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EN
The structural pattern developed within metre to microscopic scale thrust and strike-slip fault zones exposed in the Palaeogene flysch rocks of the Fore-Dukla Thrust Sheet in the south-eastern part of the Silesian Nappe, Outer Carpathians, Poland, reveals evidence for upper crustal deformation and fluid flow. Syntectonic dawsonite [NaAlCO3(OH)2] indicates the following series of deformational events within the fault zones: i) detachment and buckle folding resulting from movement along thrust faults; ii) faulting as a compensation of the shortening, resulting in the fault propagation folding, breakthrough thrust faulting and imbrications; and iii) strike-slip faulting. The microstructural pattern coupled with the growth of a related sequence of carbonate minerals within the fault zones, followed by present-day dawsonite precipitation and tufa formation, indicate a continuing influence of fluids within the Silesian Nappe up to and including modern time. Structural observations at metre to microscopic scales coupled with EDS mapping of rocks indicate that dawsonite is a unique tool for the reconstruction of subsequent deformation in the Fore-Dukla Thrust Sheet.
PL
W obrębie polskiej części Karpat zewnętrznych – w jednostce śląskiej występują warstwy istebniańskie, które mogą stanowić źródło generacji węglowodorów wypełniających pułapki złożowe. Przeprowadzono geochemiczną analizę substancji organicznej rozproszonej w utworach istebniańskich. Badaniom poddano 23 próbki pochodzące z trzech otworów: Draganowa-1, Osobnica-136, Osobnica-138. Badania prowadzone były na próbkach skalnych oraz wyseparowanym kerogenie. Próbki poddane zostały analizie pirolitycznej Rock-Eval, analizie elementarnej kerogenu oraz jego pirolizie sprzężonej z chromatografią gazową (PY-GC), a także badaniom biomarkerów. Na podstawie badań Rock-Eval oraz analizy elementarnej kerogenu stwierdzono, że substancja organiczna występująca w warstwach istebniańskich zawiera kerogen III typu. Dojrzałość termiczna materii organicznej osiągnęła zakres okna ropnego przy wartościach Tmax z zakresu 425–438°C. Zawartość węgla organicznego rozproszonego w badanych skałach waha się w przedziale od 0,20% do 6,62%. Na podstawie wykonanych badań wytypowano poziom charakteryzujący się najlepszymi parametrami w kontekście macierzystości. Są nim dolne warstwy istebniańskie górnej kredy z otworu Draganowa-1, dla których średnia zawartość węgla organicznego TOC wynosi 2,72%. Badania PY-GC wskazały na mieszany charakter generacyjny kerogenu, który może produkować lekkie, jak i ciężkie węglowodory. Badania biomarkerów potwierdzają zmienny charakter substancji organicznej z przewagą materiału lądowego oraz z obecnością substancji morskiej. Wskaźnik CPI wskazuje na niską jej dojrzałość. Duża zmienność w składzie bituminów może dowodzić istnienia procesów migracyjnych, które zachodziły w obrębie warstw istebniańskich. Różnice te w próbce pobranej z facji piaszczystej mogą świadczyć o jej zbiornikowym charakterze, co w połączeniu z bliskim sąsiedztwem skały macierzystej korzystnie wpływa na przetrwanie wygenerowanych węglowodorów.
EN
Within the Silesian unit there are Istebna Beds which can be an additional source of the hydrocarbons filling the reservoir traps. The present work is focused on the geochemical analysis of organic matter dispersed in the Istebna deposits. 23 samples from three wells: Draganowa-1, Osobnica-136 and Osobnica-138 were analyzed. The research was carried out on rock samples and isolated kerogen. Rock-Eval pyrolytic analysis, elemental analysis, pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography (PY-GC) and biomarker analysis were used to provide data. Based on the Rock-Eval analysis and the elemental analysis, it was found that the organic matter present in the Istebna Beds contains type III kerogen. Thermal maturity of organic matter achieved the oil window and Tmax values range from 425°C to 438°C. The organic carbon content dispersed in the studied rocks varies between 0.20 and 6.62%. Based on the performed research the horizon with the best maturity parameters were selected. These are the Lower Istebna Beds of the Upper Cretaceous from the Draganowa-1 well, for which the average content of total organic carbon is 2.72%. The PY-GC analysis pointed to the mixed character of the kerogen, which can produce light as well as heavy hydrocarbons. Studies of biomarkers confirm the variable nature of organic matter with the predominance of terrestrial material and the presence of marine matter. The CPI indicator indicates low maturity of organic matter. The high variability in the composition of bitumens may indicate the existence of migration processes that occurred within the Istebna Beds. These differences in the sample of the sandy facies may indicate its reservoir character, which in combination with the close vicinity of the source rock favorably affects the preservation of the generated hydrocarbons.
