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EN
Agricultural residues rich in lignocellulosic biomass are low-cost and sustainable adsorbents widely used in water treatment. In the present research, thermodynamics, kinetics, and equilibrium of nickel(II) and lead(II) ion biosorption were studied using a corncob (Zea mays). The experiments were performed in a batch system evaluating the effect of temperature and dose of adsorbent. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to study the equilibrium. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were determined using kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich). Biosorbent characteristics were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that the hydroxyl, carboxyl, and phenolic groups are the major contributors to the removal process. Besides, Pb(II) ions form micro-complexes on the surface of the biomaterial while Ni(II) ions form bonds with active centers. It was found that the highest Ni(II) removal yields were achieved at 0.02 g of adsorbent and 70°C, while the highest Pb(II) removal yields were achieved at 0.003 g and 55°C. A maximum Ni(II) adsorption capacity of 3.52 mg∙g–1 (86%) and 13.32 mg∙g–1 (94.3%) for Pb(II) was obtained in 250 and 330 min, respectively. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models best fit experimental data, and Langmuir and Freundlich models well describe the isotherm of the process. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH0, ΔG0, ΔS0) suggest that the adsorption process of both cations is exothermic, irreversible, and not spontaneous.
EN
The purpose of this study was to assess the groundwater contamination from a sewage sludge landfill. The analysis was carried out in 2017 in accordance with the requirements of the national legislation for monitoring landfills and priority pollutants. The samples of groundwater from the landfill were taken from 25 observation wells, from depths of 45–60 m. The status and dynamics of changes in the landfill groundwater quality were estimated according to the data from the groundwater observation wells of the city observation network with regard to the chemical composition of groundwater and national standards of groundwater quality. The forecast estimates of a low level of pollutants entering groundwater through the soils characterized by low filtration properties were not justified. The concentration of heavy metals in groundwater was within the following range: Fe > Mn > Zn > Al > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd > Hg. The excess concentration of the nitrogen-containing pollutants was observed within the range from 1.5 to 76 (on average 10 times) above the background value. The organic contamination of landfill groundwater (COD) is 2–9 times and BOD5 – 1.5–3 times higher than the average background value of groundwater observation wells in the city network. The probable cause for the pollutants entry into groundwater is associated with lithogenous and exogenous fracturing of the rocks and insufficient efficiency of the existing anti-filtration system of the landfill.
EN
The objective of this study was to analyze the content of heavy metals and arsenic in soil and cereal grains as well as to evaluate the possible human risk in the central region of Peru. The soil samples of corn and barley grains were collected from seven agricultural zones and the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn and As were determined with the method of atomic absorption flame spectrophotometry. PERMANOVA showed that the effect of the type of crop and the sampling zone significantly influence the concentrations of heavy metals and As in soil and corn and barley grains (p < 0.05). PCA for heavy metals and As in soil and grain samples of the cereals studied showed that the first two main components represented 81.03% and 94.77% of the total variance, respectively. Hazard Quotient (HQ) for ingestion was the most significant. The HQ values of Pb and As in crop soils indicated that detrimental health effects are unlikely (HQ < 1). The soil hazard index (HI) values of both crops did not exceed the threshold value of 1 (HI < 1). The carcinogenic risk level (CR) of As from ingestion of corn and barley crop soils contaminated by As was higher in children than in farmers and adults. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of As was higher in barley grains than in corn grains. The THQ of As exceeded the target value of 1 in 100% of the barley and corn sampling sites. The RC of As in grains exceeded the acceptable risk level of 10–6 in all sampling zones.
EN
The article presents the evaluation of the influence of the heavy metals content in the water from selected Strzelin Quarry Lakes located in Central Europe on the possibility to use the water for irrigation. The guidelines provided by FAO and in PN-84/C-04635 were the basis of the evaluation. The water pH ranged from 7.1–9.0, on average 7.8. The zinc content was in the range from 0.40–29.00 µg•dm-3, on the average 14.40 µg•dm-3, while the content of copper ranged from 0.00–50.10 µg•dm-3, on average 21.13 µg•dm-3. The cadmium content fell into the range from 0.00–5.50 µg•dm-3, on the average 0.83 µg•dm-3, and the lead content ranged from 0.00–18.10 µg•dm-3, on average 3.16 µg•dm-3. The chromium content ranged from 0.00–21.00 µg•dm-3, on average 4.26 µg•dm-3 and, finally, the content of nickel ranged from 0.00–39.80 µg•dm-3, on average 6.70 µg•dm-3. The values of the analysed heavy metals were similar to the concentrations noted in natural lakes and artificial water reservoirs. As far as the heavy metal content is concerned, the water from the selected Strzelin Quarry Lakes met the requirements that allow using it for the purposes of agricultural irrigation.
