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EN
The research paper presents the results of testing the strength and technological properties of molding sand with gypsum binder, the bonding process proceeded: naturally or conventionally. The tests included mass containing (parts by weight): 78 pbw. Grudzeń-Las quartz sand, 22 pbw. plaster gypsum "Dolina Nidy” and 9 pbw. water. Measurements of compressive strength, shear, tensile and bending as well as permeability and looseness were carried out on standard cylindrical samples kept in the air for 1-96 hours or dried at 110oC for 1-8 hours. The results of the analysis were analyzed in connection with the mass structure and construction binding bridges warp grains observed with a scanning microscope (SEM). The influence of drying intensity on the bonding process and related mass properties has been demonstrated, especially from the point of view of the possibility of selection and / or intensification of a specific curing method for use in the production of gypsum binger molds and cores.
EN
The intercalation into interlayer spaces of montmorillonite (MMT), obtained from natural calcium bentonite, was investigated. Modification of MMT was performed by the poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (co-MA/AA). Efficiency of modification of MMT by sodium salt co-MA/AA was assessed by the infrared spectroscopic methods (FTIR), X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and spectrophotometry UV-Vis. It was found, that MMT can be relatively simply modified with omitting the preliminary organofilisation – by introducing hydrogel chains of maleic acid-acrylic acid copolymer in a form of sodium salt into interlayer galleries. A successful intercalation by sodium salt of the above mentioned copolymer was confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction (shifting the reflex (001) originated from the montmorillonite phase indicating an increase of interlayer distances) as well as by the infrared spectroscopy (occurring of vibrations characteristic for the introduced organic macromolecules). The performed modification causes an increase of the ion exchange ability which allows to assume that the developed hybrid composite: MMT-/maleic acid-acrylic acid copolymer (MMT-co- MA/AA) can find the application as a binding material in the moulding sands technology. In addition, modified montmorillonites indicate an increased ability for ion exchanges at higher temperatures (TG-DTG, UV-Vis). MMT modified by sodium salt of maleic acid-acrylic acid copolymer indicates a significant shifting of the loss of the ion exchange ability in the direction of the higher temperature range (500–700°C).
EN
Experimental and industrial research of the technological process during the year 2017, including planning, is presented in this paper. That research was conducted in the new Foundry of new Ferronickel in Drenas, which is in the village of Cikatove, Drenas, the Republic of Kosovo. According to initial calculations, an amount of ore which would enter the process was determined, however the anticipated amount was different from the one used during the process. The same applies to fuel. Difference between the planned and the actual amount of ore used during the year 2017 resulted from the percentage of Ni in the amount of ore used in the foundry, demand for an Fe-Ni ferroalloy etc. The technological process in the foundry serves the purpose of processing ore of ironnickel with a high percentage of Ni in its composition. The material balance of the technological process in the new Foundry of new Ferronickel in Drenas, presented in this paper, is based on experimental and industrial data of the technological process acquired in the foundry. The material balance includes the technological process starting from calculation of the amount of ore and fuel, both making up the load for the rotary kiln. Additional contributors to the material balance are calculation of the amount of: fuel, which impacts the increase of temperature in rotary kilns, charge for the electric furnaces, metal and slags from the electric furnaces, metal and slags from the refining process (convertors) and mathematical calculation of the final product which is the ferroalloy of Fe-Ni. While preparing the material balance we have noticed greater acquisition of Ni than planned. The greater amount of Ni was produced by a smaller amount of ore than originally planned.