EN
In the Paratethys Sea, isolation, the development of anoxia and stratification of the water column resulted in deposition of organic-rich sediments. In the Western Carpathians (Central Paratethys) these sediments now lie within the Menilite Formation. Whereas the Eocene-Oligocene transition has been studI ed in the Western Carpathians and is documented by dinoflagellate cyst assemblages, the dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the Menilite Formation members has been uncertain. The Popiele Member and the Menilite Formati on exposed at Aksmanice (Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe, Western Outer Carpathians) reflect palaeogeographic changes at the beginning of the Oligocene. These previously studied deposits have been assigned to lithostratigraphic units, though without biostratigraphic documentation. The age of the Menilite Fm. in the Carpathian sedimentary succession is particularly interesting dueto the diachronous character of the facies development. In this study we provide biostratigraphic data based on well-preserved organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The marker taxa recovered indicate a Rupelian age (Early Oligocene) for the Menilite Fm. A different assemblage occurs in the Popiele Member underlying the Menilite Fm. Here, the dinoflagellate cysts are more diverse and abundant, and represented by typical Eocene taxa attributed to Areosphaeridium spp. and Charlesdowniea spp. The Popiele Member may be assigned to the Priabonian (Late Eocene).
EN
A lithological profile and measurements of the orientation and spacings of natural discontinuity planes were carried out in the Górka-Mucharz sandstone excavation (Krosno Beds, Outer Carpathians, Poland). In addition, the density of the discontinuities was assessed by measuring their spacings using oriented digital photographs of the quarry walls. An orthophotomap was also used in assessing the orientation and density of fractures with the tools available in QGIS. It was shown that digital image analysis can be used as an alternative to direct field measurements, especially in situations where access to an outcrop is difficult. The distributions of spacings larger than 40 cm, obtained by direct measurements and based on digital images of the quarry, were comparable. As a consequence, both measurement techniques yielded similar values of the quantity of blocks (QB), which differed by less than 2% for the minimum block volume in the range 0.4-1.0 m3 and by 6-7% for larger blocks. On the other hand, measurements of discontinuity spacings that were taken on the basis of an orthophotomap can only serve to estimate the approximate maximum value of this parameter. However, the use of orthophotomaps gives a more explicit spatial pattern of the main vertical joint sets than direct measurements in the quarry.The analysis results also showed the following: (i) the presence of tectonic disturbances visible at the highest level of the deposit; (ii) higher density of set A fractures with planes deepening in the NE direc-tion and a considerable reduction of the QB parameter, particularly in the peripheral NE and SW parts of the deposit; (iii) differences in the orientation of the discontinuity system between particular beds. The variable density of the discontinuities in the excavation is related to the presence of the faults that limit the Górka-Mucharz deposit.
