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PL
W przedsiębiorstwach realizowanych jest wiele procesów, które mają umożliwić osiągnięcie zdefiniowanych celów biznesowych. W dużej mierze są to procesy cykliczne, to znaczy takie, które się powtarzają i mają wyznaczony przebieg. Różnią się zazwyczaj szczegółami, takimi jak lokalizacja źródłowa i docelowa, lub miejscem występowania w systemie. Podczas modelowania w programach symulacyjnych różnice te znacznie wpływają na poziom zaawansowania modelu. W trakcie odzwierciedlania procesów w programach brakuje możliwości automatycznego działania – sztucznej inteligencji odpowiadającej za cykliczność. Celem tej pracy jest przedstawienie podejścia do modelowania - tzw. procesu referencyjnego, który pozwala na ułatwienie i skrócenie czasu projektowania procesów logistycznych w modelach symulacyjnych. Przedstawiono rozwiązanie, w którym definiuje się jedynie zasady wyboru tzw. lokalizacji pełniących funkcję buforów, pól odkładczych, a modelowane czynności procesu są generowane automatycznie. Zaproponowano zasadę pozwalającą na modelowanie według reguł losowych, wskazując dalsze kierunki prac badawczych związanych z regułami ilościowymi i czasowymi. W artykule przedstawiono również implementację tego rozwiązania w programie symulacyjnym LogABS.
EN
In enterprises, many processes are implemented to achieve the defined business goals. These are mainly cyclical processes, that is, processes that repeat and have a designated course. They usually differ in details, such as the source and destination, or where they appear in the system. When modeling in simulation programs, these differences significantly affect the advancement of the model. In the process of reflecting processes in programs, there is no possibility of automatic operation – “artificial intelligence” responsible for cyclicality. The aim of this work is to present an approach to modeling – the so-called reference process that allows one to simplify and shorten the design time of logistics processes in simulation models. A solution was proposed in which only the rules for selecting the so-called locations acting as buffers, storage fields, and modeled process activities are generated automatically. The proposed rule allows for modeling according to random rules, indicating further directions for research related to quantitative and time rules. The article also presents the implementation of this solution in the LogABS simulation program.
EN
The transportation infrastructure is one of the most important resources for a country's economic and social well-being. The effectiveness of a country's street network will decide whether it develops further or stagnates. With the increasing number of vehicles on the road and the effects of urbanization, traffic roads are being subjected to a variety of requests and uses for which they were not designed, sized, or predicted. Because of the critical relevance of traffic roads, research must begin to lessen the effects of traffic jams in the streets, determine the appropriate number of traffic lanes, and integrate real-time traffic information into GPS systems. The goal of modeling a traffic-road system is to either build new traffic systems or gain a better knowledge of existing traffic systems so that they can be optimized. The accuracy, performance, stochastic and dynamic behavior of the model produced will be evaluated using a simulation of a genuine traffic system. This paper provides microscopic models based on cellular automation to replicate the behavior of various automobiles on a set of urban streets in Cluj Napoca city downtown. This model includes streets with multiple traffic lanes, various types of vehicles such as automobiles, buses, and trams, intersections with multiple possible upcoming streets controlled by traffic lights, bus stops inside and outside the traffic lane, tram stops inside the traffic lane, pedestrian crosswalks, and parking areas alongside and transversely with the right traffic lane of a street. TCA (Traffic Cellular Automata) is a proposed model that produces adequate findings in urban traffic theory. The results were obtained in both free-flow and traffic-jam conditions.
