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EN
This paper investigates improving the leading-edge of a hydrofoil with sinusoidal protuberances based on its hydrodynamic performance. The original hydrofoil geometry was inspired by the leading edge of the flipper of a humpback whale. A multi-step optimization process was performed for a 634-021 hydrofoil. The free-form deformation technique defined the shape parameters as a variable design, and these parameters included the amplitude of the leading-edge protuberances, which ranged from 0 to 20% of the chord length, and the corrugate span, with 3 and 4 crests. The flow characteristics of a parametric hydrofoil were examined using a CFD solver, and the lift, drag, and lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) were computed as responses to the optimization cycle. To accomplish this, two design study methods were sequentially applied at different angles of attack. A full factorial design sweep tool was applied that went through all parameter value combinations, and an RBF-based surrogate model was constructed to investigate the system behavior. The results indicated the existence of an optimum design point, and the highest L/D ratio was determined to be 10.726 at a 12° angle of attack.
2
Content available Numerical modeling of RDE
EN
The idea of using the phenomenon of rotating detonation to propulsion has its roots in fifties of the last century in works of Adamson et al. and Nicholls et al. at the University of Michigan. The idea was recently reinvented and experimental research and numerical simulations on the Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) are carried in numerous institutions worldwide, in Poland at Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) since 2004. Over the period 2010-2014 WUT and Institute of Aviation (IOA) jointly implemented the project under the Innovative Economy Operational Programme entitled ‘Turbine engine with detonation combustion chamber’. The goal of the project was to replace the combustion chamber of turboshaft engine GTD-350 with the annular detonation chamber. This paper is focused on investigation of the influence of a geometry and flow conditions on the structure and propagation stability of the rotating detonation wave. Presented results are in majority an outcome of the aforementioned programme, in particular authors’ works on the development of the in-house code REFLOPS USG and its application to simulation of the rotating detonation propagation in the RDE.
PL
Pomysł wykorzystania zjawiska wirującej detonacji do napędu był po raz pierwszy rozważany w latach pięćdziesiątych ubiegłego wieku przez zespoły badawcze Adamsona i Nichollsa na Uniwersytecie Michigan. Badania nad silnikiem z detonacyjną komorą spalania zostały wznowione po blisko 40 latach i dziś prace prowadzone są w wielu jednostkach naukowych na świecie, a w Polsce na Politechnice Warszawskiej od 2004 roku. W latach 2010-2014 Instytut Lotnictwa oraz Politechnika Warszawska wspólnie realizowały projekt w ramach Programu Operacyjnego Innowacyjna Gospodarka ‘Silnik Turbinowy z detonacyjną komorą spalania’. Projekt zakłada zastąpienie komory spalania turbowałowego silnika GTD-350 pierścieniową komorą detonacyjną. Artykuł skupia się na badaniach numerycznych wpływu geometrii oraz parametrów przepływu na strukturę i stabilność propagacji wirującej detonacji. Przedstawione wyniki są w większości wynikiem prac autorów nad rozwojem kodu REFLOPS USG w czasie trwania projektu i koncentruje się na rozwoju i implementacji wysokowydajnych metod symulacji silnika z detonacyjną komorą spalania oraz ich zastosowaniu w symulacjach numerycznych propagacji wirującej fali detonacyjnej w silniku RDE.
EN
Efficiency is a crucial parameter for an airplane to reduce both cost of operations and emission of pollutants. There are several airplane concepts that potentially allow for increasing the efficiency. A few of them were not investigated thoroughly enough yet. The inverted joined wing configuration, with the upper wing in front of the lower one is an example of such concept. Therefore, a project consisting of development of an experimental scaled demonstrator, and its wind tunnel and flight testing, was undertaken by consortium: Institute of Aviation, Warsaw University of Technology, Air Force Institute of Technology and a MSP company. Results led to a conclusion, that the inverted joined wing configuration allows to build an airplane with excellent performance, but its advantage against the conventional airplane is marginal because of large trimming drag of the configuration with relatively high position of the thrust vector in pusher configuration. It was applied because the demonstrator was a flying model of manned airplane and the tractor configuration would affect the pilot’s field of observation. However, in case of the UAV, this reason becomes insignificant. Therefore two configurations of tractor propulsion were tested to see, if their performance is better than the performance of original design.