PL
Przedstawiono profil litologiczny oraz wyniki pomiarów orientacji i odległości naturalnych płaszczyzn podzielności w wyrobisku złoża piaskowców krośnieńskich Górka-Mucharz (Karpaty Zewnętrzne, Polska). Ponadto, intensywność występowania spękań oceniono pomiarami ich rozstępów z wykorzystaniem cyfrowych fotografii zorientowanych ścian kamieniołomu. W ocenie orientacji i intensywności spękań wykorzystano też ortofotomapę wykorzystując do analizy narzędzia GIS. Wykazano, że analiza zdjęć cyfrowych może być wykorzystana jako alternatywa bezpośrednich pomiarów terenowych, szczególnie w sytuacji utrudnionego dostępu do odsłonięć. Uzyskane metodą bezpośrednich pomiarów i na podstawie cyfrowych zdjęć kamieniołomu rozkłady rozstępów były zbliżone dla wartości tego parametru powyżej 40 cm. W konsekwencji obie techniki pomiarów dały podobne wartości wskaźnika bloczności (QB), różniące się o niespełna 2% dla objętości bloku minimalnego w zakresie 0,4-1,0 m3 i 6-7% dla bloków większych. Natomiast pomiar rozstępów płaszczyzn podzielności wykonany na podstawie ortofotomapy może służyć jedynie do oceny przybliżonych maksymalnych wartości tego parametru. Jednak, wykorzystanie ortofotomapy daje bardziej jednoznaczny obraz przestrzennej orientacji głównych zespołów pionowych spękań niż pomiary bezpośrednie w kamieniołomie.W wyniku analizy stwierdzono również: (i) obecność zaburzeń tektonicznych widocznych w najwyższym poziomie złoża; (ii) wyższą intensywność spękań zespołu A o płaszczyznach zapadających w kie-runku NE i znaczne zmniejszenie bloczności (QB), szczególnie w peryferyjnych NE i SW fragmentach złoża; (iii) różnice w orientacji systemu nieciągłości odnotowane pomiędzy poszczególnymi warstwami. Ponadto, wykazano, że obecność uskoków ograniczających złoże Górka-Mucharz może wiązać się ze zmienną intensywnością płaszczyzn nieciągłości w wyrobisku.
PL
Głównym celem prezentowanej pracy było uzyskanie obrazu sejsmicznego na podstawie reprocessingu archiwalnych profili sejsmicznych 2D – który to obraz pozwoliłby na bardziej szczegółowe i jednoznaczne odwzorowanie skomplikowanej budowy geologicznej Karpat zewnętrznych w stosunku do wcześniejszych badań – poprzez opracowanie procedur i sekwencji przetwarzania oraz dobór parametrów, z wykorzystaniem wszelkich dostępnych danych i z jednoczesną interpretacją geologiczną. Dotychczas uzyskane rezultaty prac w zakresie przetwarzania, realizowane zarówno w przemyśle, jak i jednostkach naukowych, nie dają jednoznacznego odwzorowania skomplikowanej budowy geologicznej tego obszaru. Do realizacji tego zadania wybrano dwa profile sejsmiczne usytuowane w południowo-wschodniej Polsce. Przetwarzanie sejsmiczne prowadzono w systemie SeisSpace (ProMAX) – Seismic Processing and Analysis Release 5000.10.0.1. firmy Halliburton. Analizowany rejon cechuje się dużym stopniem skomplikowania budowy geologicznej ze względu na obecność licznych stref nasunięć w obrębie utworów jednostek karpackich i miocenu sfałdowanego, jak również występowanie kilku dużych stref dyslokacyjnych o różnych kierunkach przebiegu. Praca była realizowana w dwóch etapach. W pierwszym testowano wszelkie dostępne algorytmy w systemie SeisSpace (ProMAX) oraz wszelkie możliwe warianty sekwencji przetwarzania z jak najszerszym wachlarzem parametrów. W drugim etapie, ze względu na występującą anizotropię w tak skomplikowanych ośrodkach geologicznych, postanowiono również uwzględnić wyniki, wraz z ich interpretacją, z pionowych profilowań sejsmicznych (PPS) w zakresie zmian pola prędkości. Ostatecznie wypracowano metodykę przetwarzania migracji po składaniu (poststack time migration), w której efekcie odwzorowanie modelu geologicznego na sekcji sejsmicznej jest bardziej szczegółowe i jednoznaczne niż uzyskane dotąd rezultaty. Osiągnięty efekt budzi optymizm, gdyż pomimo tego, że proces migracji obejmował podstawową jej realizację, uzyskano lepszy efekt niż istniejący dotychczas. Obecnie wykonywane są dodatkowe prace w wersji migracji czasowej przed składaniem (preSTM) oraz depth imaging mające na celu uzyskanie jeszcze lepszych rezultatów, których wyniki zostaną przedstawione w odrębnych publikacjach.