PL
Infrastruktura transportowa jest jednym z najważniejszych zasobów zapewniających dobrobyt gospodarczy i społeczny kraju. Skuteczność sieci ulic danego kraju zadecyduje o dalszym rozwoju lub stagnacji. Wraz z rosnącą liczbą pojazdów na drogach i skutkami urbanizacji, drogi drogowe są przedmiotem różnych wymagań i zastosowań, do których nie zostały zaprojektowane, zwymiarowane ani przewidziane. Ze względu na krytyczne znaczenie dróg, badania muszą zacząć łagodzić skutki korków na ulicach, określić odpowiednią liczbę pasów ruchu i zintegrować informacje o ruchu drogowym w czasie rzeczywistym z systemami GPS. Celem modelowania układu ruch-droga jest albo zbudowanie nowych układów ruchu, albo uzyskanie lepszej wiedzy o istniejących układach ruchu, aby można je było zoptymalizować. Dokładność, wydajność, zachowanie stochastyczne i dynamiczne wytworzonego modelu zostaną ocenione za pomocą symulacji rzeczywistego systemu ruchu. W tym artykule przedstawiono mikroskopowe modele oparte na automatyzacji komórkowej w celu odtworzenia zachowania różnych samochodów na zbiorze miejskich ulic w centrum miasta Cluj Napoca. Model ten obejmuje ulice z wieloma pasami ruchu, różnego rodzaju pojazdy, takie jak samochody, autobusy i tramwaje, skrzyżowania z wieloma możliwymi zbliżającymi się ulicami sterowanymi przez sygnalizację świetlną, przystanki autobusowe wewnątrz i poza pasem ruchu, tramwaje przystanki wewnątrz pasa ruchu, pieszy przejścia dla pieszych oraz parkingi wzdłuż i w poprzek z prawym pasem ruchu ulicy. TCA (Traffic Cellular Automata) to proponowany model, który daje odpowiednie wyniki w teorii ruchu miejskiego. Wyniki uzyskano zarówno w warunkach swobodnego przepływu, jak i w korku.
3
Content available remote Shielding effectiveness of concrete in dependence of his electric properties
EN
Due to the constant increase in the number of electronic devices, there is a long-term impact of the electromagnetic field (EMF) on human health. In addition, on the other hand, the operation of electronic devices will be affected if the radiation level is too high. Shielding is used to reduce radiation exposure. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the shielding effectiveness (SE) of concrete depending on the change of its relative permittivity. The paper performs simulations through a waveguide in the Ansys software. The investigated material "concrete" was placed in the middle of a waveguide with a thickness of 10 cm. The frequency range is from 1.6 GHz to 5 GHz. During the experiment, the shielding of wet and dry concrete were determined.
PL
Ze względu na stały wzrost liczby urządzeń elektronicznych istnieje długofalowy wpływ pola elektromagnetycznego (PEM) na zdrowie człowieka. Ponadto, z drugiej strony, zbyt wysoki poziom promieniowania będzie miał wpływ na działanie urządzeń elektronicznych. W celu zmniejszenia narażenia na promieniowanie stosuje się ekranowanie. Celem niniejszej pracy jest zatem zbadanie skuteczności ekranowania (SE) betonu w zależności od zmiany jego przenikalności względnej. W artykule przeprowadzono symulacje za pomocą falowodu w oprogramowaniu Ansys. Badany materiał „beton” umieszczono w środku falowodu o grubości 10 cm. Zakres częstotliwości wynosi od 1,6 GHz do 5 GHz. W trakcie eksperymentu wyznaczono ekranowanie betonu mokrego i suchego.
EN
Recovery of gold and gold-containing sulfide mineral particles requires multiple-stage recovery processes starting from the grinding circuits to avoid over-grinding of the liberated gold particles. Due to high density, these gold grains tend to follow the hydrocyclone underflow, and a significant amount of metal increases in the circulating load. Therefore, in recent years the grinding circuits have been designed to improve the recovery of free gold/gold-containing particles in the grinding circuit. Gravity separation (centrifugal gravity separators) and flash flotation processes are commonly used for gold recovery in the grinding circuit. This study used a methodology based on modeling-simulation studies to assess various flowsheet configurations involving flash flotation, gravity separation, and the conventional sulfide mineral flotation process. The standard GRG, flash flotation, and rougher kinetic tests were used for the model development of each process. The laboratory tests and simulation studies showed that gold and sulfur recoveries in flash flotation were approximately 7% and 17% higher than that of the gravity separation process. However, the grade of the gravity concentrate was considerably higher. Therefore, one of these unit processes or their combinations can be selected depending on the ore characteristics and the aim of the recovery process. Simulation studies were performed to illustrate the gold recovery performance of various flowsheet configurations. This methodology could be used effectively for flowsheet development, particularly for greenfield projects.