EN
The bottom sediments of river hydroecosystems were studied for the gross content of heavy metals (K, Ti Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Hg). The environmental and geochemical processes of bottom-sediment formation in aqua landscapes were analyzed, allowing us to stress the need to determine the methodological basis for the correlation-regression dependence of the heavy metal accumulation processes in bottom sediments, as well as total content of organic carbon. The ranking of pairwise correlation coefficients arranged in decreasing order is: TOC:Cu (0.87) >TOC:K (0.82) >TOC: Ni (0.75) > TOC:Sr (0.73) > TOC:Fe, (0.7) >TOC:Ti (0.67) > TOC:Hg (0.63) > TOC: Cr (0.58) >TOC:Rb (0.56) > and TOC:Zn (0.51). The proposed methodological approach determines the environmental and geochemical aspects of the sedimentation processes heavy metals, while also identifying the general trends in hydroecosystems prone to the anthropogenic impact.
EN
Contamination of soil and water by various heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Fe is increasing day by day as a result of different activities, such as industrialization and urbanization. Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and Nickel (Ni) are examples of potential heavy metals that are neither essential elements nor have any role in the process of cell metabolism, but are easily absorbed and accumulated in different parts of a plant and living beings. This study was to investigate the translocation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals such as Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu, and Fe in Urtica dionica L and soil samples from 2 sites (uncontaminated – Koliq and contaminated – Kishnica in the Republic of Kosovo). The results revealed that in the contaminated site, the mean level of all the metals in soil and different parts (root, stalk, and leaf) of the plant were found to be significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the uncontaminated site. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the distribution of metals within the study area. The trace metal contents from different parts of these plants were determined by the use of AAS. The results revealed that Urtica dionica L. translocated high amounts of metals to its organs, especially to leaves, so that translocation factors were much higher than one (> 1). However, these concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and Urtica dionica L were higher than levels specified according to the standards in UK and Germany.
EN
The consumption of contaminated natural pastures with highly dangerous and toxic heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by Andean camelids could cause harmful effects on the health of people exposed via consumption of contaminated alpaca meat. The concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn in the soil-plant-alpaca system was determined and the potential health risk associated with the intake of alpaca meat was evaluated. Soil and grass samples were collected in grazing areas of the South American camelid, and in the Municipal Slaughterhouse of Huancavelica, 30 samples of alpaca pectoral muscle were collected. The concentrations of Cd in the soil, grass and alpaca muscle exceeded the threshold values of national and international standards. The bioaccumulation factor values of the three elements studied was less than 1, Cd was the element with the highest bioavailability and mobility in the soil-plant-alpaca muscle system. The mean concentration of Cd in muscle was 0.335 ± 0.088 mg/kg which exceeded the maximum level allowed by the FAO/WHO and the European Commission, the concentration of Pb and Zn did not exceed the regulated limits. No significant differences were detected in accumulation according to sex. The non-carcinogenic hazard index (HI) values for the studied metals indicated that there is no adverse health risk (HI < 1) for children and adults from alpaca meat intake, but they could experience carcinogenic risk from prolonged exposure to Cd, and for exceeding the 1×10–4 limit threshold. It is recommended to conduct further studies on the accumulation of potentially toxic elements in alpaca tissues in order to determine the possible total risk of heavy metals in consumer’s health.
EN
The prospects of using the sewage sludge from Lviv wastewater treatment plants for biological reclamation was assessed. On the basis of the results of the monitoring of the qualitative and quantitative composition of sewage sludge accumulated in silt fields, the dependences of the distribution of sanitary-microbiological and ecological-chemical characteristics of the accumulated sludge were investigated. Agroecological laboratory studies on estimating the possibility of using sewage sludge in a mix with natural sorbents as a substrate for cultivation of plants was carried out.