EN
The main objective of the presented work, was to obtain a seismic image based on the reprocessing of archival 2D seismic profiles, which would allow a more detailed and unambiguous representation of the complex geological structure of the Outer Carpathians compared to earlier results, through the development of procedures and processing sequences and the selection of parameters, using all available data and simultaneous geological interpretation. The previous results of work in the field of processing, implemented both in industry and scientific units, do not provide a clear representation of the complex geological structure of this area. Two seismic profiles located in south-eastern Poland, were selected for this task. Seismic processing was carried out in the SeisSpace (ProMAX) system – Seismic Processing and Analysis Release 5000.10.0.1. of Halliburton company. The analyzed region is characterized by a high degree of complexity of the geological structure, due to the presence of numerous overlap zones within the Carpathian units and folded Miocene, as well as the presence of several large dislocations with different directions. The work was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, all available algorithms were tested in the SeisSpace (ProMAX) system and all possible variants of the processing sequences with the widest possible range of parameters. In the second stage, due to the occurring anisotropy in such complex geological environment, it was also decided to take into account the results, along with their interpretation of vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) in the range of velocity field changes. Finally, the poststack time migration methodology was developed, in which the image of the geological model on the seismic section is more detailed and unambiguous than the results obtained so far. The achieved effect is optimistic, because, despite the fact that the migration process included its basic implementation, a better effect than that obtained so far has been achieved. Currently, additional work is being done in the time migration version before stack (preSTM), and depth imaging, aimed at obtaining even better results whose results will be presented in separate publications.
EN
In the Polish sector of the Magura Nappe, along the front of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, strongly tectonized calcareous flysch up to 1000 m thick is exposed. Previously these deposits, composed of thin- to thick-bedded flysch, with a packet of Łącko-type marls, have been included into several Paleocene/Eocene formations, e.g., the Szczawnica Formation. This formation contains a poor assemblage of agglutinated foraminifera and a relatively rich assemblage of calcareous nannoplankton, with abundant reworked species. The youngest species give evidence of the NN2 Zone (Lower Miocene). Additionally, in three profiles (Szlachtowa, Knurów and Waksmund) of the Kremna Fm., Early Miocene foraminifera have been recognized. This research documented that during the Burdigalian, at the front of Central Western Carpathians, there still existed a residual marine basin probably up to 100 km wide. These deposits also contain thick packages of exotic carbonate conglomerates derived from the SE, previously regarded as the Jarmuta Formation.
EN
Thick deep-water sandstone successions are known from many localities in the Outer Western Carpathians. The present study is focused on comparison of deposits of the Piwniczna (PwSM) and Poprad (PpSM) Sandstone members belonging to the Magura Formation of the Magura Unit, outcropping in the eastern Slovakia and Poland border area. At the general level, a close similarity of the sandstone successions was confirmed by this study. However, in more detail, facies analysis shows differences in the thickness of the sandstone successions, in grain size and in the character of intervals between the thick sandstones. Thin-section study, though, showed almost the same modal composition in the sandstones analysed. The sandstone successions studied are interpreted as sandy debrites, the PwSM showing transitional facies to turbidites. These deposits rep resent channelized depositional lobes in the proximal part of a submarine fan with the PpSM closer to the source. The sediment source area was common to both lithostratigraphic units, and was most likely the South-Magura Ridge.
EN
Well preserved Late Cretaceous–Palaeogene planktonic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages were studied in the Zabratówka section of the Ropianka Formation in the Skole Nappe. The Racemiguembelina fructicosa and Abathomphalus mayaroensis standard foraminiferal biozones were distinguished. The K-T boundary was recognized within the interval between samples ZB10B–ZB9A, mainly composed of marly mudstones, interlayered with thin-bedded sandstones, and is characterized by the disappearance of planktonic taxa and an abundance of agglutinated species. Foraminiferal assemblages, collected from the turbiditic flysch-type sediments, indicate a primary depositional environment on the outer shelf to the upper part of the continental slope, with shallowing during the Maastrichtian in the part of the Skole Basin studied. The foraminiferids correspond to the assemblages of a palaeobiogeographical “transition” zone, located between the Boreal and Tethyan domains.