EN
Moulding sands containing sodium silicate (water-glass) belong to the group of porous mixture with low resistance to increased humidity. Thanks to hydrophilic properties of hardened or even overheated binder, possible is application of effective methods of hydrous reclamation consisting in its secondary hydration. For the same reason (hydrophilia of the binder), moulds and foundry cores made of high-silica moulding sands with sodium silicate are susceptible to the action of components of atmospheric air, including the contained steam. This paper presents results of a research on the effect of (relative) humidity on mechanical and technological properties of microwave-hardened moulding mixtures. Specimens of the moulding sand containing 1.5 wt% of sodium water-glass with module 2.5 were subjected, in a laboratory climatic chamber, to long-term action of steam contained in the chamber atmosphere. Concentration of water in atmospheric air was stabilized for 28 days (672 h) according to the relative humidity parameter that was ca. 40%, 60% and 80% at constant temperature 20 °C. In three cycles of the examinations, the specimens were taken out from the chamber every 7 days (168 h) and their mechanical and technological parameters were determined. It was found on the grounds of laboratory measurements that moulds and cores hardened with microwaves are susceptible to action of atmospheric air and presence of water (as steam) intensifies action of the air components on glassy film of sodium silicate. Microwave-hardened moulding sands containing sodium silicate may be stored on a long-term basis in strictly determined atmospheric conditions only, at reduced humidity. In spite of a negative effect of steam contained in the air, the examined moulding mixtures maintain a part of their mechanical and technological properties, so the moulds and foundry cores stored in specified, controlled conditions could be still used in manufacture.
EN
The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM). An analysis of work intensity was carried out and the costs were divided in order to identify operations with no value added, particularly at individual manufacturing departments. Also an analysis of ergonomics at work stations was carried out to eliminate activities that are uncomfortable and dangerous to the workers' health. Several solutions were proposed in terms of rationalization of work organization at iron cast after-machining work stations. The proposed solutions were assessed with the use of multi-criteria assessment tools and then the best variant was selected based on the assumed optimization criteria. The summary of the obtained results reflects benefits from implementation of the proposed solutions.
EN
In the paper, presented is a research on effectiveness of absorbing electromagnetic waves at frequency 2.45 GHz by unhardened moulding sands prepared of three kinds of high-silica base and a selected grade of sodium silicate. Measurements of power loss of microwave radiation (Pin) expressed by a total of absorbed power (Pabs), output power (Pout) and reflected power (Pref) were carried-out on a stand of semiautomatic microwave slot line. Values of microwave power loss in the rectangular waveguide filled with unhardened moulding sands served for determining effectiveness of microwave heating. Balance of microwave power loss is of technological and economical importance for manufacture of high-quality casting moulds and cores of various shapes and sizes. It was found that relative density influences parameters of power output and power reflected from samples of moulding sand placed in a waveguide. Absorption expressed by the parameter Pabs is not related to granularity of high-silica base: fine, medium and coarse. It was found that the semiautomatic microwave slot line supports evaluation of effectiveness of microwave absorption on the grounds of power loss measurements and enables statistic description of influence of relative density of the sandmix on penetration of electromagnetic waves in unhardened moulding sands.
EN
The objective of studies presented in this publication was structuring of research knowledge about the ADI functional properties and changes in these properties due to material treatment. The results obtained were an outcome of research on the selection of a format of knowledge representation that would be useful in further work aiming at the design, application and implementation of an effective system supporting the decisions of a technologist concerning the choice of a suitable material (ADI in this case) and appropriate treatment process (if necessary). ALSV(FD) logic allows easy modelling of knowledge, which should let addressees of the target system carry out knowledge modelling by themselves. The expressiveness of ALSV (FD) logic allows recording the values of attributes from the scope of the modelled domain regarding ADI, which is undoubtedly an advantage in the context of further use of the logic. Yet, although the logic by itself does not allow creating the rules of knowledge, it may form a basis for the XTT format that is rule-based notation. The difficulty in the use of XTT format for knowledge modelling is acceptable, but formalism is not suitable for the discovery of rules, and therefore the knowledge of technologist is required to determine the impact of process parameters on values that are functional properties of ADI. The characteristics of ALSV(FD) logic and XTT formalism, described in this article, cover the most important aspects of a broadly discussed, full evaluation of the applicability of these solutions in the construction of a system supporting the decisions of a technologist.
EN
In this paper, the results of decomposition of the moulding sand with furan-formaldehyde resin (with middle content of furfuryl alcohol about 50 %) also on a quartz matrix and with additions of a reclaimed material, under industrial conditions, are presented. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were performed according to the original method developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH UST. The dependence of the emitted PAHs and BTEX group substances and ignition losses on the reclaim fraction in a moulding sand are of a linear character of a very high correlation coefficient R2. On the bases of the derived equations, it is possible to determine the amount of the emitted hazardous substances from the moulding sand containing the known fraction of the reclaim.