EN
Heavy metals discharged from textile production have serious impacts on human beings and the environment. Chemical footprint (ChF) methodology is an important method in quantifying the environmental loads of discharged chemical pollutants. With the help of ChF methodology, this study used the mean impact method to assess the environmental loads of heavy metals discharged from a textile enterprise. The results showed that the ChFs of discharged heavy metals calculated based on the aquatic environment of Lake Tai and Lake Poyang were 1.43E+8L and 4.64E+8L respectively. Zinc was the largest contributor, followed by copper, lead and cadmium for the two lakes.
PL
Metale ciężkie uwalniane podczas produkcji tekstyliów mają poważny wpływ na ludzi i środowisko. Metodologia określania śladu chemicznego (ChF) jest ważną metodą ilościowego określania obciążenia środowiska przez zanieczyszczenia chemiczne. Z pomocą metodologii ChF w badaniu wykorzystano metodę średniego wpływu do oceny obciążeń środowiskowych metali ciężkich uwalnianych z przedsiębiorstwa włókienniczego. Wyniki pokazały, że współczynniki ChF odprowadzonych metali ciężkich obliczone na podstawie środowiska wodnego Jezior Tai i Poyang wynosiły odpowiednio 1,43E + 8L i 4,64E + 8L. Cynk był największą składową, a za nim miedź, ołów i kadm w przypadku obu jezior.
EN
This study aimed to evaluate the vermicompost quality of sewage sludge (SS) mixed with sugar beet pulp (SBP) and cow dung (CD) wastes employing Eisenia fetida. The basic issue faced in the wastewater treatment plant is how to reduce the amount of sewage sludge? This paper discusses an in-situ vermicomposting approach for the reuse of sewage sludge. A total of 11 reactors containing various waste combinations were organized and changes in physicochemical parameters were evaluated during 90 days of the experiment. The results indicated that SS could be converted into a good quality product by vermicomposting if suitable mixing quantities are provided (50% SS, 25% SBP, 25% CD). Vermicomposting caused significant reductions in pH, TOC, the content of heavy metals, and C/N ratio, while electric conductivity and NPK content increased as compared to initial mixtures. The present study implied that the application of sewage sludge in the agricultural fields after vermicomposting could be a suitable and usable approach for sewage disposal.
EN
The surface water quality significantly affects the purity level of groundwater drawn for the municipal purposes. The pollution presence in surface waters is fundamentally the effect of the anthropogenic activity in a particular area while the type and volume of pollution depend closely on the intensity of any such activity. The paper presents the results of types of selected quality indicators of surface waters, i.e. pH, electrical conductivity and heavy metal concentration: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in the surface waters collected from the city of Czestochowa and neighbouring municipalities – the locations of water intakes and deep wells operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Joint Stock Company of the Czestochowa District in order to provide the citizens with potable water. The findings of analyses of water collected every month in the period from January to September 2020 in 9 points were the basis for an observation of a time and space variability of the values of the quality parameters studied, which is evident of a diversified impact of the surroundings on water environment in consecutive research months. The potential water pollution sources were also indicated.
EN
Iron is one of the most common components in water that adversely affect humans, other living organisms and parameters of water bodies. Therefore, during using and consuming natural waters, and discharging sewage into surface water bodies, it is necessary to remove iron compounds from the aquatic environment. The use of capillary materials in water purification processes is a promising area of research. Experimental data proved the high efficiency of capillary materials application, providing higher efficiency of iron ions removal from model solutions for real water sources of different origin compared with the traditional method of settling. The main advantage of the application of materials with capillary properties is the simplicity of implementation of the method and there is no need to use electricity and any additional reagents. The effect of various factors on the process of water deironing with the application of capillary materials was studied. It was found out that the density has a little effect on the process at an iron concentration range from 1 to 5 mg/dm3 . The increase in competing ions content intensifies the process of divalent ferrous ions transition to trivalent. During the deironing of artesian water, the degree of iron removal exceeded 90 %, while the residual concentration was below the MPC.