EN
In the Polish sector of the Magura Nappe have long been known and exploited carbonate mineral waters, saturated with carbon dioxide, known as the “shchava (szczawa)”. These waters occur mainly in the Krynica Subunit of the Magura Nappe, between the Dunajec and Poprad rivers, close to the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). The origin of these waters is still not clear, this applies to both “volcanic” and “metamorphic” hypotheses. Bearing in mind the case found in the Szczawa tectonic window and our geological and geochemical studies we suggest that the origin of the carbon dioxide may be linked with the thermal/pressure alteration of organic matter of the Oligocene deposits from the Grybów Unit. These deposits, exposed in several tectonic windows of the Magura Nappe, are characterized by the presence of highly matured organic matter – the origin of the hydrocarbon accumulations. This is supported by the present-day state of organic geochemistry studies of the Carpathian oil and gas bed rocks. In our opinion origin of the carbon-dioxide was related to the southern, deep buried periphery of the Carpathian Oil and Gas Province. The present day distribution of the carbonated mineral water springs has been related to the post-orogenic uplift and erosion of the Outer (flysch) Carpathians.
EN
Landslides are very common features in the Polish Outer Carpathians. In the classical cartography, landslides are recognized based on characteristic land relief: main and side scarps, toe, minor scarps, transverse ridges, recesses and cracks. Formerly, landslide mapping was carried out in the field, preceded by interpretation of topographic maps and aerial photographs. Nowadays, we use spatial data from airborne laser scanning (ALS). Spatial data reprocessing permits to achieve a high-resolution (pixel 1*1 m or more precise) digital terrain model (DTM). Exploration of land relief in search for landslides has become simpler and more accurate. DTM interpretation allows delimiting the boundaries of landslides and elements of their relief. By analysing groups oflandforms it is possible to determine the type of colluvium movement. In the eastern part of the Low Beskid Mts., four types of landslides predominate: rotational slides, translational slides, flows, and complex movements. Types of landslides are usually very well visible on the DTM. Information about types of mass movements can be useful during modelling further landslide activity and designing instrumental identification works and possibility ofstabilization.
PL
Głównym celem prezentowanej pracy jest wstępna interpretacja strukturalna wykonana na bazie przetwarzania archiwalnego profilu sejsmicznego 2D z brzeżnej strefy nasunięcia karpackiego. Przetwarzanie to zrealizowano w Zakładzie Sejsmiki Instytutu Nafty i Gazu – Państwowego Instytutu Badawczego w Krakowie. Odpowiedni dobór zarówno sekwencji przetwarzania, jak i parametrów aplikowanych do poszczególnych procedur, a także weryfikacja każdego etapu przetwarzania poprzez prowadzoną na bieżąco interpretację geologiczną, przyniosły w efekcie nieco inne odwzorowanie niektórych cech budowy geologicznej rejonu. Wstępna interpretacja strukturalna obecnej wersji przekroju sejsmicznego dostarcza nowych informacji, które mogą być wykorzystane do odtworzenia poszczególnych etapów rozwoju tektonicznego analizowanego obszaru.
EN
The main aim of the presented work is a preliminary structural interpretation, based on the 2D reprocessing of seismic profile from the marginal zone of the Outer Carpathians. Reprocessing was done in the Seismic Department of Oil and Gas Institute – National Research Institute in Krakow, Poland. Proper selection of both the processing sequence and applied parameters to specific procedures, as well as verification of each stage of processing by simultaneous geological interpretation, resulted in a partly different mapping of the geological structures. Preliminary structural interpretation of the current version of the seismic section, provides new information that could be used, to reconstruct individual stages of the tectonic development in the analyzed area.
