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1
Content available Numerical modeling of RDE
EN
The idea of using the phenomenon of rotating detonation to propulsion has its roots in fifties of the last century in works of Adamson et al. and Nicholls et al. at the University of Michigan. The idea was recently reinvented and experimental research and numerical simulations on the Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) are carried in numerous institutions worldwide, in Poland at Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) since 2004. Over the period 2010-2014 WUT and Institute of Aviation (IOA) jointly implemented the project under the Innovative Economy Operational Programme entitled ‘Turbine engine with detonation combustion chamber’. The goal of the project was to replace the combustion chamber of turboshaft engine GTD-350 with the annular detonation chamber. This paper is focused on investigation of the influence of a geometry and flow conditions on the structure and propagation stability of the rotating detonation wave. Presented results are in majority an outcome of the aforementioned programme, in particular authors’ works on the development of the in-house code REFLOPS USG and its application to simulation of the rotating detonation propagation in the RDE.
PL
Pomysł wykorzystania zjawiska wirującej detonacji do napędu był po raz pierwszy rozważany w latach pięćdziesiątych ubiegłego wieku przez zespoły badawcze Adamsona i Nichollsa na Uniwersytecie Michigan. Badania nad silnikiem z detonacyjną komorą spalania zostały wznowione po blisko 40 latach i dziś prace prowadzone są w wielu jednostkach naukowych na świecie, a w Polsce na Politechnice Warszawskiej od 2004 roku. W latach 2010-2014 Instytut Lotnictwa oraz Politechnika Warszawska wspólnie realizowały projekt w ramach Programu Operacyjnego Innowacyjna Gospodarka ‘Silnik Turbinowy z detonacyjną komorą spalania’. Projekt zakłada zastąpienie komory spalania turbowałowego silnika GTD-350 pierścieniową komorą detonacyjną. Artykuł skupia się na badaniach numerycznych wpływu geometrii oraz parametrów przepływu na strukturę i stabilność propagacji wirującej detonacji. Przedstawione wyniki są w większości wynikiem prac autorów nad rozwojem kodu REFLOPS USG w czasie trwania projektu i koncentruje się na rozwoju i implementacji wysokowydajnych metod symulacji silnika z detonacyjną komorą spalania oraz ich zastosowaniu w symulacjach numerycznych propagacji wirującej fali detonacyjnej w silniku RDE.
2
Content available remote The impact of RDE test dynamic parameters on the obtained exhaust emission results
EN
The article presents and discusses the research results on the impact of RDE test dynamic parameters on the emission of selected exhaust components. The measurements were carried out in compliance with the latest legislative procedures applicable to passenger cars. Five passenger cars with similar curb weight were selected for the tests inreal traffic conditions. All tests were performed on the same research route, which includes urban, rural and motorway conditions. The obtained results were analyzed of RDE procedure’s requirements and the Euro 6c toxicity standard. Then the values of dynamic parameters of all tests were compared (relative positive acceleration and 95th percentile of V·a+) and their effect on the obtained emission results was determined. As a summary, the correlations between the on-road exhaust emission and dynamic parameters were defined.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono i omówiono wyniki badań wpływu parametrów dynamicznych testu RDE na emisję wybranych składników spalin. Badania przeprowadzono zgodnie z najnowszymi procedurami legislacyjnymi odnoszącymi się do samochodów osobowych. Do przejazdów w rzeczywistych warunkach ruchu drogowego wybrano 5 samochodów osobowych, które charakteryzowały się zbliżoną masą własną. Otrzymane wyniki przeanalizowano pod kątem ich zgodności z wymogami procedury RDE oraz normy toksyczności Euro 6. Następnie porównano wartości warunków dynamicznych wszystkich przejazdów (względnego przyspieszenia dodatniego i 95-procentowego centyla iloczynu prędkości i dodatniego przyspieszenia) oraz określono ich wpływ na uzyskiwane wyniki emisji spalin. Jako podsumowanie uzyskanych porównań wyznaczono korelacje między warunkami dynamicznymi i emisją wybranych składników spalin.
3
Content available remote Exhaust emissions from a EURO 6c compliant PC vehicle in real operating conditions
EN
The current EURO 6c standard has introduced a limit on the number of solid particles for spark ignition engines equal to that for compression ignition engines (6x10e11). To meet the requirements, manufacturers install particulate filters in the exhaust systems of most new engines. The article presents the results of vehicle testing with this solution during the drive carried out in accordance with the RDE procedure. The measurement results, after taking into account the Conformity Factor in relation to the approval limits, confirmed the efficiency of aftertreatment system in terms of both gas and solid components.
