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1
Content available Lustrzana architektura : studia przypadków
PL
Celem artykułu jest analiza zagadnienia związanego z wykorzystaniem efektu lustrzanego odbicia w architekturze. Omówione są tu przykłady projektów i realizacji o wysokich walorach estetycznych i funkcjonalnych, uzyskanych dzięki użyciu luster. Autorka koncentruje się na motywach determinujących powstawanie lustrzanych obiektów, a także bada ich wpływ na otoczenie, kontekst miejsca i odbiorców. Prezentuje również szereg zalet estetycznych, jak i praktycznych, dzięki którym architektura ta staje się integralną częścią środowiska i intensyfikuje relacje z odbiorcą. Na podstawie przykładów można zauważyć wyraźny wzrost tendencji tworzenia budynków o lustrzanych elewacjach, co stanowi wyraz poszukiwania nowych aspektów postrzegania architektury.
EN
The aim of the article is to analyze architectural objects using the mirror reflection effect. The given examples of projects and world-wide implementations present high aesthetic and functional values obtained through the use of reflection. The author focuses on the motives that cause that mirrored buildings are created, and also examine their impact on the surroundings and people. In addition, the article presents a number of aesthetic and practical advantages of mirrored architecture which is becoming more and more popular. For these reason using mirrors may indicate the search for new aspects of the perception of architecture.
EN
The present paper is devoted to investigate the influence of the rotation, thermal field, initial stress, gravity field, electromagnetic and voids on the reflection of P wave under three models of generalized thermoelasticity: Classical and Dynamical coupled model (CD), Lord-Shulman model (LS), Green-Lindsay model (GL), The boundary conditions at stress-free thermally insulated surface are satisfied to obtain Algebraic system of four equations in the reflection coefficients of various reflected waves. It is shown that there exist four plane waves; P1, P2, P3 and P4. In addition, the reflection coefficients from insulated and isothermal stress-free surface for the incident P wave are obtained. Finally, numerical values of the complex modulus of the reflection coefficients are visualized graphically to display the effects of the rotation, initial stress, gravity field magnetic field, thermal relaxation times and voids parameters.
EN
A phenomenon of reflction of plane waves from a thermally insulated surface of a solid half-space is studied in context of Lord-Shulman theory of generalized thermo-viscoelasticity with voids. The governing equations of generalized thermo-viscoelastic medium with voids are specialized in x-z plane. The plane wave solution of these equations shows the existence of three coupled longitudinal waves and a shear vertical wave in a generalized thermo-viscoelastic medium with voids. For incident plane wave (longitudinal or shear), three coupled longitudinal waves and a shear vertical wave reflect back in the medium. The mechanical boundary conditions at free surface of solid half-space are considered as impedance boundary conditions, in which the shear force tractions are assumed to vary linearly with the tangential displacement components multiplied by the frequency. The impedance corresponds to the constant of proportionality. The appropriate potentials of incident and reflected waves in the half-space will satisfy the required impedance boundary conditions. A non-homogeneous system of four equations in the amplitude ratios of reflected waves is obtained. These amplitude ratios are functions of material parameters, impedance parameter, angle of incidence, thermal relaxation and speeds of plane waves. Using relevant material parameters for medium, the amplitude ratios are computed numerically and plotted against certain ranges of impedance parameter and the angle of incidence.
EN
The present paper investigates the propagation of quasi longitudinal (qLD) and quasi transverse (qTD) waves in a magneto elastic fibre-reinforced rotating semi-infinite medium. Reflections of waves from the flat boundary with surface stress have been studied in details. The governing equations have been used to obtain the polynomial characteristic equation from which qLD and qTD wave velocities are found. It is observed that both the wave velocities depend upon the incident angle. After imposing the appropriate boundary conditions including surface stress the resultant amplitude ratios for the total displacements have been obtained. Numerically simulated results have been depicted graphically by displaying two and three dimensional graphs to highlight the influence of magnetic field, rotation, surface stress and fibre-reinforcing nature of the material medium on the propagation and reflection of plane waves.
