Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 40

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  Europa Środkowa
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
PL
Na podstawie analizy przestrzennego rozmieszczenia parków narodowych i obszarów chronionego krajobrazu Polski (parki krajobrazowe), Czech, Słowacji i Węgier oceniono czy tworzone w poszczególnych krajach systemy ochrony przyrody i krajobrazu są reprezentatywne również dla prowincji fizycznogeograficznych w granicach państw. Stwierdzono znaczną reprezentatywność w prowincjach głównie górskich i wskazano na dalsze możliwości ochrony. Na podstawie oceny stopnia integracji systemów ochrony przyrody i krajobrazu w rejonach przygranicznych określono obszary, które powinny uzupełnić system. Między poszczególnymi krajami występują różnice w przestrzennej organizacji parków narodowych i obszarów ochrony krajobrazu. Współpraca transgraniczna w ostatnich 30 latach znacznie się poprawiła. Większość przygranicznych parków narodowych i obszarów ochrony krajobrazu ma swoje kontinuum w kraju sąsiednim w formach podobnej rangi. Najsłabsze powiązania przestrzenne występują na granicy Węgier i Słowacji.
EN
Based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of national parks and protected landscape areas in Poland (landscape parks), the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, it was assessed whether the systems of nature and landscape protection created in individual countries are representative also for physico-geographical provinces within state borders. High representativeness was found in predominantly mountain provinces and further conservation options were indicated. Based on the assessment of the degree of integration of nature and landscape protection systems in border regions, areas that should complement the system have been identified. There are differences between individual countries in the spatial organization of national parks and landscape protection areas. Cross-border cooperation has improved significantly in the last 30 years. Most of the border national parks and landscape protection areas have their continuum in the neighboring country in forms of a similar rank. The weakest spatial connections are found on the border between Hungary and Slovakia.
PL
Ratunkiem dla niszczejącego dziedzictwa kulturowego Europy Środkowej jest kompleksowo i skutecznie przeprowadzana rewitalizacja. Jest ona jednym z najważniejszych sposobów zapewnienia ładu przestrzennego i wysokiej jakości przestrzeni publicznej. Pomimo transformacji politycznej, jaką przeszła Europa Środkowa, a później w następstwie wstąpienia do Unii Europejskiej absorbcji funduszy pomocowych, problem rewitalizacji jej bezcennego dziedzictwa kulturowego wciąż nie został rozwiązany. Brak środków finansowych jest dla większości władz publicznych cały czas jednym z najbardziej palących problemów w odniesieniu do ochrony oraz utrzymania zarządzanych przez siebie obiektów zabytkowych. Przy ograniczonych środkach publicznych jedyną możliwością realizacji zadań rewitalizacyjnych jest sięgnięcie do doświadczeń i kapitału finansowego sektora prywatnego. Z pomocą przychodzi tutaj formuła partnerstwa publiczno-prywatnego (PPP). Niestety, do dzisiaj jest tylko kilka przykładów PPP w projektach rewitalizacyjnych. Jedną z przyczyn niewielkiego wykorzystania tej formuły jest brak wystarczającej wiedzy i dobrych praktyk. Najlepszym sposobem na zmianę tej sytuacji jest zwiększenie kompetencji i wiedzy zarówno władz publicznych, jak i podmiotów prywatnych w zakresie wykorzystania mechanizmów PPP, również przy okazji rewitalizacji obiektów dziedzictwa kulturowego. Przykładem takiego działania jest projekt Restaura realizowany wspólnie przez 10 instytucji z 4 środkowoeuropejskich państw: Polski, Słowacji, Chorwacji oraz Słowenii. Ma on na celu współpracę instytucji partnerskich w zakresie stworzenia skutecznych strategii dla odnowienia dziedzictwa kulturowego z wykorzystaniem PPP. W ramach projektu miasta partnerskie wskażą obiekt/obszar przeznaczony do rewitalizacji. Następnie przygotowana zostanie kompleksowa dokumentacja techniczna, prawna i finansowa. Zniszczony zabytek będzie przygotowany do prac restauratorskich w formule PPP. Stworzona baza dokumentów i dobrych praktyk będzie ogólnodostępna i stanie się wzorem dla innych samorządów i prywatnych inwestorów w Europie Środkowej.