PL
Doskonałość jest kluczowym parametrem samolotu decydującym o redukcji kosztów operacyjnych i ilości emitowanych zanieczyszczeń. Istnieje kilka układów samolotu, które potencjalnie pozwalają na zwiększenie doskonałości. Kilku z nich nie przebadano dotychczas dogłębnie. Konfiguracja odwróconego płata zespolonego, gdzie przednie skrzydło w układzie górnopłata łączy się z tylnym w układzie dolnopłata, jest dobrym przykładem takiej koncepcji. Stąd, projekt mający na celu zbudowanie skalowanego demonstratora oraz przetestowanie w tunelu aerodynamicznym i w locie, został wykonany przez powołane do tego celu konsorcjum w składzie: Instytut Lotnictwa, Politechnika Warszawska, Instytut Techniczny Wojsk Lotniczych i firma MSP. Rezultaty dowiodły, że zastosowanie odwróconej konfiguracji połączonych skrzydeł pozwala na zbudowanie samolotu o doskonałych osiągach. Jego przewaga nad samolotami konwencjonalnymi jest jednak marginalna ze względu na duży opór konfiguracji w warunkach równowagi. Wynika on z konieczności zrównoważenia momentu od relatywnie wysoko położonego napędu. Napęd tak umiejscowiono ze względu na to, że demonstrator był modelem zdalnie sterowanym samolotu załogowego, w którym przedni napęd znacząco ograniczałby pole widzenia załogi. W przypadku bezzałogowca argument ten traci na istotności. Dlatego wybrano i przebadano obliczeniowo dwie konfiguracje napędu ciągnącego, sprawdzając, czy ich osiągi poprawią się względem oryginalnej konstrukcji.
EN
Comfort of the train passengers is the main priority of modern mass rapid transit (MRT) management. Objective of this paper is to investigate the thermal comfort of the elevated MRT station in tropical climate. The first step of this study was to conduct literature review on human thermal comfort, environment ergonomics, computational fluid dynamic (CFD), computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and predicted mean vote (PMV). Air quality in elevated MRT station was measured based on several parameters: relative humidity, wind speed, temperature, and wind direction. A 3D model of MRT designed was used to describe existing condition prior to simulations with CFD and CAA softwares. Predicted mean vote is arranged based on the value of metabolism, wind speed, ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature, amount of insulation from clothing, and relative humidity. Whereas predicted percentage of dissatisfi ed (PPD) can be derived from PMV calculations. The analysis shows that the average PMV of existing condition for elevated outdoor MRT station is 3.6 (extremely hot) with PPD is 100% (all passengers felt discomfort). Some recommendations to reduce heat stress were addressed such as: adding plant, changing materials of the MRT station, and change the design of the elevated MRT station. Modifying open elevated MRT station into indoor elevated MRT station with installing six units of AC (2pk, ±23°C) can improve air quality and maintain the thermal comfort scale of PMV to be –0.04 (comfort) with PPD of < 8%. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the most suitable design for elevated MRT station in tropical climate (hot and humid) is indoor MRT station with pay attention to both direct and indirect heat exposure that hit the station.
EN
As a very important element of most water supply systems, valves are exposed to the effects of strong hydrodynamic forces. When exposed to large physical quantities, the valve and piping can be damaged, which could endanger the performance of a water supply system. This is the main reason why it is necessary to foresee and determine the maximum values of velocity, pressure and other physical quantities that can occur in the system under certain conditions. Predicting extreme conditions allows us to correctly size the valve for the expected conditions to which the valve might be exposed, which is also the main objective of this paper. One of the methods for predicting and determining extreme values on a valve is to perform a simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is exactly the method used in the preparation of this paper with the aim of gaining insight into the physical magnitudes for models of gate valves positioned inside a pipe under characteristic degrees of valve closure. The Ansys CFX 19.1 and Ansys Fluent 19.1 software was used to simulate the hydrodynamic analysis and obtain the required results. The hydrodynamic analysis was performed for four opening degrees of gate valve
EN
In order to quickly obtain practical ship forms with good resistance performance, based on the linear wave-making resistance theory, the optimal design method of ship forms with minimum total resistance is discussed by using the non-linear programming (NLP) method. Taking the total resistance as the objective function (the Michell integral is used to calculate the wave-making resistance and the equivalent plate friction resistance formula is used to calculate the frictional resistance), the hull surface offset as the design variable and appropriate displacement as the basic constraints, and considering the additional constraints, the hull bow shape and the whole ship are optimised, and an improved hull form is obtained. The resistance of the ship before and after optimisation is calculated by the CFD method to further evaluate the resistance reduction effect and performance after optimisation. Finally, an example of optimisation calculation of an actual high-speed ship is given. The obvious resistance reduction results confirm the reliability of the optimisation design method.