PL
Istotnym elementem zarządzania współczesnym przedsiębiorstwem jest zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi, a zwłaszcza kompetencjami posiadanymi przez personel. Właściwe zarządzanie kompetencjami pracowników przekłada się na efektywność działania całego przedsiębiorstwa i wykorzystywane jest na etapie rekrutacji, oceny pracowniczej, wyznaczania ścieżek karier oraz opracowywania planu szkoleń. Luki w systemie kształcenia zawodowego na potrzeby branży odlewniczej sprzyjają rozwojowi tej koncepcji. Artykuł prezentuje sposób tworzenia i analizę profilu kompetencyjnego na przykładzie stanowiska „wytapiacza stali” oraz możliwość jego wykorzystania do stworzenia narzędzia informatycznego ułatwiającego prowadzenie polityki personalnej ukierunkowanej na kompetencje pracownicze zwłaszcza w kontekście zatrudniania nowych, często niewykwalifikowanych pracowników.
EN
An essential element of managing a modern enterprise is human resources management in which managing the competences of the personnel plays a significant role. Not only does it correspond with the efficiency of the whole company but is also used in recruitment process, employees' appraisal and proves extremely useful in the process of preparing the training plans or determining career paths. As the educational system in the field of foundry sector, is not fully developed and full of gaps the aforementioned concept is at an advantage. The article presents the way of creating and analyzing the competence profile based on an example of a position of a steel melter as well as the possibility of using such profile to create an information tool which will facilitate the human resources policy aimed at the employees' competences especially while hiring new and very often unqualified ones.
PL
Hałas jest zjawiskiem niepożądanym, występującym zarówno w życiu prywatnym jak i zawodowym człowieka , który w niesprzyjających warunkach może prowadzić do nieszczęścia. Celem niniejszej publikacji jest określenie poziomu natężenia hałasu emitowanego przez pracujący piec indukcyjny do poziomego ciągłego odlewania aluminiowego wlewka o średnicy 30 mm, chłodnicy oraz współpracującej piły tarczowej wykorzystywanej do cięcia wytworzonego wyrobu. Analiza wyników pozwoli na wskazanie, które spośród stanowisk roboczych operatora linii technologicznej mieści się w granicach normatywów higienicznych dotyczących dopuszczalnego natężenia hałasu, a które przekracza dozwolone wartości. Pozwoli to na dobór odpowiednich i skutecznych metod zabezpieczenia operatora przed niekorzystnym wpływem warunków pracy na jego zdrowie oraz przyczyni się do poprawy warunków pracy w ramach przyjętych standardów BHP.
EN
The noise is undesirable effect, occurring in private and professional life of a man which in unfavourable conditions can lead to disaster. The aim of the paper is to determine the level of noise emitted by induction furnace working for horizontal continuous casting of aluminium ingot with a diameter of 30 mm, a cooler and mating circular saw used to cut the manufactured product. Analysis of the results will indicate which of the operator workstations technological line is in the range of hygienic standards relating to the permissible noise level, which exceeds the allowed values. This will allow the selection of appropriate and effective methods to protect the operator from the adverse effects of working conditions on the health and contribute to the improvement of working conditions within accepted safety standards.
EN
The article presents an analysis of the applicability of the Replicast CS process as an alternative to the investment casting process, considered in terms of the dimensional accuracy of castings. Ceramic shell moulds were based on the Ekosil binder and a wide range of ceramic materials, such as crystalline quartz, fused silica, aluminosilicates and zirconium silicate. The linear dimensions were measured with a Zeiss UMC 550 machine that allowed reducing to minimum the measurement uncertainty.
EN
The proposed research work will be related to the comparison of the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness of elements produced by two different methods. Castings are made using modern rapid prototyping techniques and investment casting. For selected parts there will be presented an assessment in terms of manufacturability, design manufacturing costs, operating parameters and energy consumption of production. The analysis of used methods allow for the evaluation of their suitability as alternative manufacturing techniques.