EN
The last hope for the deteriorating cultural heritage in Central Europe is a complex and efficiently carried out revitalisation. It is one of the most important ways to ensure spatial order and high quality public spaces. Despite the political transformations that Central Europe underwent, and then acquiring aid funds as a result of accession to the EU, the problem of revitalising the priceless cultural heritage has still not been resolved. The lack of sufficient funds has been one of the most urgent issues for the majority of authorities in reference to the protection and maintenance of historic objects they are in charge of. With limited public funds, the only possibility to implement revitalisation tasks is to use the experience and the financial capital of the private sector. The formula of the public-private partnership (PPP) might be of help here. Unfortunately, revitalisation projects have only included a few examples of PPP so far. One of the reasons for the rare use of the formula is insufficient knowledge and lack of good practice. The best way to change the situation is increasing the competence and knowledge of both the authorities and private subjects concerning the application of the PPP mechanisms, also for the revitalisation of the cultural heritage. An example of such an activity is the Restaura project realised by 10 cooperating institutions from 4 Central-European states: Poland, Slovakia, Croatia and Slovenia. Its goal is the cooperation of partner institutions in order to create effective strategies for restoring the cultural heritage using the PPP. Within the project partner cities indicate the object/ area intended for revitalisation. Then a complex technical, legal and financial documentation is prepared. The damaged historic object will be prepared for the restoration treatment within the PPP formula. The created document and good practice base will be generally available and will set an example for other local authorities and private investors in Central Europe.
EN
The Miechów Trough and the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep in southern Poland have a highly complex geological structure and numerous fault zones. These features play a significant role in hydrogeological conditions of the area. In this area drinking water, medicinal groundwater or thermal groundwater occur, so recognition of their circulations is basic for reasonable groundwater management. In this note, a hydrogeological conceptual model, created for the purpose of regional scale mathematical modelling, is presented. This conceptual model illustrates the geology of the hydrogeological system modelled, as well as hydrogeological conditions and characteristics of groundwater circulation, as determined by tectonics. Typical of the research area is the wide diversity of geological and hydrogeological conditions. The Busko-Zdrój area, a region with a long history of exploitation of medicinal groundwater, presents the best example.
EN
During fieldwork in the early 1990s at the then still active quarry near Nasiłów, on the left bank of the River Vistula (Wisła), accompanied by Professor Andrzej Radwański, some lobster remains were collected. A fragmentary anterior portion of a decapod crustacean carapace, recovered from a level about 2 m below the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, in a siliceous chalk unit locally referred to as ‘opoka’, constitutes the oldest record of the thaumastocheliform genus Dinochelus Ahyong, Chan and Bouchet, 2010, D. radwanskii sp. nov. The other, more complete, individual is from c. 3 m above the K/Pg boundary, coming from marly gaizes or ‘siwak’; this is ascribed to a new species of Hoploparia M’Coy, 1849, H. nasilowensis sp. nov., the first to be recorded from Danian (lower Paleocene) strata. Although both ‘opoka’ and ‘siwak’ facies in the Nasiłów area are very rich in diverse biota, including some brachyurans, no macruran remains had so far been recorded from the region.
EN
We describe a new echinoid assemblage, composed of specimens of Bolbaster sp., Cyclaster danicus (Schlüter, 1897), Diplodetus vistulensis (Kongiel, 1950) and Linthia? sp. in a distinctive phosphatic preservation, from the so-called Greensand, a marly glauconitic sandstone horizon at the base of the Danian succession in the Kazimierz Dolny area (central Poland). This assemblage presumably is of early Danian age, with Cyclaster danicus occurring in the lower Danian of Denmark and southern Sweden. The specimens are preserved as internal moulds, composed of phosphatised glauconitic sandstone, occasionally with some test material adhering. The genesis of these moulds involved the following steps: (1) infilling of tests of dead echinoids with glauconitic sand; (2) penetration of the infills by coelobiotic deposit-feeding organisms that produced burrows along the inner test surface; (3) early-diagenetic cementation of infills by calcium phosphate; and (4) exhumation and intraformational reworking of specimens, leading to abrasion, fragmentation and loss of test material in some individuals. Co-occurring are unphosphatised moulds of Echinocorys ex gr. depressa (von Eichwald, 1866) and Pseudogibbaster cf. depressus (Kongiel in Kongiel and Matwiejewówna, 1937), which may represent a younger (middle to late Danian) assemblage. Additionally, the presence of derived late Maastrichtian echinoids, e.g., Temnocidaris (Stereocidaris) ex gr. herthae (Schlüter, 1892), Pleurosalenia bonissenti (Cotteau, 1866) and Hemicara pomeranum Schlüter, 1902, is confirmed for the Greensand, based on new material and re- examination of previously recorded specimens. In summary, members of three echinoid assemblages of different age and preservation occur together in the Greensand. Our results are compatible with former interpretations of this unit as a condensed, transgressive lag with mixed faunas of different age and provenance. However, they are incompatible with the hypothesis that phosphatised Danian fossils preserved in the Greensand are derived from a facies equivalent, now gone, of the lower Danian Cerithium Limestone in eastern Denmark, because all moulds are composed of phosphatised glauconitic sandstone that is utterly different from the calcareous dinocyst-dominated, fine crystalline matrix of the Cerithium Limestone.
