permanent extension, dextral strike-slip movements within fault zones, and negative flower structures. The studies did not confirm the occurrence of continuous deformations such as anticlinal bends and flexures. The results show that the preservation of some lithological varieties of sedimentary rocks within modern morphological and structural elevations reflects the migration of centres of maximum subsidence within a pull-apart basin system. A new structural and geodynamic interpretation for the Łączna Anticline area is proposed.
PL
Na obszarze synkliny grodzieckiej, wschodniej części synklinorium północnosudeckiego osady najwyższego cechsztynu są reprezentowane przez mułowce i bardzo drobnoziarniste piaskowce, które płynnie i w sposób ciągły przechodzą w typowe osady pstrego piaskowca. Utwory te należą do terygenicznej strefy przejściowej PZt, której najwyższą część budują heterolity falowe.Wheterolitach wyróżniono strefę licznych deformacji przed- i pokonsolidacyjnych. Deformacje przedkonsolidacyjne posiadają liczne cechy charakterystyczne dla sejsmitów, natomiast geneza deformacji pokonsolidacyjnych nie jest jednoznaczna i wymaga dalszych badań. Strefa deformacji stanowi ważny poziom korelacyjny na obszarze synkliny grodzieckiej, który jest także obserwowany w analogicznych osadach monokliny przedsudeckiej w rejonie Głogowa i Rudnej.
EN
In the Grodziec Syncline (Eastern part of the North-Sudetic Synclinorium) the uppermost Zechstein sediments are represented by mudstones and very fine grained sandstones, which smoothly continue into typical Buntsandstein deposits. These sediments belong to Transitional Terrigeneous Series (PZt), which uppermost part is developed as heterolithic tempestites. A zone abundant in pre- and post-consolidated sediment deformation structures was distinguished within heterolithic sediments. The pre-consolidated sediment deformation structures have numerous features of seismites, on the other hand post-consolidated deformation structures raise more doubts about their origin and require more future research.Azone of pre- and post-consolidated sediment deformation is an important correlation horizon for the Grodziec Syncline. Furthermore, such zone is also observed in the analogous deposits of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline in the Glogow–Rudna area.
PL
O ile parametry złożowe, historia oraz techniki eksploatacji cechsztyńskich złóż rud miedzi w synklinorium północnosudeckim były przedmiotem licznych opracowań, zagadnieniu przekształceń rzeźby terenu na obszarze tzw. Starego Zagłębia Miedziowego nie poświęcono jak dotąd szczególnej uwagi. Niniejsza praca ma na celu uzupełnienie tej luki. W artykule opisano morfologię i przeprowadzono szczegółowe analizy geomorfometryczne form pogórniczych związanych bezpośrednio z eksploatacją rud miedzi i składowaniem odpadów poeksploatacyjnych na obszarze Zagłębia. W analizie i opisie form powierzchni wykorzystano dane archiwalne, ale przede wszystkim nowe metody i możliwości związane z przetwarzaniem wysokorozdzielczych numerycznych modeli terenu (NMT LiDAR – ang. Light Detection and Ranging), które są uznawane obecnie za najwierniejsze i najdokładniejsze odwzorowanie powierzchni ziemi dostępne w formie numerycznej. Na obszarze badań wyróżniono i opisano następujące antropogeniczne formy rzeźby: wielkoskalowe deformacje powierzchni terenu (niecki osiadań i zapadliska), małoskalowe deformacje powierzchni terenu (pingi), kamieniołomy oraz formy związane ze składowaniem produktów ubocznych wydobycia i przeróbki rud miedzi – zbiorniki odpadów poflotacyjnych i hałdy. Wieloaspektowe podejście badawcze pozwoliło m.in. na zobrazowanie rozkładu przestrzennego form, oszacowanie parametrów wolumetrycznych, a także wytypowanie perspektyw rekultywacji i ochrony niektórych obiektów.
EN
While the history, techniques of exploitation and deposit parameters of the copper ores in the North-Sudetic Synclinorium have been the subject of numerous investigations, the transformations of the terrain in the so-called “Old Copper Basin” (Lower Silesia, SW Poland) have not been analysed in detail before. This paper is intended to complement this gap. The authors present the results of the detailed geomorphometric analysis of the post-mining forms related directly to the copper mining. The LiDAR-based, high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), which have been used in the analysis and description of the landforms, are currently considered as the most accurate and precise 3D-spatial data available in the numerical form. The following anthropogenic forms are distinguished in the study area: large- and small-scale ground deformations (depressions and small sinkholes), abandoned quarries, and forms associated with the exploitation and storage of the flotation wastes – post-flotation tailings and dumps. Our investigations have allowed visualization of the spatial distribution of the forms, estimation of their total volume as well as perspectives of their reclamation and protection.
EN
The Sudetes are a mountain range in Central Europe, which owes its emergence to the Cenozoic rejuvenation of an old Variscan orogen, subject to stresses from the Alps and the Carpathians. The gross morphological features of the Sudetes are typically explained as reflecting the superposition of the effects of long-term, rock-controlled denudation and Late Cenozoic differential uplift and subsidence. In this paper, early conceptual models, developed in the 1950s and 1960s and emphasizing alternating uplift and planation phases, are presented first. A review of more recent work focused on tectonic landforms and geomorphic indicators of tectonic movements follows, with special attention to fault-generated escarpments, valley morphology, stream longitudinal profiles, terraces and fans, drainage basin characteristics and regional geomorphometric studies. Attempts to provide a timeframe of tectonic relief differentiation are also summarized. In the closing part of the paper, the existing approaches and findings are re-evaluated in order to identify challenges and perspectives for future work. The availability of high-resolution digital terrain models creates a unique opportunity to quantify relief features and detect even the subtle topographic signatures of recent tectonics. A need to reconcile the results of geomorphological analysis with those emerging from other studies focused on faults is highlighted.
EN
The paper reviews the recent state ofstudies for karst phenomena on northern slopes of the Śnieżnik Massif, Krowiarki range and Zlote Mts in East Sudetes with particular reference to Biała Lądecka basin. Conflned spatial character of the d/ainagf basinand cave sites within allow a better understanding of landscape response to climate and tectonic proxies controlling landscape evolution at least since the end ofMiocene (Messinian). New karst passages discoveries from Niedźwiedzia Cave resulted in the recognition of several sites of allochthonous sediments deposited at different cave morphological levels up to 50 metres above Kleśnica river floor. Furthermore, a new model ofpolygenetic origin for some karst chambers in Niedźwiedzia Cave originating from karstification processes and mass-movements superimposed has been suggested. Presumably, it may be linked with neotectonic processes and/or climatic changes affecting East Sudetes during the Late Cenozoic.
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