PL
W artykule przeprowadzono analizę wpływu potencjalnych źródeł ciepła występujących w pomieszczeniu, zabezpieczanym stałym urządzeniem gaśniczym gazowym, na rozkład stężenia gazu gaśniczego, a tym samym na skuteczność gaśniczą systemu. W badaniach wykorzystano komorę badawczą wyposażoną w stałe urządzenie gaśnicze na dwutlenek węgla oraz aparaturę umożliwiającą dokonywanie pomiarów zmian stężenia gazu gaśniczego w czasie. Badania zostały wykonane w trzech wariantach: przy braku obecności źródeł ciepła; z uwzględnieniem pożaru oraz z uwzględnieniem pożaru i stałego źródła ciepła, w postaci elektrycznej płyty grzewczej, umieszczonego w komorze badawczej. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych analiz stwierdzono znikomy wpływ źródeł ciepła na rozkład stężenia gazu gaśniczego w zaproponowanym układzie przestrzeni chronionej.
EN
This article undertakes to conduct an experimental analysis of the impact of potential heat sources occurring in the room protected by FES-gaseous on the distribution of extinguishing gas concentrations, and thus on the extinguishing efficiency of the system. The research used a test chamber equipped with a fixed gaseous extinguishing system on carbon dioxide and apparatus enabling measurements of changes of extinguishing gasconcentration over time. The tests were carried out in three variants: in the absence of heat sources, with the presence of fire and taking into account the fire and a constant heat source in the form of an electric hobin the test chamber. Based on the analyzes carried out, a slight impact of the heat sources on the distribution of extinguishing gas concentrations in the proposed arrangement of protected space was found.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano ocenę nowego podejścia do przewidywania zmian ciśnienia podczas wyładowania gazu gaśniczego do pomieszczenia chronionego stałymi urządzeniami gaśniczymi gazowymi za pomocą symulacji numerycznych CFD (ang. Computational Fluid Dynamics). Program badawczy składał się z dwóch etapów: pierwszy poświęcony był eksperymentalnym pomiarom zmiany ciśnienia podczas uwolnienia gazu gaśniczego do komory badawczej w skali rzeczywistej (70 m3) z zastosowaniem otworu odciążającego. Drugim etapem było wykonanie symulacji CFD pozwalających wyznaczyć zmiany ciśnienia podczas wyładowania gazu do reprezentowanej numerycznie komory testowej. Oszacowanie poprawności i użyteczności modelu CFD polegało na porównaniu wyników CFD ze standardowymi obliczeniami i pomiarami eksperymentalnymi.
EN
The aim of the article is to investigate and evaluate a new approach for prediction of changes of pressure during gas discharge inside the room protected by fixed gaseous extinguishing system by means of CFD simulations (ang. Computational Fluid Dynamics).The research program consisted of two stages. The first stage was dedicated to the experimental measurements of pressure changes during extinguishing gas discharge into the test chamber in a real scale (70 m3) with use of relief opening. The next step was about performing CFD simulations allowing to determine pressure changes during gas discharge into the numerically represented test chamber. Estimation of the correctness and usefulness of the CFD model was based on a comparison of the CFD results with standard calculations and experimental measurements.
9
EN
This paper analyzes the instantaneous and averaged velocity field in the area of the Dar- rieus wind turbine. The analyzed two-dimensional rotor model consists of two NACA0018 airfoils and a rotating shaft. The working parameters of the rotor correspond to modera- te aerodynamic loads of the blades. The research has been carried out with an innovative method called the Actuator Cell Model. The initial results obtained were compared with the author’s earlier results obtained with the SST k-! model and with experimental studies taken from the literature.
10
Content available remote Thermal energy storage in rock bed - CFD analysis
EN
This article reports on an analysis of the possibility of storing thermal energy in a rock bed. The calculations were made in Ansys CFX 18.0 CFD. The analysis determined the charging time of a packed bed of granite rocks in variable flow conditions for the assumed geometry of the energy storage system. The model was 2-dimensional, consisting of two domains connected by an interface. The packed bed was modelled using a porous model approach. The inlet velocity was varied in the range 0.25-4 m/s. The total charging time was 70 to 1100 min, depending on inlet velocity.