EN
A phenomenon of reflection of plane waves from a thermally insulated surface of a solid half-space is studied in the context of Lord-Shulman theory of generalized thermo-viscoelasticity with voids. The governing equations of generalized thermo-viscoelastic medium with voids are specialized in x-z plane. The plane wave solution of these equations shows the existence of three coupled longitudinal waves and a shear vertical wave in a generalized thermo-viscoelastic medium with voids. For incident plane wave (longitudinal or shear), three coupled longitudinal waves and a shear vertical wave reflect back in the medium. The mechanical boundary conditions on the free surface of solid half-space are considered as impedance boundary conditions, in which the shear force tractions are assumed to vary linearly with the tangential displacement components multiplied by the frequency. The impedance corresponds to the constant of proportionality. The appropriate potentials of incident and reflected waves in the half-space will satisfy the required impedance boundary conditions. A non-homogeneous system of four equations in the amplitude ratios of reflected waves is obtained. These amplitude ratios are functions of material parameters, impedance parameter, angle of incidence, thermal relaxation and speeds of plane waves. Using relevant material parameters for medium, the amplitude ratios are computed numerically and plotted against certain ranges of the impedance parameter and the angle of incidence.
6
Content available remote Colorimeter based on color sensor
EN
In this paper colorimeter based on color sensor is considered. The developed colorimeter experimental utilization is shown on example of detection Cu2+, Co2+ ions and Neutral Red indicator. Realized measurement optical system in the colorimeter supports operation with different types of sorbents, as possibility is shown an operation with silica, polyurethane foam and the indicator paper. Dynamic range of device at 12 bit per channel and well stability of characteristic are enough to work with fine reliability that is no more 0.7% for analyzed test systems.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono kolorymetr zbudowany z wykorzystaniem czujnika barwy. Przedstawiono wykorzystanie przedstawionego kolorymetry na przykładzie detekcji jonów Cu2+, Co2+ i neutralnego wskaźnika barwy czerwonej. Zrealizowany system optyczny kolorymetru umożliwia pracę z różnymi rodzajami sorbentów. Możliwości te pokazano z wykorzystaniem krzemionki, pianki poliuretanowej i papierka wskaźnikowego.
EN
The model of the equations of generalized magneto-thermoelasticity in an isotropic elastic medium with two-temperature under the effect initial stress is established. The entire elastic medium is rotated with a uniform angular velocity. The formulation is applied under three theories of generalized thermoelasticity: Lord-Shulman, Green-Lindsay, as well as the coupled theory. The Harmonic function is used to obtain the exact expressions for the considered variables. Some particular cases are also discussed in the context of the problem. We introduce the equations of the velocity of p-wave, T-wave and SV-wave. The boundary conditions for mechanical and Maxwell’s stresses and thermal insulated or isothermal are applied to determine the reflection coefficients for p-wave, T-wave and SV-wave. Some new aspects are obtained of the reflection coefficients and displayed graphically and the new conclusions are presented. Comparisons are also made with the results predicted by different theories (CT, L-S, G-L) in the presence of rotation, initial stress, magnetic field, as well as, the two-temperature parameter on the reflection of generalized thermos-elastic waves.
EN
The present paper investigates the propagation of quasi longitudinal (qLD) and quasi transverse (qTD) waves in a magneto elastic fibre-reinforced rotating semi-in finite medium. Reflections of waves from the flat boundary with surface stress have been studied in details. The governing equations have been used to obtain the polynomial characteristic equation from which qLD and qTD wave velocities are found. It is observed that both the wave velocities depend upon the incident angle. After imposing the appropriate boundary conditions including surface stress the resultant amplitude ratios for the total displacements have been obtained. Numerically simulated results have been depicted graphically by displaying two and three dimensional graphs to highlight the in uence of magnetic field, rotation, surface stress and fibre-reinforcing nature of the material medium on the propagation and reflection of plane waves.
EN
In this paper, we study the effects of magnetic field and initial stress on plane waves propagation. We have investigated the problem of reflection and refraction of thermoelastic waves at a magnetized solid-liquid interface in the presence of initial stress, in the context of CT (Classical theory) of thermoelasticity, the problem has been solved. The boundary conditions applied at the interface are: (i) continuity of the displacement, (ii) vanishing of the tangential displacement, (iii) continuity of normal force per unit initial area, (iv) vanishing of the tangential stress and (v) continuity of temperature. The amplitudes ratios for the incident P-, T-, and SV- waves have been obtained. The reflection and transmission coefficients for the incident waves are computed numerically, considering the initial stress and magnetic field effects and the results are represented graphically.