PL
Obecna norma EURO 6c wprowadziła limit liczby cząstek stałych dla silników z zapłonem iskrowym równy temu dla silników z zapłonem samoczynnym (6x10e11). By spełnić wymagania, producenci instalują filtry cząstek stałych w układach wylotowych większości nowych silników. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań pojazdu z tym rozwiązaniem podczas przejazdu przeprowadzonego zgodnie z procedurą RDE. Wyniki pomiarów po uwzględnieniu współczynnika Conformity Factor w stosunku do limitów homologacyjnych potwierdziły skuteczność oczyszczania spalin zarówno pod względem emisji składników gazowych, jak i cząstek stałych.
EN
Major markets across the European Union (EU) are concentrated on rapid development of electromobility. This policy is demonstrated - among others - by recent sales of electric cars: within the past 3 quarters of 2018 - 24.7 thousand electric cars have been registered in Germany, 20.3 thousand in France, 15.3 thousand in the Netherlands and 31.4 thousand in Norway. Unfortunately, only 867 EVs have been registered in Hungary, 469 in the Czech Republic, 468 in Romania, 411 in Poland and 348 in Slovenia. Unit energy consumption of electric cars was often defined in NEDC cycle. In real conditions of road traffic, it may differ from values recorded in a drive cycle. The article presents results of a study on energy consumption of electric cars in Poland along RDE (Real Driving Emissions) testing route in terms of vehicle energy consumption per drive unit (km, 100 km). The use of fuel cells in cars may bring a change in the type of used vehicles in the long run. Both globally and in the EU wide-ranging actions are undertaken to implement fuel cell technology. Also, the infrastructure of hydrogen filling stations is developed. At present the most rapidly developing country in this area is Japan. The article addresses the issue of energy consumption per drive unit by cars equipped with fuel cells as both type of vehicles, i.e. EV and FCV use electric motors. The article also discusses infrastructure development in the EU and Poland, charging and fuelling of the said vehicles, respectively.
EN
This paper discusses the fact that vehicle and powertrain test methods have long been guided by type approval requirements - with a focus ot the recent/current example of real driving emissions (RDE) and in-service conformity (ISC) test requirements. The implications - current and future - of these testing requirement, which force the use of portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) are discussed. In this context, BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute’s PEMS systems are presented, and the systems’ attributes and versatility are explored. Considerations for testing a very wide range of vehicle, engine and fuel types are mentioned. Non-legislative applications of PEMS systems are briefly explored; finally, it is shown that the emissions laboratory and its chassis dyno remain indispensable when conducting work on light duty exhaust emissions, even in the era of RDE.
EN
In the regulations concerning approval of light vehicles starting from September 2019 it will be necessary to conduct exhaust emissions tests both on a chassis dynamometer and for real driving emissions. It is a legislative requirement set forth in EU regulations for the purpose of the RDE (Real Driving Emissions) procedure. To decide on the RDE route for the purpose of the LV exhaust emissions tests many requirements must be fulfilled, regarding for example external temperature and the topographic height of the tests, driving style (driving dynamic parameters), trip duration, length of respective test sections (urban, rural, motorway, etc.). The works on outlining RDE routes are continued across the country in various research centres. Specifying the RDE route for test purposes, i.e. works in which the authors of this article are actively involved, has become a major challenge for future approval surveys concerning the assessment of hazardous emissions from light vehicles and for development studies focusing on - for example - the consumption of energy in electric and hybrid vehicles. The test route has been chosen to ensure that the test is performed on a continual basis. Data were recorded on a constant basis with the minimum duration of the test achieved. The test involved light vehicles and PEMS device for measuring the exhaust emissions, vehicle’s speed, completed route, etc. The device was installed in such manner as to ensure that its impact on the exhaust emissions from the tested vehicle and on the device’s operation is the least. The vehicle load was consistent with the requirements of the standard and included the aforesaid measurement device, the driver and the operator of PEMS. The tests were carried out on working days. The streets and roads used for the tests were hard-surfaced. Measurements were performed in accordance with the requirements of RDE packages (Package 1-4), i.e. taking into account - among others - the engine cold start. The article discusses the method of outlining the test route fulfilling the specific requirements for RDE testing. Chosen results of exhaust emissions from a passenger car with a spark-ignition engine along the defined RDE test route have been provided. The tests discussed in the article are introductory in the area of RDE tests and provide an introduction into further studies of exhaust emissions and energy consumption in real driving conditions in conventional vehicles and vehicles with alternative engines, e.g. hybrid and electric vehicles.