EN
Pathological conditions of a male urethra, including fibrosis, have a mechanical background along the entire length of the urethra. They may be caused by excessive deformation of the urethra locally or globally. The condition of prolonged overload causes abnormal tissue remodelling and, consequently, the formation of a thick layer of scar tissue differentiated from the connective tissue of the urethra. This tissue, which has higher mechanical properties, is not highly deformable and therefore, causes a decrease in the diameter of the urethra, which results in conditions that disturb the natural flow of urine. In this paper, it was decided to determine the deformation conditions in the proximal part of the urethra. The study was conducted in three main stages. Transverse sections of the animal urethral tissues were prepared in order to examine mechanical properties and perform histological examinations. On the basis of these examinations, material models which fitted best for the experimental results were sought. Material constants of the Mooney-Rivlin material model with the best fit ratio were determined for further research. On the basis of histological photographs, a geometrical and numerical model of the urethra was developed. The urethra was tested in a flat state of deformation. The strain and stress fields of the Caucha tensor were examined. The methodology of testing the dynamics of the urine flow in the highly deformable urethra was proposed. This is important for the analysis of the influence of at excessive pressure on pathological tissue remodelling leading to fibrosis.
EN
Investigations of the flow in a building system are crucial for understanding the fundamental basis of the aerodynamic structure characteristics. The CFD simulations were conducted using ANSYS Fluent 17.0 software, which solves the Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with different turbulence models and by a finite volume discretization method. Particularly, a comparison between the experimental and standard k-ω, BSL k-ω, SST k-ω, standard k-ɛ, RNG k-ɛ and Realizable k-ɛ turbulence model has been developed. The comparison between the founded results affirms that the standard k-ω turbulence model is the most efficient to model the air flow in the present application. Indeed, the numerical results compared using the experimental data developed in the LASEM laboratory confirms the validity of the numerical method. The good agreements validate the considered computational method.
EN
FEM (finite element method) is an essential and powerful numerical method that can explicitly optimize the design process of electrical devices. In this paper, the employment of FEM tools such as SolidWorks, COMSOL and ANSYS is proposed in order to aid electrical apparatuses engineering and modeling – those are arc chambers of modular circuit breakers. Procured models of arc chambers have been undergoing simulations concerning heating, electric potential distribution, electric charge velocity and traverse paths. The data acquired has been juxta-positioned against experimental data procured in the Short-Circuit Laboratory, Warsaw University of Technology. The reflection of the theoretical approach was clearly noted in the experimental results. Mutual areas of the modeled element expressed the same physical properties and robustness errors when tested under specific conditions – faithfully reflecting those which were experimented with. Moreover, the physical phenomena essential for electrical engineering could be determined already at the model stage. This procedure proved highly valuable during designing/engineering work in terms of material economy.
EN
The work is devoted to modelling Twin Fresh ventilator efficiency. The main aim is to simulate heat exchanged in a heat regenerator in variable conditions. The mathematical model is based on Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow. The model is designed to achieve an adequate time for calculation and sufficient precision. The results show high efficiency of heat recovery in the order of 97.4%.
EN
The aerodynamics of powerboats used in inshore powerboat racing has a significant impact on their performance. The aerodynamic drag forces generated on individual elements of this type of boats were tested. The solid model of the boat developed in the CAD software was used for the calculations. The computational grid was generated, as well as the boundary conditions and the turbulence model, were determined. On the basis of such assumptions, the numerical calculations were carried out using the CFD method. The results from the numerical simulations consist of a description of the velocity and pressure distribution around the tested object and identification of the drag force on the components of the powerboat with a description of the relationship between them. Additionally, the variation of the drag force as a function of speed in the range from 0 to 60 m/s was presented. The tests were performed for 5 values of the angle of attack of the boat to the surface of water in the range from 0° to 12°. The scope of the research allowed for the development of a drag force map depending on the defined parameters. The test results can be used to optimize the shape of the boat structure in order to reduce the aerodynamic drag generated on its individual elements.