EN
The aim of the conducted studies was made to develop a bottom sediment monitoring network for selected water reservoirs of the Silesian voivodeship (Ostrowy, Poraj and Dzierżno Duże reservoirs). Based on the obtained spatial distributions, the location of points was selected, which should be considered in further studies. In the search for the solution, it was assumed that the network enabling collection of reliable results on the sludge quality, while minimising financial outlays, should not exceed 25% of measurement points from the base year. In order to define the quality and accuracy of the planned network, a visual assessment of the obtained spatial distributions was used. A comparison of the classification of measurement stations with respect to the quality assessment of the geochemical criterion in relation to the selected heavy metal real data, as well as the values obtained on the basis of the simulation was made. Comparative analysis showed a high range of changes in the classification of measuring positions (Ostrowy 0-5 positions, Poraj 0-19 positions, Dzierżno Duże 0-16 positions). This fact is associated with a significant range of base data resulting from high pollution of bottom sediments with individual heavy metals (Ostrowy – Cr, Ni, Poraj – Cd, Pb, Zn, Dzierżno Duży – Cd, Zn). Considering the conducted research, it was found that the sustainable management of the environment by determining the bottom sediment monitoring network of the Ostrowy, Poraj and Dzierżno Duże reservoirs should be based on an individual research approach for each of the facilities. The research allowed to state that GIS has a significant impact on decision-making in the field of environmental management.
PL
Celem przeprowadzonych badań była próba opracowania sieci monitoringu osadów dennych wybranych zbiorników wodnych województwa śląskiego (zbiornik Ostrowy, Poraj i Dzierżno Duże). Na podstawie uzyskanych rozkładów przestrzennych całkowitej zawartości metali ciężkich i ich geochemicznej klasyfikacji wytypowano lokalizację punktów, które powinny zostać uwzględniane w dalszych badaniach. W poszukiwaniu rozwiązania założono, że sieć pozwalająca na uzyskanie wiarygodnych wyników jakości osadów, przy jednoczesnej minimalizacji nakładów finansowych, nie powinna przekraczać 25% punktów pomiarowych pochodzących z roku bazowego. W celu zdefiniowania jakości i poprawności zaplanowanej sieci posłużono się wizualną oceną uzyskanych rozkładów przestrzennych. Dokonano również porównania klasyfikacji stanowisk pomiarowych względem oceny jakości kryterium geochemicznego w odniesieniu do wybranego metalu ciężkiego danych rzeczywistych, jak i wartości uzyskanych na podstawie przeprowadzonej symulacji. Analiza porównawcza wykazała wysoki zakres zmian klasyfikacji stanowisk pomiarowych (Ostrowy 0-5 stanowisk, Poraj 0-19 stanowisk, Dzierżno Duże 0-16 stanowisk). Zjawisko to związane jest ze znaczną rozpiętością wartości danych bazowych wynikającą z wysokiego zanieczyszczenia osadów dennych poszczególnymi metalami ciężkimi (Ostrowy – Cr, Ni, Poraj – Cd, Pb, Zn, Dzierżno Duże – Cd, Zn). Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że zrównoważone zarządzanie środowiskiem poprzez wyznaczanie sieci monitoringu osadów dennych zbiornika Ostrowy, Poraj i Dzierżno Duże powinno odbywać się w oparciu o indywidualne podejście badawcze w odniesieniu do każdego z obiektów. Przeprowadzone badania pozwoliły na stwierdzenie, że GIS ma istotny wpływ na podejmowania decyzji w zakresie zarządzania środowiskiem naturalnym.
PL
Metodą SEM/EDS określono skład jakościowy odpadów pochodzących z oczyszczania ulic Krakowa. Odpady analizowano pod kątem frakcji organicznej i mineralnej oraz metali ciężkich. Stwierdzono obecność Zn, Mg, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb i Cr.
EN
Street cleaning waste was analyzed for org. and mineral fractions and for heavy metals by SEM/EDS methods. The presence of Zn, Mg, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb and Cr was evidenced.
PL
Zbadano elektrochemiczną obróbkę ścieków galwanicznych, stosując anodę BDD i katodę stalową. Wydajność degradacji zanieczyszczeń oceniano przy różnych natężeniach prądu i czasach reakcji. Przeprowadzono doświadczenia z zastosowaniem planu kompletnego generowanego w programie Statistica dla dwóch zmiennych na trzech ich poziomach. Zastosowanie anody BDD i stali nierdzewnej jako katody pozwoliło na jednoczesny rozkład kompleksów Ni-amina i Zn-amina oraz odzysk niklu i cynku. Zanieczyszczenia organiczne zawarte w ściekach ulegały mineralizacji. Po 180 min reakcji wartości αtoc i αtn dla badanych ścieków zmniejszyły się o odpowiednio 99% i 85%.
EN
Waste water from electroplating was oxidized and reduced electrochem. using a diamond-modified and B-doped anode and a steel cathode to degrade the Ni and Zn-amine complexes and org. pollutants at varying current and reaction time. A simultaneous decomplexation amine complexes and recovery of Ni and Zn was achieved. Org. contaminants contained in wastewater were mineralized. After 180 min of reaction, the total org. C and total N values for the tested wastewater decreased by 99% and 85%, resp.