EN
Effects of temperature variation on the performance of silicon heterojunction solar cells are studied using opto-electrical simulations. It is shown that the low-temperature cell efficiency is determined by the fill factor, while at high temperatures it depends on the open-circuit voltage. Simulations revealed that the low-temperature drop in the fill factor is caused by poor tunnelling, in particular at the ITO/p-a-Si:H heterojunction. The authors link this drop in fill factor to a low maximum-power-point voltage and show how poor tunnelling is reflected in the charge redistribution determining the device voltage. The effect of the contact work function on temperature behaviour of efficiency by varying the electron affinity of ITO layers has been demonstrated. It was also demonstrated that increasing the electron affinity of ITO on the p-side minimises the work function mismatch, leading to significant improvements in efficiency, especially at low temperatures, while optimisation on the n-side results in maginal improvements over the entire temperature range. In addition to the cumulative effects of the temperature-dependent parameters, their individual contributions to the efficiency were also investigated. Moreover, it was presented that the thermal energy (kT) determines the efficiency temperature behaviour, while other parameters play only a minor role. This paper shows how temperature variations affect device performance parameters.
EN
To ensure the operability of machinery and equipment for the oil and gas industry, it is important to study their operation with subsequent improvement. This scientific work is devoted to highlighting the operation simulation of the impeller in a submersible centrifugal pump, because the pump itself is the main equipment in oil production. The main parts of a submersible centrifugal pump are its stages, consisting of an impeller and a guide vane. When the impeller rotates, a force interaction of the flow with the impeller blades occurs, while a pressure difference in the fluid flow on both sides of each blade arises. The pressure forces of the blades on the flow create a forced rotational and translational motion of the fluid, increasing its mechanical energy. It should be noted that the movement of fluid in pump sections is a rather complex process that is difficult to accurately describe analytically. However, today there are various computer programs (SOLIDWORKS FlowSimulation, ANSYS CFD, etc.) based on the finite volume method (FVM). To study the operation of a submersible centrifugal pump impeller, there has been built its threedimensional model. As a result of calculations, the distribution of pressure and velocity in the cross section of the impeller was obtained.
PL
Budownictwo charakteryzuje się dużą wypadkowością podczas prowadzenia wszelkiego rodzaju prac, co w dużej mierze wynika z indywidualnego charakteru każdego przedsięwzięcia. Ryzyko zaistnienia wypadku będzie większe podczas oceny stanu technicznego, a następnie prac remontowych i/lub rozbiórkowych w obiektach, w których nie prowadzono przez wiele lat prawidłowej polityki utrzymaniowej. Niezbędne jest szukanie rozwiązań, które zminimalizują zagrożenie życia i zdrowia osób przebywających w takich obiektach. Proponujemy zwiększenie bezpieczeństwa podczas wykonywania oceny stanu technicznego, a także późniejszego prowadzenia prac w obiekcie przez zastosowanie nowoczesnych metod, takich jak inwentaryzacja obiektu statkami bezzałogowymi oraz jego skaning, utworzenie modelu obiektu, a następnie możliwość wykonania symulacji przeprowadzenia prac rozbiórkowych.
EN
The civil engineering is characterised by a high accident rate dring the execution of all types of work, which is largely due to the individual nature of each project. The risk of an accident will be greater during technical condition assessments and in particular, during renovation and/or demolition work on buildings where there has not been a proper maintenance policy for many years. It is necessary to seek solution that minimise the risk to life and health of the occupants of such facilities. We propose to increase safety during the assessment of the technical condition of a facility and the subsequent conduct of works in the facility by using modern method such as an inventory of the facility with unmanned vehicles and its scanning, creating a model of the facility and then the possibility to simulate the conduct of demolition works.