EN
Assessing habitat naturalness belongs to the most current issues in conservation biology. It has been recognized that plants are able to indicate the naturalness of their habitat. Thus, species may be given relative naturalness indicator values (i.e. scores on an ordinal scale), reflecting their different tolerances against habitat degradation. In the present study, our first goal was to test whether relative naturalness indicator values are able to reveal known differences in naturalness levels. Our second purpose was to compare four different methodological approaches in order to identify which is the most reliable when analyzing habitat naturalness. We compared near-natural and degraded plots on the bases of (1) unweighted plot means, (2) plot medians, (3) unweighted naturalness indicator value populations, and (4) frequency-weighted naturalness indicator value populations. We found that relative naturalness indicator values performed well in differentiating among near-natural and degraded vegetation. Unweighted mean indicator values were the most reliable, but frequency-weighted indicator value populations were nearly as efficient as unweighted means. We conclude that relative naturalness indicator values provide a simple but reliable tool for estimating habitat deterioration.
EN
The impact of biological invasions should be considered from ecological and economic perspective. To understand the influence of the invader, both its range and abundance should be known. Even if the range of invaders is well-known, the problem of assessing their abundance still occurs very often. In this study we report the results of an assessment of the area covered by stands of alien Solidago species in Silesia (Central Europe, south-western Poland, area ca. 30 000 km2), and estimated costs of the invaded areas recultivation. The results of field survey show that the stands of invasive Solidago species cover an area of about 130 000 hectares in S-W Poland, which is ca. 4.5% of the total area of the studied region. It was also found that the cadastral data and Corine land cover maps underestimate the area of fallowed agricultural lands. The cost of removing stands of invasive Solidago species in S-W Poland ranges from 123.24 to 266.17 million PLN, depending on the method. The method that balances reasonable costs, low environmental impact and efficiency of grassland establishment costs 180.7 million PLN for S-W Poland.
PL
Wywiad z Kamilem Szymańskim, nowym Associate Director w Dziale Powierzchni Magazynowych i Przemysłowych Savills.
EN
Stromatoporoids of the family Actinostromatidae are common constituents of Givetian to Frasnian (Devonian) organic buildups. The species-level structure of actinostromatid assemblages from the Devonian of southern Poland is described in the present paper, with special emphasis on ecological factors that influenced species composition of the communities. Nine species of the genera Actinostroma and Bifariostroma are distinguished. Members of the family Actinostromatidae predominated in stromatoporoid assemblages within lower Frasnian carbonate buildup margins. The most diverse actinostromatid faunas were found within the middle Givetian Stringocephalus Bank, in the upper Givetian–lower Frasnian biostromal complex and in the lower Frasnian organic buildups. Species-level biodiversity was lowest within detrital facies which surrounded the Frasnian carbonate buildups. Species of Actinostroma with well-developed colliculi are commonest within the middle Givetian to early Frasnian coral-stromatoporoid biostromal complexes, whereas species with strongly reduced colliculi predominate early-middle Frasnian organic buildups. The skeletal structure of actinostromatids reflects environmental changes, documenting a transition from species with thin, close-set pillars and widely spaced laminae (common in the middle Givetian) to those with long, thick pillars and megapillars (in Bifariostroma), which were predominant during the early and middle Frasnian. The distribution of growth forms among species reveals a significant intraspecific variation. Species of Actinostroma can be either tabular or low domical, depending on the palaeoenvironmental setting. Thus, the present study confirms that stromatoporoid morphology was influenced by environmental conditions.