EN
The Carpathians may play a significant role as a supplier of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Unfortunately, most of the discovered oil and gas deposits are recently only historical objects. An example is the Sękowa-Ropica Górna-Siary oil deposit located in the marginal part of the Magura Nappe where oil had been extracted in dug wells until the mid XX century. One of such extraction sites is the “Pusty Las” oilfield. In that area, 10 methane and carbon dioxide emission measurement sites were located, among which 4 in dried dug wells and 6 in dig wells still filled with oil and/or water. Dynamics of methane and carbon dioxide concentration changes were measured with the modified static chambers method. Gas samples were collected immediately after the installation of the chamber and again, after 5 and 10 minutes. In the case of reclaimed or dry dug wells, static chamber was installed directly at the ground surface. In wells still filled with oil and/or water the chamber was equipped with an “apron” mounted on special sticks. The dynamics of concentrations changes varied from -0.871 to 119.924 ppm∙min-1 for methane and from -0.005 to 0.053% obj∙min-1 for carbon dioxide. Average methane emission was 1.9 g∙m-2∙d-1 and that of carbon dioxide was 26.95 g∙-2∙d-1. The measurements revealed that an abandoned oil field supplies significant amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere although the emission of methane is lower than that measured e.g. in mud volcanoes located in various parts of the world.
EN
Random vitrinite reflectance of allochthonous plant material varies throughout all the flysch sedimentary units of the Outer Western Carpathians. The vitrinite reflectance of coalified phytogenic matter is variable even within the same lithostratigraphic unit. There is no clear relationship between random vitrinite reflectance and stratigraphy (age of particular strata) within surface samples. The typical pattern of increasing random reflectance with depth in boreholes is unsettled by Rro “jumps” which occur within folds and overthrusts. However, this study revealed a trend of increasing random vitrinite reflectance from north to south in the area of the Magura Unit. A compressional regime involving phases of uplift and burial, varying from place to place in the flysch basin, was the main factor influencing coalification. The initial maturity of organic matter transported to the marine environment was a secondary factor. A degree of coalification had occurred in the flysch sediments prior to the main stage of fold-and-thrust movements associated with the phase of maximum tectonic subsidence at the end of the Eocene. It is generally assumed that coalified plant material dispersed in sedimentary rocks experienced the same physical and chemical changes as those in larger accumulations of coal. Coalification of phytogenic material coeval with flysch in the Outer Carpathians corresponds to the interval from sub-bituminous to low-medium-rank bituminous coal.
EN
During the Paleogene, the area of the northern Tethys was controlled by a turbidity system stimulated by diastrophic and geodynamic processes. These factors contributed to the dispersion and rapid oxygenation of organic debris. Its accumulation was a consequence of stagnant bottom water conditions that periodically occurred in the basin. In these periods, intense decomposition intensified by hydrothermal and diagenetic processes was associated with oxygen consumption and the release of greenhouse gases, which led to hypoxia and acidification. These phenomena intensified by thermal and density stratification had a major impact on the structure, evolution and distribution of biota. Stress associated with rapidly changing conditions induced by sedimentary process and upwelling resulted in the dominance of forms that colonized most sediments (Glomospira, Ammodiscus, Recurvoides, Rzehakina) and surface waters (Guembelitria, Chiloguembelina, Globanomalina, Globigerina, Cassigerinella, Catapsydrax). At the time, foraminifera were limited to low-diversified eutrophic assemblages or were mainly replaced by siliceous phytoplankton (radiolarians and diatoms). Geochemical data confirm that environmental crises in the Paleogene basin took place under changing thermal conditions that reflect global events (KTBE, PTME, EEOC and TTE). Thermal stress favouring the formation of certain minerals or rocks occasionally occurred during the Paleocene to Eocene (siderite, phosphates) and dominated in the Early Oligocene (silica).