EN
Background: Hospital layout is one important factor affecting hospital service quality and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Generally, the layout is designed based on the experience of the hospital specialists without any systematic approaches. Purpose: Due to the increasing number of patients, the case study hospital has built a new multi-floor building to move its Outpatient Department (OPD) to operate there. Therefore, this study aims to apply the Activity Relationship Analysis (ARA) and simulation to design a new OPD layout. Methodology: Data of the previous system were analyzed using the ARA. The results were then used to design three scenarios (A, C, and D) and the other three scenarios (B, E, and F) were proposed by hospital specialists. Then, six layouts were evaluated using simulation tests and the efficiencies of the designs were measured by an average total service time per patient. Results: The simulation results showed that the average total service time of scenario A, D, E, and F were lower than scenario B and C. While the average total service time at the sub-service unit of D was the longest compared to scenario A, E, and F. These results demonstrated that scenario A, E, and F were the most efficient layouts. However, when considered thoroughly by the hospital specialists, scenario A was eventually selected. Conclusion: This study can contribute to scientific literature as it demonstrates the application of the ARA and simulation in the design of the multi-floor layout, an aspect under-researched in existing studies. This study also provides the practical implication suggesting that these techniques should be used together in the layout designs because they can help to determine the correctness and efficiency of the layout design before actual implementation.
9
EN
The random early detection (RED) algorithm was developed in 1993. Nearly three decades later, several improved variants have been proposed by scientists. The use of a (pure) linear function for computing packet drop probability has turned out to be a disadvantage, leading to the problem of large delays. Such a problem may be addressed by using linear and non-linear (i.e. as exponential) packet drop probability functions. This paper proposes a revised RED active queue management algorithm named RED-linear exponential (RED-LE). This variant involves an interplay of linear and exponential drop functions, in order to improve the performance of the original RED algorithm. More importantly, at low and moderate network traffic loads, the RED-LE algorithm employs the linear drop action. However, for high traffic loads, RED-LE employs the exponential function for computing the packet drop probability rate. Experimental results have shown that RED-LE effectively controls congestion and offers an improved network performance under different traffic loads.
EN
The joining of sheet metal parts produced in the material combination of Fe-Fe, Fe-Al as well as Fe-thermoplastic and Al-thermoplastic can be realized by the Resistance Element Soldering (RES). Extruded bimetallic elements were used to form the overlap joint. The semi-finished product for extrusions was a Cu 99.9 tube with dimensions φ6 × 0.5 mm and length 9 mm, filled with Sn60Pb40 solder. “T” shaped overprints were produced in two ways. Simulation in the ANSYS software environment was chosen to optimize, select the appropriate forming process, and design the geometry of the functional parts of the forming tool, allowing to use only one extrusion forming operation. The results of the simulations are the magnitudes of stresses and strains, and different head shape geometries of the bimetallic element extrusions of the three proposed forming methods. The task was to achieve extrusions without defects of the Cu tube shell, such as corrugations and wrinkles. The geometry was observed and compared by macroanalysis of extrusion sections made on a laboratory forming tool.
PL
Łączenie części metalowych wykonanych z połączenia materiałów Fe-Fe, Fe-Al oraz termoplastycznych Fe i Al można wykonać metodą lutowania oporowego (RES - Resistance Element Soldering). Do wykonania połączenia zakładkowego użyto wytłaczanych elementów bimetalicznych. Półfabrykatem do wytłaczania była rura Cu 99,9 o wymiarach φ6 × 0,5 mm i długości 9 mm, wypełniona lutem Sn60Pb40. Nakładki w kształcie litery „T” wykonywano na dwa sposoby. W celu optymalizacji, doboru odpowiedniego procesu formowania i zaprojektowania geometrii funkcjonalnych części narzędzia kształtującego wybrano symulację w środowisku oprogramowania ANSYS, co pozwala na użycie tylko jednej operacji kształtowania przez wytłaczanie. Wynikiem symulacji są wielkości naprężeń i odkształceń oraz różne parametry geometryczne kształtu głowic wytłoczonych elementów bimetalicznych z trzech proponowanych metod kształtowania. Celem było uzyskanie wytłoczek pozbawionych wad powłoki rury z Cu, takich jak pofałdowania i zmarszczki. Parametry geometryczne obserwowano i porównywano za pomocą makroanalizy produktów wytłaczania wykonanych w laboratoryjnym narzędziu kształtującym.