EN
Alternative drives have an increasing share in the global, European and Polish market. The city authorities support primarily the development of electromobility. Progress in these issues is also noticeable in Poland. The increasing number of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) requires increasing energy costs of the country. Therefore, it is necessary to increase energy production. This work estimates how large this energy surplus should be. For this purpose, it was necessary to determine the average energy consumption of an electric vehicle in real traffic conditions, and then to calculate the average energy demand for a selected number of vehicles. Obtained results were related to pollutant emission considered in the well-to-wheel perspective (including generation of electricity). In the article, the authors also referred to the minimum number of charging stations for electric vehicles on the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) in Poland. This is a necessary condition on which depends the use of BEV vehicles not only on the territory of cities, but also throughout the country.
EN
Constantly increasing requirements regarding emission limits for harmful exhaust components force vehicle manufacturers to improve the construction of vehicle engines as well as exhaust gas cleaning systems. In addition to modifications in the field of technology of motor vehicles themselves, it is also important to study the impact of alternatives to petrol or diesel fuels. One of the most popular fossil fuel is liquid petroleum gas. In the paper, the results of comparative studies on the emission of harmful exhaust components of vehicles meeting the Euro 3 and Euro 6 standards in the field of petrol and LPG fuel use are presented. Emission measurement was performed using a portable emission measurement system from Horiba OBS-2200 under real traffic conditions. The presented results show the differences between the tested vehicles and the fuels used.
EN
Air pollution is a challenge for municipal authorities. Increased emission of PM10 and PM2.5 particles is particularly noticeable in Poland primarily the autumn and winter period. That is due to the start of the heating season. According to the above data, road transport accounted for approximately 5% of the creation of PM10 particles, ca. 7% of PM2.5 and approximately 32% for NOx. In Poland, suspended particles (PM10 and PM2.5) cause deaths of as many as 45,000 people a year. The issue of smog also affects other European cities. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake concrete efforts in order to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions as much as possible. It is therefore justifiable to reduce the emission of exhaust pollution, particularly NOx, PM, PN by conventional passenger cars powered by compression ignition engines. Emissions by these passenger cars have been reduced systematically. Comparative tests of the above emission of exhaust pollution were conducted on chassis dynamometer of such passenger car in NEDC cycle and in the new WLTC cycle in order to verify the level of emissions from this type of passenger car. Measurements of fuel consumption by that car were also taken. Emission of exhaust pollution and fuel consumption of the this car were also taken in the RDE road test.
EN
The article analyzes the environmental costs which consisted of determining the annual cost for gases and particles released into the atmosphere by city buses meeting the Euro VI norm. To this end, exhaust emissions of a city bus equipped with a conventional drive system were performed. The vehicle had a length of 18m and was powered by a CI engine with a swept volume of 10,5 dm3, with a maximum power of 240 kW. In order to measure the ecological indicators, tests were performed in real driving conditions using the PEMS system. The apparatus made it possible to measure the concentration of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in the exhaust, which made it possible to determine the road exhaust emissions of the tested vehicle. The research was carried out on a test route including urban and suburban roads in accordance with legislative guidelines. The measurements showed that the bus met the exhaust emission limits determined on the basis of measuring windows defined in relation to the work generated by the drive system. In addition to information on the emissivity of the vehicle, the annual emissions from city buses meeting the Euro VI standard in Poland were also estimated. The information contained in the central vehicle register for the number of vehicles registered in Poland that meet the latest emission standards has been used for this purpose.
11
Content available remote Practical aspects of using methane fuels in road transport
EN
Among the most interesting for practical use in a country of alternative fuels in road transport are methane fuels, e.g. CNG (also LNG) or biomethane. These fuels are becoming more and more popular, in particular in city bus transport. The aforesaid fuels such as for example biomethane have advantages in terms of greenhouse gases emission. Almost fully renewable biomethane allows for reducing significantly carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, in the fuel life cycle. The article discusses results of CO, CO2, HC, NOX road emissions and fuel consumption by city buses of Euro III and Euro VI emission levels, with CNG-fuelled engine sunder real road conditions in the country, compared with these emissions in the same conditions, generated by city buses fuelled with diesel oil.