EN
This article focuses on the cavitation mechanism from the perspective of utilizing the effect of gas desorption from the solution with nucleation of gas bubbles. This effect is an innovative approach to improving the operating parameters, including emissions parameters, in the compression-ignition engines. The article presents the concept of applying this process in practice and draws attention to the problems associated with its practical implementation. With regard to this issue, an original pump design with a hypocycloid power transmission, enabling application of the desorption effect, was presented. The second part of the article focuses on evaluating the possibility of cavitation occurring in the pump. This task was realized by simulating the cavitating flows in the pump’s return valve – the site at the greatest risk of formation of the first nuclei of this unfavorable phenomenon.
EN
Low controllability under strong winds presents a problem for the operation of inland vessels, which can be improved using passive bow rudders and transverse thrusters. Bow thrusters can sufficiently improve the manoeuvrability at low speeds, but an unsolved problem is course maintaining and yaw checking of a vessel at medium and high speeds. This paper proposes the use of a bow steering system in which the bow rotors generate a Magnus force. The first physical test model of the system showed promising results and that much more research must be performed before this system can be used in industrial applications. The paper presents the results of a numerical study on the flow field generated by bow rotors. The first stage of a ship’s turn using the bow rotors was used to determine the dependence of the expected steering force on the inflow velocity and rotational speed of the rotors. The influence of the flow generated by the bow steering system on river banks and quay walls during manoeuvres was also discussed.
EN
The literature describes acoustic levitation phenomena with the utilization of air squeeze film between the vibrating inducer and the lifted object. The objective of the study is to determine the shape of the inducer with vibration characteristics that would allow the levitation of an object of the assumed geometry. In this paper, the influence of the dimension ratio of the inducer on the frequency of the first mode of vibration was presented. CFD calculations for a selected dimension series were performed with the goal of the determination of lifting conditions. The data obtained from the analysis will be used to manufacture an inducer that will serve as an experimental verification for the fluid dynamics calculation.
PL
W literaturze opisywane jest zjawisko lewitacji akustycznej z wykorzystaniem efektu wyciskania powietrza ze szczeliny między drgającym wzbudnikiem a unoszonym obiektem. Celem badań jest znalezienie takiego kształtu wzbudnika, którego charakterystyka drgań pozwalałaby na lewitację obiektu o założonej geometrii. W opracowaniu określono wpływ wymiarów wzbudnika na kształt oraz częstotliwość jego pierwszej postaci drgań własnych. Dla wybranego przypadku wykonano symulacje CFD w celu określenia warunków unoszenia. Uzyskane wyniki analiz posłużą do wykonania wzbudnika w celu przeprowadzenia weryfikacyjnych badań eksperymentalnych.
EN
Slushes are two-phase solid-liquid single-species cryogenic fluids that exhibit an increased density and a greater heat capacity with respect to the corresponding normal boiling point liquids. These promising features are of large interest for applications that exploit slush as a thermal fluid, like super magnets refrigeration, cryogenic cooling of bio-materials or air conditioning, and for aerospace systems that use slush fluids as fuel or oxidizer. Several programs in the frame of the research on Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) as a new-generation fuel for aerospace propulsion have been started in the past. This work was carried out in the framework of a VKI research activity promoted by the Predict ESA Technology Research Programme, to investigate experimentally and numerically the behavior of slush flows in a representative upper stage feeding line. In this paper, we present a simulation based on a granular two-fluid model on an isothermal solid liquid mixture (slurry) and a Nitrogen slush (SLN2) fluid flowing in a horizontal pipe. A finite-volumes discretization using the software library OpenFOAM was benchmarked against experimental and numerical literature data, to assess the accuracy of the code in predicting pressure drops along the pipe axis and solid particle distribution across the pipe diameter. Moreover, the effects of concentration and inlet velocity are investigated. We show that the numerical model fairly reproduces the literature data in terms of important aspects as the solid volume fraction distribution and the pressure drops, especially for high flow rates.