16
Content available remote Metale ciężkie w środowisku i ich wpływ na zdrowie człowieka
PL
Dokonano przeglądu literatury na temat źródeł emisji kadmu, arsenu, ołowiu, rtęci, chromu i kobaltu oraz jej wpływu na zdrowie ludzkie.
EN
A review, with 106 refs., of Cd, As, Pb, Hg, Cr and Co emission sources their impacts on human health.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań emisji metali ciężkich podczas przemysłowych testów współspalania paliwa alternatywnego z węglem kamiennym w kotle z rusztem mechanicznym typu WR-25. Udział paliwa alternatywnego w mieszance paliwowej wynosił 10%. Przeanalizowano dystrybucję metali ciężkich (dla których określono standardy emisyjne) w procesie spalania węgla oraz współspalania odpadów. Zarówno żużel, jak i popiół lotny ze współspalania paliwa alternatywnego zawierały sumarycznie większe ilości metali ciężkich niż uboczne produkty spalania węgla, co wynikało bezpośrednio z ich większych zawartości w spalanym materiale. Ołów, antymon, kobalt, arsen, kadm i rtęć wykazały podobne zachowanie w zakresie dystrybucji w produktach procesowych spalania węgla, jak i współspalania węgla z paliwem alternatywnym. Dla miedzi, niklu i wanadu stwierdzono różnice. Stwierdzono niewielkie przekroczenia standardów emisyjnych metali ciężkich obowiązujących dla współspalania odpadów.
EN
Emission of heavy metals during industrial tests of co-combustion of alternative fuel added to hard coal (10%) in a boiler with mech. grate was studied. The emission stds. for heavy metals were slightly exceeded. Both slag and fly ash from the co-combustion contained together larger quantities of heavy metals when compared to hard coal combustion. Pb, Sb, Co, As, Cd and Hg showed similar behavior in coal combustion as well as in co-combustion of coal with the alternative fuel. Cd and Zn contents in fly ash from co-combustion were higher than the allowed by resp. stds.
EN
Quality is one of the most important risk indicators in river basins. Therefore, monitoring and evaluating water and sediment quality has a very important role in process of risk management. The aim of the monitoring is provide for the sustainability of water bodies and these results are the basis for the risk management in the river catchment area. Hornad, Laborec and Poprad are the rivers in Eastern Slovakia. Hornad and Laborec belongs to basin of Danube and Poprad belongs to basin of Vistula. Sediment sampling was carried out according to ISO 5667-6. Monitoring was carried out in the spring on 2017–2018. The chemical composition of sediments was determined by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using SPECTRO iQ II (Ametek, Germany, 2000). The results of sediment quality evaluated by method PERI revealed that the quality of sediment in 2018 was better than 2017. Results of XRF analysis of sediments were compared with the limited values according to the Slovak Act 188/2003 Coll. of Laws on the application of treated sludge and bottom sediments to fields. It can be state that limit values comparing with Slovak legislation were not exceeding in all sediment samples in rivers in Eastern Slovakia. Based on the monitoring data of sediment quality in the study area, a quantitative analysis of heavy-metal pollution in sediment was conducted using the method of potential ecological risk index (PERI) which is method for evaluate the potential ecological risk of heavy metals. It is based exclusively on chemical parameters of sediments because sediment data show mean integrated values in time, with higher stability than water column parameters; sediments are easily sampled at field work; sediment samples are more representative for time and space scales and analytical data are easily obtained, especially because sediments present high concentrations of contaminants, decreasing the possible errors due to detection limits of the applied analytical method. This method comprehensively considers the synergy, toxic level, concentration of the heavy metals and ecological sensitivity of heavy metals. Potential ecological risk index can be obtained using three basic modules: degree of contamination (CD), toxic-response factor (TR) and potential ecological risk factor (ER). The results show on the basis on potential ecological risk index that the quality of sediment in 2018 is better than 2017. The worst result shows Hornad in 2017. Significant improvement occurred at the sampling point S2 in Hornad in 2018. The best results show Laborec in 2018. The results show on the basis on potential ecological risk index that quality of sediment in 2018 is better than 2017.