EN
Petrophysical investigations are fundamental to natural resource exploration. In order to recognise the geothermal potential of sedimentary rocks in central Poland, 259 samples were collected from prospective deep-lying geothermal reservoirs. Parameters measured include bulk density, skeletal density, effective porosity, permeability, average pore diameter and specific surface. Results indicate that at great depths (mostly > 3,000 m below surface) sedimentary rocks show low values of porosity (mainly less than 5%) and permeability (only sporadically in excess of 1 md). These values call for a petrothermal use of reservoirs, for which an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) was developed. Reservoirs suited for the EGS are Carboniferous and Lower Triassic sandstones in the central part of Poland (Mogilno-Łódź Trough region and a small part of the Kujawy Swell and Fore-Sudetic regions). In addition, Carboniferous limestones in this area are potentially prospective.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozwój kartografii geologicznej Sudetów i Dolnego Śląska począwszy od wydanej w 1791 r. pierwszej mapy geologicznej Karkonoszy, opracowanej przez J. Jiraska, poprzez mapy L. von Bucha, C. von Raumera i A. Kalužy z początku XIX w., przez liczne wydania atlasowe ukazujące się w całym XIX w., kończąc na szczegółowych mapach w skali 1 : 25 000, opracowywanych już w XX w. Były one później bazą do opracowania map reambulowanych, powstających po 1945 r.
EN
The paper presents the development of the geological mapping of in the Sudetes and Lower Silesia, starting from issuing in 1791 the first geological map of the Karkonosze Mountains, developed by J. Jirasek and issued in 1791, through maps of L. von Buch, C. von Raumer and A. Kaluža from the beginning of the 19th century, through and numerous editions of atlases published throughout the 19th century, ending with the detailed maps produced at the scale of 1 : 25,000 in at the beginning of the 20th century. The latter maps were the basis for the geological maps prepared after 1945.
PL
W artykule opisano system oceny stanu bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego, który został stworzony w ramach realizacji projektu europejskiego SOL – Save Our Lives – Kompleksowa Strategia Bezpieczeństwa Ruchu Drogowego dla Europy Środkowej. System oceny obejmuje cztery najważniejsze elementy: ocenę stanu brd w regionie, analizę interesariuszy, ocenę kompetencji instytucji oraz badanie opinii społecznej przeprowadzone wśród uczestników ruchu drogowego. Ten ostatni element został szerzej przedstawiony w artykule.
EN
The paper describes road safety assessment system, developed within European project SOL – Save Our Lives – A Comprehensive Road Safety Strategy for Central Europe. System is composed of four crucial elements: road safety assessment, stakeholders analysis, institutions competence analysis and public opinion poll. This last element is presented in the article more extensively.
13
Content available remote Wintering Farmland Bird Assemblages in West Hungary
EN
Farmland bird populations declining rapidly all over Europe. Most of the knowledge is, however, from the breeding season, and much less is known about the winter period, especially from Central and Eastern Europe. We censused wintering farmland bird assemblages in West Hungary, in 2011/2012. The censuses covered semi-natural and seeded grasslands, plough fields and wheat fields. The available winter seed food was estimated for each field from the top soil and from the vegetation. We recorded 25 species with 844 individuals on the fields. Semi-natural grasslands were the most important habitats for species richness of all, granivorous, and resident species, with seeded grasslands as the second best habitat. Abundance showed similar pattern, although with no significant effect for granivorous species and for short-range migrants. Seed mass was significantly different among the habitat types, higher on seeded grasslands and seminatural grasslands than on ploughed sites and winter wheat fields. Date had a significant effect on species richness and abundance with highest values in December. There was a positive significant correlation between bird species richness and seed mass only in December. Our results strengthen former findings that changes and drivers of wintering farmland bird populations may differ between Central and West Europe, and highlight the need for further, large scale studies to provide evidence base to guide agrienvironmental programs.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono postać Christopha Traugotta Deliusa, XVIII-wiecznego uczonego, twórcy pierwszego podręcznika akademickiego w dziedzinie górnictwa, a także wybitnego praktyka, zajmującego się unowocześnieniem górnictwa austro-węgierskiego, uhonorowanego wysokimi stanowiskami. Omówione zostały jego dzieła, zwłaszcza najważniejsze Wprowadzenie do sztuki górniczej.