PL
Do najbardziej interesujących praktycznych zastosowań w kraju alternatywnych paliw w transporcie drogowym należą paliwa metanowe, np. CNG (także LNG) lub biometan. Paliwa te stają się coraz bardziej popularne, w szczególności w transporcie miejskim. Wyżej wymienione paliwa, takie jak na przykład biometan, mają zalety w zakresie zmniejszenia emisji gazów cieplarnianych. Prawie całkowicie odnawialny biometan pozwala na znaczne zmniejszenie emisji dwutlenku węgla, który jest gazem cieplarnianym, w cyklu istnieniu paliwa. W artykule omówiono wyniki badań emisji drogowej CO, CO2, HC, NOX oraz zużycia paliwa przez autobusy miejskie o poziomach emisji Euro III i Euro VI, z silnikami zasilanymi CNG, w rzeczywistych warunkach ruchu drogowego w kraju, w porównaniu z tymi emisjami w tym samych warunkach, generowanymi przez autobusy miejskie z silnikami zasilanymi olejem napędowym.
PL
Jednym z głównych, globalnych czynników, które wpływają na rozwój układów napędowych pojazdów samochodowych, są obecnie trendy w zmianach światowych norm i metodyk badawczych emisji spalin, spowodowane rzeczywistą emisją związków szkodliwych spalin z samochodów w czasie ich eksploatacji i metodami jej ograniczenia. Wprowadzenie nowych norm emisji w krajach Unii Europejskiej określanych jako Euro 6d, zawierających nowe metodyki badawcze WLTP i RDE, jest poważnym wyzwaniem dla przemysłu motoryzacyjnego, ze względu na trudności techniczne oraz czynniki polityczne i socjologiczne. Problem ograniczenia emisji gazów cieplarnianych, szczególnie dwutlenku węgla, emitowanych przez pojazdy drogowe, pozostaje również ważnym czynnikiem, ze względu na wpływ na globalne ocieplenie klimatu. Nowe normy emisji muszą być spełnione w szerokim zakresie warunków otoczenia i w rzeczywistej eksploatacji pojazdu na drodze. Ta problematyka i metody rozwoju układów napędowych pojazdów samochodowych były prezentowane i dyskutowane w czasie 6. Międzynarodowego Sympozjum Ograniczania Emisji z Pojazdów Samochodowych zorganizowanego przez Instytut BOSMAL w Bielsko-Białej. Podczas obrad dokonano syntezy obecnego i przyszłego statusu oraz rozwoju silników spalinowych, napędów hybrydowych i elektrycznych i tego, co najbliższe lata mogą przynieść w tej dziedzinie.
EN
Among the drivers influencing vehicular powertrain development, the field of vehicular exhaust emissions is experiencing wide-ranging and rapid changes. New emissions regulations such as Euro 6d and new test methods (RDE and WLTP) are the main challenges for the automotive industry caused by political, socioeconomic and technical factors. Air quality is very high on the political agenda and pressure remains to limit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport sector. In addition to limits becoming increasingly stringent, the list of parameters subject to legal limits are slowly expanding and, most importantly, these limits must be met under a wide range of conditions. A range of strategies are available to overcome these difficulties, which was explored during the 6th International Exhaust Emissions Symposium (IEES) hosted at BOSMAL in June 2018. This paper reports and summarises the topics of the 6th IEES and attempts a synthesis on the current status of the field of IC engines, hybrid powertrains and electric vehicles and what the coming years may hold for the automotive and fuel industries and other allied fields.
EN
This article presents a comparison of CO2, CO and NOx emission from Saab 9-3 1.9 JTD and Fiat Bravo 2.0 JTD engines. The tests were conducted on the same route and reflect real driving emission from following passenger cars. Fiat Bravo engine is an evolution of 1.9 engine redeveloped to meet EURO 5 requirements. Despite cylinder diameter enlargement and increased fuel consumption harmful exhaust gases components were significantly reduced. Both of the engines had not exceeded the considered regulations. The results were obtained using SEMTECH DS device from PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono porównanie emisji CO, CO2 oraz NOx dla dwóch pojazdów: Saab 9-3 z silnikiem 1.9 JTD oraz Fiat Bravo, którego silnik 2.0 JTD jest ewolucją wymienionego powyżej. Testy przeprowadzone zostały na tej samej trasie i odzwierciedlają rzeczywiste warunki ruchu dla danych pojazdów osobowych. Oprócz powiększenia średnicy cylindra o 1 mm innowacji poddano także zawór recyrkulacji spalin w celu spełnienia wymagań normy EURO 5. Oprócz limitu emisji NOx przekroczonej przez silnik Saaba pozostałe składniki pozostały w normie. Wyniki uzyskano za pośrednictwem aparatury SEMTECH DS z grupy PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System).