EN
The investigations have been performed in order to choose the specific roughness parameters, which would inform the customer about the diffuse emissive and reflective characteristics of the adhesive tapes used in the thermographic measurements. To achieve that, a series of the surface topography parameters of various adhesive tapes (i.e. objects with diffusive reflective characteristics) and various glass plates (i.e. objects with directional reflective characteristics) has been examined. For the analysis of surface topography the following parameters were selected: Sdr (the Developed Interfacial Area Ratio) and Sdq (the Root Mean Square Surface Slope). These selected parameters seem to be most suitable to describe the properties of the surface in the discussed aspect.
EN
In this paper, the effect of geometry and impedance on the acoustic behavior of wall and lined cylindrical ducts is investigated using a numerical model which enables one to compute the reflection and the transmission coefficients of such ducts using the multimodal scattering matrix. From this matrix, the acoustic power attenuation is deduced. By using these tools, the effect of duct diameter increase and duct diameter decrease of the wall or lined duct section is studied. The numerical results are obtained for two configurations of wall and lined ducts. Numerical coefficients of transmission and reflection as well as the acoustic power attenuation show the relative influence of each type of variation.
EN
The problem of the reflection and refraction phenomenon due to longitudinal and transverse waves incident obliquely at a plane interface between uniform elastic solid half-space and magneto-thermoelastic diffusive solid half-space with voids has been studied. It is found that the amplitude ratios of various reflected and refracted waves are functions of the angle of incidence and frequency of the incident wave. The amplitude ratios and energy ratios have been computed numerically for a particular model. The variations of energy ratios with angle of incidence are shown graphically.
EN
The reflection of elastic waves at the surface of a couple-stress elastic half-space with a viscoelastic support is studied in this paper. Different from the classical elastic solid, there are: a non-dispersive dilatational propagating wave, a dispersive transverse propagating wave and a dispersive evanescent wave in a couple-stress elastic solid. The boundary conditions at the visco-elastically supported surface of a couple-stress elastic half-space include the couple-stress vector and the rotation vector, which disappear in the classical elastic solid. They are used to obtain a set of linear algebraic equation, from which the amplitude ratios of reflection waves with respect to the incident wave can be determined. Then, the reflection coefficients in terms of energy flux ratios are calculated numerically, and the normal energy flux conservation is used to validate the numerical results. At last, the influence of the boundary parameters that reflect the mechanical behavior of a viscoelastic support on the amplitude ratio, the phase shift and the energy partition of reflection waves are discussed based on the numerical results. Both the incident longitudinal displacement wave (the P-wave) and incident transverse displacement wave (the SV-wave) are considered. It is found that the instantaneous elasticity and the delayed viscosity of a viscoelastic support have different influences on the reflection waves.
EN
A general problem of monochrome plane electromagnetic wave reflection and refraction at the interface between the conducting medium and the dielectric is formulated and solved by symbolic computation for given incident wave polarization. The conductivity account via the Ohm law directly in the Maxwell equation leads to a complex wavenumber and hence complex amplitudes of the reflected and refracted waves. Atomic absorption is taken into account via the imaginary part of permittivity. The general formula for the time-averaged Pointing vector in the conducting media as a function of the medium parameters and the incident angle is derived and used for the refraction angle definition. The result is compared with textbooks and recent publications. The dependence of intensity as a function of the angle to the interface is determined also via the Pointing vector as a function of the incident wave and medium parameters.