EN
A comparative analysis involving the evaluation of the effectiveness of investment projects can be based on various rules indicating selection of the most favorable decisions. The dynamic methods for assessment of investment projects discussed in this article, which consider the possibility of modifying the predetermined investment options, are quite complex and difficult to implement. They are used both in the construction phase of the new company, as well as in its subsequent modernization. The assessments should be characterized by a high coefficient of the economic efficiency. The, observed in practice, high dynamic variability of both the external and internal conditions under which the company operates is the reason why in the process of calculating the economic efficiency of investment projects, there is a significant number of random parameters affected by high uncertainty and risk. Investments in the metallurgical industry are characterized by a relatively long cycle of implementation and operation. These are capital-intensive projects and often mistakenly taken investment decisions end in failure of the investment project and, consequently, in the collapse of the company. In addition, the applied methods of risk assessment of investment projects, especially the dynamic ones, should be fully understood by managerial staff and constitute an easy to use, yet accurate tool for improving the efficiency of the company.
EN
This paper presents an innovative casting method that allows manufacturing the layers on the cast by applying the metallic coating inside the mold. In order to define the possibilities of formation of the metal layers on the castings attempts were made to modify the mold and the cast for models created of two selected plastic materials. The main issue was the choice of a suitable coating material and a casting alloy. The procedure was projected in a manner that would enable the model polymer coating to get into reaction with the cast liquid metal after the burn away. The adjustment of the casting cavity was obtained by the nickel coating. The pit was then filled with the aluminum alloy, when studying the aspects of diffusion and adhesion between the two metals (Ni and Al). On the assumption that nickel coating will generate a diffusion connection with the cast material, it is potential to create intermetallic phases of the system of Ni- Al that will modify the surface attributes of the molding surface. Such designed is to obtain, in a single operation, a ready casting part with a diffusion layer surface.
PL
Zarządzanie produkcją odlewów za pomocą programu APO (Automatyzacja Procesów w Odlewni). Krótki rozwój systemów klasy ERP i APS. Przeanalizowano problemy występujące w odlewni przed wdrożeniem systemu oraz skuteczny sposób ich rozwiązania. Wykazano, że wdrożenie nowoczesnego systemu klasy ERP w przedsiębiorstwie produkcyjnym przyczyniło się do poprawy planowania i organizacji pracy.
EN
Casting production management system using the APO (Foundry Process Automation) program. The effect of short run development of the ERP and ASP systems. A review of the problems occurring in the foundry before the system has been implemented with explanation of the respective solution ways explained. It has been shown that implementation of modern ERP system in the production plant has contributed to better planning and organization effects.
EN
The work in the foundry is connected with a row dangers of the appearance injuries and occupational diseases. Specificity the production casts, requires great commitment, the professionalism and experience from employees. In this situation apart from technical infrastructure and the organizational back suitable motivation for performing everyday tied tasks is very important with the preparation and completion of individual production treatments. In article chosen factors, affecting for employing production workers at the unit were described. Diverse systems and factors of motivation have task among others of increasing effectiveness of applied technology with simultaneous keeping safety rules.
PL
Praca w zakładzie odlewniczym wiąże się z szeregiem niebezpieczeństw wystąpienia urazów i chorób zawodowych. Specyfika produkcji odlewów, wymaga od pracowników dużego zaangażowania, fachowości oraz doświadczenia. W tej sytuacji poza infrastrukturą techniczną i zapleczem organizacyjnym bardzo ważna jest odpowiednia motywacja do wypełniania codziennych zadań związanych z przygotowaniem i realizacją poszczególnych zabiegów produkcyjnych. W artykule przedstawiono wybrane czynniki, mające wpływ na zaangażowanie pracowników produkcyjnych w zakładzie. Różnorodne systemy i czynniki motywacji mają za zadanie m.in. zwiększyć efektywność stosowanej technologii z jednoczesnym zachowaniem zasad bezpieczeństwa.
EN
Out of moulding sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. If in the initial state these resins are not very dangerous for people and for the environment, thus under an influence of high temperatures they generate very harmful products, being the result of their thermal decomposition. Depending on the kind of the applied resin under an influence of a temperature such compounds as: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol, BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene, xylenes), and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be formed and released.
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