14
Content available remote Latest harmful exhaust emission limits for non-road category vehicles
EN
Non-road vehicles are a large group of machines and a vast majority of them utilize CI engines. This group includes agricultural vehicles, construction machinery, stationary engines, etc. Their regulations are less restrictive compared to vehicles from the HDV category which use similar engine units. For this reason, the Stage V standard will be introduced in 2018, adding reductions in the form of toxic exhaust emissions limits. In addition, retrofitting continues to gain popularity, which means retrofitting older engine designs with more modern exhaust gas after treatment systems. This article reviews also the use of PEMS analyzers to measure the real operation emission.
PL
Pojazdy o zastosowaniu pozadrogowym to szeroka grupa maszyn, w których wykorzystywane są głównie silniki o zapłonie samoczynnym. Należą do niej maszyny rolnicze, budowlane, silniki stacjonarne itp. W porównaniu do pojazdów ciężkich, w których używane są zbliżone konstrukcyjnie silniki spalinowe, przepisy dotyczące ich emisyjności są mniej restrykcyjne. Norma Stage V, która wejdzie w życie z rokiem 2018 ma zmniejszyć ta dysproporcję zmniejszając obowiązujące limity, a także wprowadzając ograniczenie liczby cząstek stałych. Dodatkowo, coraz większą rolę odgrywa retrofitting, czyli doposażanie starszych silników w nowoczesne układy oczyszczania gazów wylotowych, a także badania w rzeczywistych warunkach eksploatacji przy użyciu aparatury z grupy PEMS.
EN
Environmental protection is becoming an increasingly important issue in every area of life. In recent times, a great emphasis has been placed on reducing the negative impact of automotive on human health at every stage of the vehicle's life. The most common impact of cars on the environment is the emission of pollutants from the exhaust system, created during the combustion of fuels in internal combustion engines. For this purpose, legislators introduce emission standards that must be met at the stage of vehicle approval for a given market. To meet these requirements, vehicle manufacturers modify the design of the drive units, body, and chassis to reduce weight and improve aerodynamic properties. This approach is methodologically correct because it is possible to compare the results obtained for different vehicles, but in real operation the level of harmful exhaust compounds, emissions and fuel consumption depend very much on the way the vehicle is used. As a manner of operation one can understand a variable load in the form of passengers or cargo, driving style, share of urban, extra-urban and motorway driving, terrain formation, ambient temperature and others. This article addresses issues related to the assessment of the impact of the light commercial vehicle operation manner on fuel consumption and the emission of harmful exhaust compounds. The problem was analysed in terms of the difference in vehicle load and driving style. Exhaust emission measurements were carried out using PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) analysers, which are state of the art devices for measuring exhaust emission in real operating conditions, called RDE (Real Driving Emissions).
EN
Among the drivers influencing vehicular powertrain development, the field of vehicular exhaust emissions is experiencing wideranging and rapid changes. New emissions regulations such as Euro 6d and new test methods (RDE and WLTP) are the main challenges for the automotive industry caused by political, socioeconomic and technical factors. Air quality is very high on the political agenda and pressure remains to limit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the road transport sector. In addition to limits becoming increasingly stringent, the list of parameters subject to legal limits are slowly expanding – and, most importantly, these limits must be met under a wide range of conditions. A range of strategies are available to overcome these difficulties, which was explored during the 6th International Exhaust Emissions Symposium (IEES) hosted at BOSMAL in June 2018. This paper reports and summarises the topics of the 6th IEES and attempts a synthesis on the current status of the field of IC engines, hybrid powertrains and electric vehicles and what the coming years may hold for the automotive and fuel industries and other allied fields.