EN
The article presents the person of Christoph Traugott Delius, 18th century scientist, author of the first university mining handbook, eminent expert in modernizing the austrian-hungarian mining, honoured with a high government post. Delius’ books are discussed in the all-important Anleitung zu der Bergbaukunst. It is the first academic handbook of mining science covering a range of topics from geology, through exploitation technology, construction of mining machinery, economics and managing in mining, to the importance of mining for the State. The extensive report on opal noble mining in Hungary is especially worth mentioning here.
EN
The study area, situated near the city of Wrocław in southwest Poland, is part of the hydrogeological system of the Quaternary/Neogene MGB 319, inclusive of a buried valley of high water potential, named the Bogdaszowice structure. This structure is an alternative source of water supply for the Wrocław city area. Numerical modelling is the most effective tool in establishing a groundwater protection strategy for Major Groundwater Basins (MGBs) in complex aquifer systems. In the present study, the first step was to assess the hydrodynamic conditions of the Radakowice groundwater intake by analyses of head contours, pathlines, average flow times and capture zones of particular wells. Subsequently, these results were used in combination with other data and compiled as GIS layers. The spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity was based on the lithology of surface sediments. Other data sets such as the thickness of the unsaturated zone, average soil moisture and infiltration rate were taken either directly from the model or were calculated. Based on the input data obtained, vertical flow time calculations for every model cell were made. The final outcome is a map of the protection zone for the aquifer system of the MGB 319.
16
Content available remote Habitat preferences of some neophytes with a reference to habitat disturbances
EN
The spread of species far from their native range is an important component of global changes. Investigating the ability of alien plants to invade different habitats is one of the most important approaches in the analysis of biological invasion mechanisms. The study was based on floristic research carried out in 1998–2002 in the north-western part of Poland. The habitats sampled were classified according to the EUNIS classification. A dataset of 2638 naturalized neophyte records was compiled based on a total of 2132 floristic lists. Species entries were supplemented with data on taxonomic position (family), origin, frequency, life form and number of habitats a particular species colonises. Ordination analyses showed the level of disturbance in individual habitats to be important in species-habitats relationships. Some of the species (e.g. Chamomilla suaveolens, Galinsoga parviflora, Veronica persica) occurred mainly in man-made, heavily disturbed habitats, while others (e.g. Impatiens parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra) were present primarily in natural habitats, less affected by humans. The species with the broadest habitat ranges identified included, i.a. Conyza canadensis, Impatiens parviflora, Epilobium ciliatum, and Oxalis fontana. Most of them, however, had different “core” habitats. Some species, e.g. Juncus tenuis, Elodea canadensis, Veronica persica were associated with one or a few habitats. The ability of species to invade numerous habitat types did not depend on their invasive status. The most successful aliens are those which spread dynamically along forest paths as well as those penetrating forest communities. The phytocoenotic role of each naturalized neophyte in plant communities requires a detailed study.Each individual habitat supports well-established alien species whose traits fit its characteristics and the disturbance intensity. Analysis of alien species traits, local distribution, habitat preferences and range makes it possible to reliably assess potentially successful invaders.
17
Content available remote Niezwykle chłodne sezony letnie w Europie Środkowej i Wschodniej (1951-2010)
PL
W pracy podjęto zagadnienie występowania niezwykle chłodnych sezonów letnich (NZL) – zjawiska rzadkiego, ale wywołującego wiele negatywnych skutków, m.in. w rolnictwie, gospodarce i turystyce. Określono zasięg przestrzenny i dokonano charakterystyki termicznej tych sezonów na obszarze Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej. Badania oparto na wartościach średnich miesięcznych temperatury powietrza (od czerwca do sierpnia) oraz liczby dni z temperaturą maksymalną >25, >30 i >35⁰C i minimalną >20⁰C z 59 stacji meteorologicznych z lat 1951-2010. Za NZL przyjęto te, w których średnia temperatura powietrza była niższa od średniej z 60-lecia na danej stacji przynajmniej o 2 odchylenia standardowe (t≤tśr.-2σ). NZL nie występują na całym obszarze; wystąpiły na 34 spośród 59 stacji (58% stacji), po jednym lub dwa w ciągu 60 lat, głównie w północnej połowie obszaru. Wyłoniono 6 NZL: w roku 1962, 1969, 1976, 1978, 1984 i 1994, które swym zasięgiem objęły przynajmniej 5% stacji. Średnia temperatura powietrza w NZL była zwykle niższa od średniej wieloletniej o 2-3⁰C. W NZL jeden z miesięcy mógł być również niezwykle chłodny, ale w większości przypadków (58%) o niezwykle niskiej średniej temperaturze w sezonie decydowało długotrwałe utrzymywanie się względnie niskiej temperatury we wszystkich miesiącach lata.