PL
Zanieczyszczenia obecne w pyle drogowym, pochodzące z ruchu ulicznego takie jak WWA i inne związki organiczne czy metale ciężkie, są wymywane wraz z deszczem i dostają się do wód, ostatecznie kumulując się w osadzie dennym na wiele lat, tym samym zagrażając organizmom wodnym oraz istotnie wpływając na jakość wód. Aby zbadać wpływ tych związków na zdrowie organizmów żywych, nie wystarczą tylko rutynowe badania chemizmu wód i badania osadów dennych, ponieważ do tego celu bardziej nadają się organizmy żywe. Z tego powodu chcąc poznać reakcję na tego typu zanieczyszczenia organizmów żywych, do badania toksyczności pyłów drogowych spłukiwanych z dróg po raz pierwszy w Polsce zastosowano test toksyczności chronicznej OSTRACODTOXKIT F™, który polega na obserwacji rozwoju Heterocypris incongruens naturalnie występującego w osadach dennych. Małżoraczki H. incongruens wykorzystane w badaniach są bardzo wrażliwe na zanieczyszczenie metalami ciężkimi, stanowią zatem odpowiednie narzędzie do badania toksyczności pyłu drogowego wymywanego do fazy wodnej. Badania prowadzono w aglomeracji wrocławskiej (w centrum miasta i na przedmieściach), na stanowiskach różniących się intensywnością ruchu drogowego. Stwierdzono, że pył drogowy ma istotny wpływ na zahamowanie wzrostu oraz żywotność małżoraczków, ponieważ na obszarach o dużym natężeniu ruchu drogowego ich śmiertelność była bardzo duża, co korespondowało z podwyższonymi poziomami stężenia badanych pierwiastków na tych stanowiskach badawczych. Z kolei pył drogowy zebrany na przedmieściach Wrocławia nie powodował śmiertelności małżoraczków i tylko nieznacznie wpłynął na ich rozwój. Podsumowując, stwierdzono, że test toksyczności chronicznej OSTRACODTOXKIT F™ jest odpowiednim narzędziem do badania wpływu pyłów drogowych na ekosystem wodny.
EN
The application of OSTRACODTOXKIT F™ test to assess metals contamination in road dust in Wrocław agglomeration. Pollutants present in road dust deriving from traffi c, such as PAHs and other organic compounds or heavy metals, are washed out with rain and get into the water bodies accumulating in sediments for many years and simultaneously posing a threat to aquatic life and signifi cantly affecting water quality. To study the impact of these toxic compounds on the health of living organisms, routine tests of water and sediments chemistry are insuffi cient as studies based on living organisms are much more reliable. And therefore, in order to know the response of living organisms to road dust pollutants which enter the water bodies the chronic toxicity test OSTRACODTOXKIT F™ was used. This test is based on the observation of development of Heterocypris incongruens that normally lives in sediments. Ostracod, H. incongruens is very sensitive to heavy metal contamination, thus it is a very good tool to study toxicity of road dust washed out with rain into the water bodies. The research was conducted in the Wrocław agglomeration (in the city centre and suburbs) at sites differing in the intensity of car traffi c. We observed that road dust had a signifi cant effect on growth inhibition and death of ostracods, as highest growth inhibition and mortality in the busy areas occurred which also corres ponded with highest concentrations of studied elements at these sites. On the other hand, road dust collected in the suburbs of Wrocław did not cause death of H. incongruens and only slightly affected their development. In conclusion, we can state that the chronic toxicity test OSTRACODTOXKIT F™ is a suitable tool to study the impact of road dust on the aquatic ecosystem.
EN
Palygorskite was applied in complexation-ultrafiltration treatment of heavy metals in wastewater under different pH and ionic strength. The results indicated that the rejection of heavy metals increased significantly with pH value, and decreased slightly with an increase of ionic strength of Na+ and Cl-. A certain concentration of NaCl significantly reduced the rejection rate of Cu2+. The rejection of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ could reach over 86.8%, 93.6% and 93.7% at pH of 7 and 0.1 mol/L NaCl. The rejection of heavy metals was severely affected by low molecular weight competing complexing agents and the effect of sodium tartrate was greater than triethanolamine. In the presence of sodium tartrate, the rejection of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ could arrive over 81.4%, 57.6% and 60.5% at pH of 7 in 20 min. Palygorskite was offered a potential complexing agent for the removal of heavy metals in wastewater at the complexation-ultrafiltration process.
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