EN
The solid particle number method was introduced in the European Union (EU) light-duty legislation for diesel vehicles to ensure the installation of the best-available technology for particles (i.e., wall-flow diesel particulate filters) without the uncertainties of the volatile nucleation mode and without the need of large investment for purchasing the equipment. Later it was extended to gasoline vehicles with direct injection engines, heavy-duty engines (both compression ignition and positive ignitions) and non-road mobile machinery engines. Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing on the road with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) for particle number (and NOx) during type approval and in-service conformity testing was recently (in 2017) introduced for light-duty vehicles, and is under discussion for heavy-duty vehicles in-service conformity testing. This paper will summarize the existing legislation regarding solid particle number and discuss the on-going activities at EU level. The main focus at the moment is on improving the calibration procedures, and extending the lower detection size below 23 nm with interlaboratory exercises. In parallel, discussions are on-going to introduce testing at low ambient temperature, regeneration emissions in the light-duty regulation, a particle limit for other technologies such as gasoline port-fuel injection vehicles, and the feasibility of particle measurements to L-category vehicles (mopeds, motorcycles, tricycles and minicars). A short overview of periodical technical inspection investigations and the situation regarding non-exhaust traffic related sources with special focus on brakes and tyres will be described.
EN
The article discusses the subject of light duty vehicles exhaust emissions in real driving conditions and their connection with fuel consumption. Tests were carried out in the Poznan agglomeration area on roads with various speed limits. The driver was to drive the same distance first driving in an aggressive manner than normally. Emissions of the following compounds were measured using a SEMTECH analyzer by Sensors Inc.: hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide. As a result the tests allowed to evaluate the influence of the driving style on the exhaust emissions and refer it to the currently enforced Euro 6 standard.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki emisyjności pojazdu kategorii Passenger Car w rzeczywistych warunkach ruchu, a także obliczono zużycie paliwa metodą bilansu węgla. Badania dotyczyły przejazdu w centrum Poznania na drogach o różnych dopuszczalnych prędkościach poruszania się. Przeprowadzono dwa przejazdy, pierwszy w sposób naturalny, a drugi w agresywny. Emisyjność została zmierzona przy pomocy analizatorów z grupy PEMS. Do mierzonych związków należały: węglowodory, tlenek węgla, tlenki azotu oraz dwutlenek węgla.
EN
The article presents the particulate matter measurement analysis of a passenger vehicle equipped with diesel particulate filter in real operating conditions. The tests were conducted in the Poznań urban agglomeration on routes with variable speed limits. The procedure included two different driving styles – aggressive and normal. The measurement of particulate matter included their mass, surface area, number and spectral distribution and was performed using a TSI mass spectrometer and an AVL micro soot sensor. The results allowed for determining the impact of the driving style on the particulate matter emissions and allowed for comparison of the outcome relative to the current regulations.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki emisji cząstek stałych w zakresie masy i liczby z pojazdu typu pickup spełniającego normę emisji EURO 5. Badania przeprowadzono w centrum Poznania, na odcinkach drogi o różnych dopuszczalnych prędkościach poruszania się. Na potrzeby testu jeden przejazdów był ekonomiczny, a drugi agresywny. Pomiarów dokonano za pomocą nowoczesnej aparatury z grupy PEMS – analizatorów TSI 3090 oraz AVL MSS. Pozwoliło to na wyznaczenie rzeczywistego wpływu badanego pojazdu na środowisko. Do mierzonych składników należały: CO2, HC, NOx i CO.
20
Content available remote Analysis of the pickup exhaust emissions in real driving conditions
EN
The article analyzes the exhaust gases from the vehicle pickup during drive tests. The research was carried out on a vehicle of this type because of the growing vehicle sales of this type of chassis in both domestic and European level. The study was conducted in Poznan, two drives of the same track were performed - economic and dynamic. To test the exhaust emission was used PEMS apparatus (Portable Emissions Measurement System ) mounted on the vehicle Nissan Navara. The collected results were presented in the form of graphs of emission plotted on the track map. They were also compared to the EU norms and administered by the manufacturer fuel consumption. Based on these results conclusions were prepared.
PL
W artykule poddano analizie gazy wylotowe emitowane podczas ruchu pojazdu typu pickup. Sprzedaż pojazdów o tego typu nadwoziu zwieksza się obecnie zarówno na rynku krajowym, jak i europejskim. W ramach badań przeprowadzonych w Poznaniu, odbyły się dwa przejazdy autem – ekonomiczny i dynamiczny. Do badań posłużyła aparatura PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System) zamontowana na pojeździe Nissan Navara. Uzyskane wyniki przedstawiono w formie wykresów emisyjności naniesionych na mapę. Na podstawie porównania z obowiązującymi normami oraz podawanym przez producenta zużyciem paliwa sformułowano wnioski.
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