15
Content available remote The proposal of the laboratories for calibration of radar level gauges
EN
This article deals with the problem of the design of the measuring environment for the testing of the devices working on the base of the electromagnetic waves. We mean by these devices the radar level gauges. The radar level gauge is a source of the electromagnetic waves. The input part of this device receives reflected waves from the referential interface (reflection board). In the measuring environment can occur also various steel installations, e.g. constructions which consist of cylindrical steel beams. If the measuring environment contains steel installations, the receiving of the electromagnetic waves can be influenced by high frequency phenomena on the construction. In this article we focus on the proposal of the dimensions of the measuring environment.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy problemu projektowania stanowiska pomiarowego do badania urządzeń wykorzystujących fale elektromagnetyczne. Pod pojęciem tych urządzeń rozumie się radarowe wskaźniki poziomu. Radarowy wskaźnik poziomu jest źródłem fal elektromagnetycznych. Wejściowy element tego urządzenia odbiera fale odbite od płaszczyzny odniesienia. W środowisku pomiarowym mogą występować różne instalacje stalowe, np. elementy konstrukcyjne złożone z cylindrycznych stalowych belek. Jeżeli środowisko pomiarowe zawiera stalowe instalacje, odbiór fal elektromagnetycznych może być zakłócany wskutek zachodzących zjawisk wysokoczęstotliwościowych. W artykule skupiono się na propozycji określenia wymiarów środowiska pomiarowego.
EN
Important basic transformations, implemented in CAD systems, are congruence transformations, so-called isometries, which preserve the distance of points. Logic of CAD software bases on the reflection, translation, rotation, and similarity. This fact is the important desideratum in the teaching of Descriptive Geometry. The paper includes a proposal for a teaching from the scope of isometries on the plane and in three-dimensional space.
PL
Ważnymi przekształceniami zaimplementowanymi w oprogramowaniu CAD, są izometrie, czyli przekształcenia zachowujące odległość punktów. Logika tych systemów opiera się gównie na pojęciu symetrii, translacji i obrotu. Ważną jeszcze rolę odgrywa podobieństwo. Uwzględnienie tego faktu w nauczaniu geometrii wykreślnej jest ważnym dezyderatem dydaktycznym. Praca zawiera propozycję dydaktyczną z zakresu zastosowania izometrii na płaszczyźnie i w przestrzeni.
EN
In this paper the reflection and transmission at a plane interface in modified couple stress generalized thermoelastic solid half spaces in the context of Loard-Shulman (LS) and Green-Lindsay (GL) theories in welded contact are investigated. Amplitude ratios of various reflected and transmitted waves are obtained due to incidence of a set of coupled longitudinal waves and coupled transverse waves. It is found that the amplitude ratios of various reflected and transmitted waves are functions of the angle of incidence, frequency and are affected by the couple stress properties of the media. Some special cases are deduced from the present formulation.
EN
The paper is concerned with the propagation of plane waves in a transversely isotropic two temperature generalized thermoelastic solid half-space with voids and rotation. The governing equations are modified in the context of Lord and Shulman theory of generalized thermoelasticity and solved to show the existence of four plane waves in the x – z plane. Reflection of these plane waves from thermally insulated stress free surface is also studied to obtain a system of four non-homogeneous equations. For numerical computations of speed and reflection coefficients, a particular material is modelled as transversely isotropic generalized thermoelastic solid half-space. The speeds of plane waves are computed against the angle of propagation to observe the effects of two temperature and rotation. Reflection coefficients of various reflected waves are also computed against the angle of incidence to observe the effects of various parameters.
19
Content available Shaping of Panel Materials in Light Direction Design
EN
Abstract The paper presents the methodology of the analysis of the materials used in solar energy conversion, and an elaborated example with simulations of obtained results. Material properties are selected in relation to the need of sunlight illumination applications in civil constructions. This process is presented , starting from the analysis of some aspects of solar radiation, through the calculations of lens curvature and leading to the execution of simulations in different conditions. Graphical presentation of the phenomenon, it can visualize the process of shaping curves. The materials such as glass, polymers, metals, and gases have been discussed. Particular attention was paid to the results of the transmission of materials, their reflection and absorption of solar radiation. Moreover, the research problems of illumination and reflection in multi-layer structures used for civil constructions have been presented.
EN
The present article investigates theoretically the refection and transmission through a lossless dielectric slab embedded between two semi-infinite left-handed materials (LHMs) in which the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability are simultaneously negative. The LHM is assumed to be dispersive according to Lorentz as well as Drude medium model. The reflection and transmission coefficients are studied with the angle of incidence, frequency and slab thickness. The effect of the damping frequency is also investigated. It is found that the damping frequency has an insignificant effect on reflected, transmitted and loss powers. Band pass filter is one of the possible applications of the proposed structure.
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