EN
The thin- and medium-bedded, turbiditic deposits that are exposed in the Bystrica Zone of the Magura Nappe in the Slovak Orava region are the subject of this study. On the basis of lithological features as well as age and stratigraphic position, they are assigned to the Ropianka Formation. The very well exposed rocks of this formation, recognized in the Biela Farma profile in the Slovak part of the northwestern Orava region, are compared with analogous deposits in the Polish Orava and the Beskid Wysoki Mountains. Lithological and biostratigraphical documentation of the Ropianka Formation is presented. This documentation allowed the determination of the age of the rocks studied. Abundant and taxonomically diverse foraminiferal assemblages of agglutinated, benthonic and occasional planktonic forms indicate a Middle Paleocene age for the upper part of the Ropianka Fm. A new stratigraphic position for the Szczawina Sandstone, considered to be a member of the Ropianka Fm, is proposed. The lithostratigraphy of the Ropianka Fm in the Magura Nappe in Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic requires further investigation, including the establishment of new type and reference sections. The large outcrop at Biela Farma should be taken into consideration as a potential reference section. Studies of the new sections will lead to a new monographic elaboration of the Ropianka Fm in Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic.
EN
Rock pore space is a rock mass composed of a large number of irregularly arranged and shaped pores. The diameter of the pores and their distribution and tortuosity determine the possibility of collecting and conducting reservoir fluids (Oil, Natural Gas and Saline water). Characterization of the pore space is intended to determine the distribution and size of the cavities in the rock. The characteristics of the study is based on parameters such as porosity and permeability and upon which the petrophysical static model is built. The article discusses methods of mercury porosimetry from the aspect of the exploration of the pore space of reservoir rocks for hydrocarbons. The research results of the petrophysical parameters of samples similar to typical reservoir rocks and unconventional rocks were presented. The results of capillary pressure tests in graphic form for six samples of the Inoceramian sandstone of the Skole unit were also given. The results of the petrophysical studies show the limitations of the use of the mercury porosimetry method in investigations of low reservoir parameters. Therefore, the authors have identified the next stage of research as exploring the application of the helium porosimetry method due to the chemical neutrality of helium and its small particle size.
PL
Na podstawie badań GC-FID rop pobranych z odwiertów Brelików-46 (złoże Wańkowa), Łodyna-75, Czarna-56, Dwernik-9 i Zatwarnica-7 oraz wypływów powierzchniowych w Warze, Płowcach, Żłobku i Łopience określono stopień zaawansowania procesów wtórnych (biodegradacja, odparowanie frakcyjne, wymywanie wodą). W ropie z odwiertu Zatwarnica-7 nie stwierdzono wtórnych zmian. Ropy ze złóż Wańkowa, Łodyna i Dwernik są częściowo zdegradowane. Najgłębszy zasięg procesy biodegradacyjne osiągnęły w ropie z złoża Czarna oraz mediach pobranych z wycieków powierzchniowych. Zaawansowane procesy odparowania frakcyjnego stwierdzono w ropach pobranych z wycieków w Żłobku i Łopience.
EN
The composition and distribution of C5-C34 hydrocarbons were determined based on the results of chromatographic analyses of crude oils collected from from 5 wells: Brelików-46 (Wańkowa deposit), Łodyna-75, Czarna-56, Zatwarnica-7, Dwernik-9 and 4 seeps: Żłobek, Płowce, Łopienka, Wara. Oil taken from Zatwarnica-7 well did not show presence of any secondary processes. The rest of the oils are more or less biodegraded. The highest intensity of the fractional evaporating process was recorded in oil collected from Żłobek seep which is also the most biodegraded.
EN
The Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute (PGI – NRI), in cooperation with AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow carried out the project of new geopark in Poland – “Wisłok Valley – The Polish Texas”. It is located in the Polish Outer Carpathians (SE part of Poland). Oil fields, mineral water, nappe tectonics and other geological components of the Outer Carpathians constitute important elements of the geodiversity of this region. The area is located in the Krosno neighbourhood and encloses a zone of about 1000 km2. The Iwonicz-Zdrój – Rymanów-Zdrój SPA region is also included in the research area. It covers 20 municipalities of the Podkarpackie province. For the project of the Geopark, a geotouristic map, geosites, geological-educational paths, website, advertising brochures, geological-educational tables and a movie were made, which promote geotourism. The final product will be targeted at regional and local public administration bodies, national and landscape Parks, the State Forests National Forest Holding and local tourist organizations.