EN
The authors analysed the occurrence of exceptionally cold summer seasons (ECS). The phenomenon is rare, but can cause several adverse effects on agriculture, industry and tourism. The study involves the spatial extent and thermal profiling of such seasons in Central and Eastern Europe. Input data included average monthly temperature (June-August) and the number of days with a maximum temperature >25, >30 and >35⁰C and a minimum temperature >20⁰C, recorded at 59 weather stations during the period 1951-2010. An ECS was defined as having an average temperature lower than the 60-year average at a given station by at least 2 standard deviations (t≤tśr.-2σ). The study showed that ECS only occurred in some parts, mostly northern, of the study area, at 34 of the 59 stations (58%), and never more than twice at a given station. Six such seasons were identified that covered at least 5% of all stations at a time, including 1962, 1969, 1976, 1978, 1984 and 1994. The average air temperature of an ECS was normally 2-3⁰C lower than the long-term average. Some ECS also had an exceptionally cold month, but in most cases (58%) the seasonal criterion of exceptional coldness was met due to the persistence of relatively low temperatures during all of the summer season.
PL
Celem artykułu jest prezentacja wyników analiz przeprowadzonych w ramach projektu KMPIRIC w zakresie identyfikacji zachęt dla rozwoju transportu intermodalnego, stosowanych w krajach Europy Środkowo - Wschodniej.
EN
The purpose of this paper is presentation of the EMPIRIC project analysis of incentives for the development of intermodal transport in Central Europe.
PL
W artykule omówiono uwarunkowania rozwoju połączeń komodalnych w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej. Podano przykłady aktywności podmiotów na rzecz rozwoju sieci i korytarzy transportowych w ramach TEN-T. Opisano przykłady wykorzystania programów Unii Europejskiej do rozwoju powiązań komodalnych
EN
This paper discusses the requirements of the development of the comodal connections in Central and Eastern Europe. The examples of the companies activity in the development of the networks and the TEN-T corridors are presented. The examples of the selected EU programs implemented in the Central and Eastern Europe, whose aim is to develop comodal corridors are described.
20
Content available Środkowoeuropejska wspólnota bezpieczeństwa
PL
W lutym 2011 r. minęła dwudziesta rocznica powstania Grupy Wyszehradzkiej (V4), wspólnotowej inicjatywy, która stanowi podstawę instytucjonalnej współpracy Czech, Polski, Słowacji i Węgier. Zasadniczym powodem jej powstania była koncentracja wysiłków państw członkowskim na wspólnym osiągnięciu członkostwa w NATO i UE. Po osiągnięciu tych celów powstało pytanie związane z podtrzymywaniem współpracy w zarysowanych wcześniej ramach. Zdecydowano, że Grupa Wyszehradzka będzie wciąż służyła kooperacji czterech państw, ale w nieco innych wymiarach. Analiza badawcza będzie skupiona na teorii konstruktywistycznej i teorii wspólnoty bezpieczeństwa Karla Deutscha.
EN
On February 2011 there was the twentieth anniversary of the Visegrad Group (V4), a community of states’ initiatives, which forms the basis for institutional cooperation between Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary. Its primary raison d’etat was the concentration of the efforts of member states to achieve a common membership in NATO and the EU. After these goals were reached, the question emerged with respect to continued cooperation within the previously established framework. It was decided that the Visegrad Group will continue to serve cooperation of the four countries, yet in slightly different dimensions. The analysis pertaining to this matter is based on the constructivist theory and theory of security communities by Karl Deutsch.
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.