PL
Niejednorodna mieszanina fazy stałej i ciekłej tego samego składnika (ang. slush) jest dwufazową cieczą kriogeniczną która charakteryzuje się zwiększoną gęstością i pojemnością cieplną w porównaniu z odpowiadającymi im cieczami o normalnej temperaturze wrzenia. Te obiecujące właściwości wzbudzają duże zainteresowanie w aplikacjach wykorzystujących taką mieszaninę jako wymiennik ciepła, w zastosowaniach takich jak: chłodzenie supermagnesów, kriogeniczne chłodzenie biomateriałów lub klimatyzacja. W systemach kosmicznych mieszaninę fazy stałej i ciekłej (ang. slush), wykorzystuje się jako paliwo albo utleniacz. W przeszłości rozpoczęto kilka programów w ramach badań nad slush-em wodorowym (SLH2) jako paliwem nowej generacji dla napędów lotniczych i kosmicznych. Praca opisana w niniejszym artykule została wykonana w ramach działalności badawczej VKI wspieranej przez „Predict ESA Technology Research Programme”. Miała na celu zbadanie, za pomocą eksperymentu i symulacji numerycznych, zachowania przypływów slash-u w modelowej linii zasilania silnika górnego stopnia rakiety. W artykule przedstawiono, opartą na granularnym modelu, symulację przepływu izotermicznego w poziomej rurze dwóch cieczy: mieszaniny ciało stałe – ciecz (klasyczna zawiesina) i slash-u azotowego (SLN2). Użyto dyskretyzacji metodą objętości skończonych oraz programów z biblioteki OpenFoam, otrzymane wyniki zestawiono z danymi eksperymentalnymi i symulacyjnymi dostępnymi w literaturze. W szczególności zbadano jak dokładnie przybliżony model przewiduje spadek ciśnienia wzdłuż rury oraz dystrybucję stałych cząstek w przekrojach poprzecznych rury. Co więcej sprawdzono wpływ warunków 95 brzegowych na wlocie (rozkładu koncentracji cząstek stałych w niejednorodnej mieszaninie oraz prędkości) na wyniki. Pokazano, że zastosowany model numeryczny wykazuje dobrą zgodność opublikowanym już danymi pod względem istotnych aspektów, takich jak udział objętościowy frakcji stałej oraz spadek ciśnienia wzdłuż rury, zwłaszcza dla dużego natężenia przepływu.
EN
Autonomous underwater gliders are buoyancy propelled vehicles. Their way of propulsion relies upon changing their buoyancy with internal pumping systems enabling them up and down motions, and their forward gliding motions are generated by hydrodynamic lift forces exerted on a pair of wings attached to a glider hull. In this study lift and drag characteristics of a glider were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach and results were compared with the literature. Flow behavior, lift and drag forces distribution at different angles of attack were studied for Reynolds numbers varying around 105 for NACA0012 wing configurations. The variable of the glider was the angle of attack, the velocity was constant. Flow velocity was 0.5 m/s and angle of the body varying from -8° to 8° in steps of 2°. Results from the CFD constituted the basis for the calculation the equations of motions of glider in the vertical plane. Therefore, vehicle motion simulation was achieved through numeric integration of the equations of motion. The equations of motions will be solved in the MatLab software. This work will contribute to dynamic modelling and three-dimensional motion simulation of a torpedo shaped underwater glider.
PL
Autonomiczne podwodne szybowce to pojazdy napędzane wypornością i siłą nośną. Ruch glidera w stanie ustalonym jest ruchem „piłokształtnym”. Sposób napędu polega na zmianie ich wyporności za pomocą wewnętrznego systemu pomp, umożliwiającego im nurkowanie lub wynurzanie się z wody, a ich ruchy w przód są generowane przez hydrodynamiczne siły nośne wywierane na parę skrzydeł przymocowanych do kadłuba. W ramach tej pracy wyznaczono charakterystykę siły oporu i siły nośnej szybowca z zastosowaniem metod Numerycznej Mechaniki Płynów, wyniki porównano z innymi danymi z literatury. Charakterystykę przepływu, rozkład siły nośnej i oporu przy różnych kątach pochylenia badano dla liczb Reynoldsa o wartości około 105 dla konfiguracji skrzydeł NACA0012. Zmiennym parametrem szybowca jest kąt pochylenia, prędkość przepływu była stała i wynosiła 0,5 m/s. Kąt pochylenia kadłuba zmieniał się od -8° do 8° z krokiem 2°. Wyniki z CFD są wykorzystywane do obliczania równań ruchów szybowca w płaszczyźnie pionowej. W niniejszej pracy została rozpatrzona hydrodynamika i generowane siły nośne. Równania ruchu będą rozwiązywane w oprogramowaniu MatLab. Praca ta przyczyni się do stworzenia odpowiedniego modelu dynamiki szybowca podwodnego.
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