PL
Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy we współpracy z Akademią Górniczo-Hutniczą w Krakowie zrealizował projekt nowego geoparku w Polsce „Dolina Wisłoka – Polski Teksas”. Ma się on znajdować w Karpatach zewnętrznych. Złoża ropy naftowej, wody mineralne, tektonika płaszczowinowa i inne geologiczne cechy Karpat zewnętrznych składają się na georóżnorodność tego rejonu. Obszar tego opracowania obejmował ponad 1000 km2 w rejonie Krosna włączając w to również teren uzdrowisk Iwonicza-Zdroju i Rymanowa Zdroju. Projekt ten objął swym zasięgiem 20 gmin województwa podkarpackiego. W ramach projektu wykonano mapę geologiczno- turystyczną, udokumentowano ponad 150 geostanowisk i zaprojektowano dziewięć ścieżek geologiczno-edukacyjnych. Przygotowano też dwa foldery, 12 tablic geologiczno-edukacyjnych, zaprojektowano stronę internetową o projekcie oraz nakręcono film promocyjny. Produkt końcowy skierowany jest do wykorzystania w promocji regionu do samorządów lokalnych, parków krajobrazowych i narodowych, lasów państwowych oraz lokalnych organizacji turystycznych.
EN
The area of investigation is situated close to the contact zone between the Pieniny Klippen Belt, Krynica Subunit of the Magura Nappe and the Neogene strata of the Orava–Nowy Targ Intramontane Basin (southern Poland). In the area studied, marine deposits of the Stare Bystre Formation outcrop at the surface where they emerge from beneath freshwater and terrestrial Neogene and Quaternary deposits. Nannofossil assemblages from all samples are strongly dominated by reworked species. The Early Miocene age (NN2) of the Stare Bystre Formation has been determined on the base of the first occurrence of Sphenolithus disbelemnos after Shackleton et al. (2000). During the Late Oligocene (NP25/NN1), the frontal part of Magura Nappe was thrust northwards on to the terminal Krosno flysch basin. The northwards thrusting of the Magura Nappe was accompanied by the formation of the piggy-back basin on the Magura Nappe, filled with the synrorogenic turbidites belonging to the Zawada, Kremná and Stare Bystre formations (NN2).
PL
Solanki, czyli wody chlorkowe o mineralizacji od 35 g/dm3, w Karpatach zewnętrznych udokumentowano bardzo licznymi odwiertami poszukiwawczymi, głównie za ropą naftową i gazem ziemnym. Występowanie wód chlorkowych (solanek) jest związane ze wszystkimi jednostkami tektonicznymi Karpat zewnętrznych i z ich podłożem. Na obszarze Karpat solanki wyprowadzają tylko cztery źródła, dwa znajdują się na obszarze płaszczowiny magurskiej w Soli k. Żywca i dwa w Tyrawie Solnej k. Sanoka na obszarze płaszczowiny skolskiej. Geneza karpackich solanek jest bardzo skomplikowana. Są to wody diagenetyczne (synsedymentacyjne, paleoinfiltracyjne, dehydratacyjne), czyli wody pierwotne, przeobrażone procesami diagenezy, zmieszane w różnych proporcjach z wodami infiltracyjnymi. Źródła solanek udokumentowane w miejscowościach Tyrawa Solna i Sól posiadają aspekt historyczny związany z warzelnictwem soli, o czym świadczą również nazwy miejscowości, w których występują.
EN
Brines, or in other words chloride waters with the TDS content exceeding 35 g/dm3, have been found and documented in the Outer Carpathians in many wells drilled during prospecting for oil and gas. Such waters are associated with all the tectonic units of the Outer Carpathians and their basement. In the Carpathians the brines occur only in four springs: two of them are located within the Magura Unit in Sól near Żywiec, and two others in Tyrawa Solna near Sanok within the Skole Unit. The genesis of the Carpathian brines is much complicated. They represent diagenetic waters (synsedimentary, paleoinfiltrational, dehydrative ones), i.e., primary waters altered by diagenetic processes and mixed in various proportions with infiltration waters. The brine springs in Tyrawa Solna and Sól are of important historic aspect as they were used for salt making. This fact is also proved by the names of the localities in which they occur.
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