EN
Manufacturing and processing industries usually consume large quantities of materials and energy in the course of their operations. The energy supplied for high-temperature processes are used partially for the actual technical process and between 30 to 40% of the energy escapes through the walls of the reactor into the atmosphere, leading to a high degree of thermal inefficiency and fuel consumption. This paper studies the thermal behaviour of insulating refractory bricks produced from a blend of fireclay and agroforestry wastes. The fireclays used were obtained from Ukpor deposit in Anambra State (Latitude 5.95°N, Longitude 6.92°E), Osiele deposit in Abeokuta, Ogun State (Latitude 7.18°N, Longitude 3.45°E) and Kankara Katsina State (Latitude 11.93°N, Longitude 7.41°E), all of which are in Nigeria. Samples were prepared with various weight percentages (60–100 wt.%) clays and (0–40 wt.%) of agroforestry waste, with grain sizes between 212 and 600 µm. Raw materials and the developed refractory bricks were characterised using appropriate standard techniques. The chemical, mineralogical constituents and phases present in the microstructure were examined. Physical and thermo-mechanical properties were investigated. The insulating refractory bricks developed have porosity of 78.83% , cold crushing strength (CCS) 3.144 kN/m2 and thermal conductivity 0.04–0.046 W/(m∙K) that compare favourably with imported bricks 75–85%, 2.756 kN/m2 and 0.049 W/(m∙K) in both physical, mechanical and thermal properties respectively. The reason is that the agroforestry waste used (coconut shell), served to create the pores that improve insulation after burning. Also the ash that remains serves as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties. The thermal behaviour of the bricks was studied using Finite Element Method and shows a strong correlation with the experimental findings. This indicates that the produced insulating bricks have the thermal properties required for insulation of furnaces.
12
Content available QoS Extensions for Flow-Awareness Networks
EN
The paper contains a description and research results of the proposal for distributed QoS extensions for Flow-Based Networking. These QoS extensions let the network accept or reject flows based on current network load and QoS promises for each of the flows. Proposed solution consists of two distributed components, each of them performing in every node, measurement system and access control. The solution could be applied in any network architecture that is able to distinguish flows and routers in this architecture contains flow state table. Proposed approach was verified by simulation, in FSA architecture. Verification was done for six different network structures servicing two traffic classes (MRS, ARS). The results of the simulation tests have confirmed that the average time delay and packet loss ratio in the network with proposed extensions are below thresholds and meet the requirements recommended by ITU-T.
EN
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a type of Ad hoc network. General properties of MANET open the network to various security threats. Network layer-based Active attacks are widespread and destructive. Available security solutions contain complex calculations. Therefore, the objective of this research is to propose a lightweight security mechanism to enhance the security of data communications between source and destination nodes in a MANET from network layer-based active attack. Blackhole is used as a network layer-based Active attack. The network performance is evaluated using Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Average End-to-End Delay (AEED), Throughput, and Simulation Processing Time at Intermediate Nodes (SPTIN). The controller network was used to compare the performance of each network. During the experiment due to the impact of the blackhole attack, compared to the controller network, the PDR was found to be 0.28%, AEED was infinity and Throughput was 0.33%. The performance of the proposed security mechanism was compared with that of the controller network, and the values of PDR, AEED, Throughput, and SPTIN were found to be 98.0825%, 100.9346%, 99.9988%, and 96.5660%, respectively. The data packet delivery ratio was 100.00% compared to that of the controller network. The network that was affected by a blackhole attack showed a higher amount of ADDR than the controller network and the lowest amount of PDR. The network that was affected by the blackhole showed underperformance compared to the controller network. The proposed security mechanism performs well in PDR, AEED, and Throughput compared to the controller network. The AEED and SPTIN values prove that the proposed solution is free from complex calculations. The scope of the solution can be expanded into a lightweight Intruder Detection System to handle different types of security attacks in MANETs.
EN
This paper presents how to design and simulate a passband rectangular waveguide filters based on direct coupled resonators operating at 12 GHz. The modeled filters are characterized by a cross coupling that produces a single attenuation pole at finite frequency used to shape the bandpass response. Resonators provide bandpass filter designs with a pseudo-elliptic response using HFSS simulators. Transmission zeros are obtained through coupling between the fundamental mode and high mode. The filter structures are validated leading to obtain transmission zeros close to the passband. The simulated waveguide filters with a centre frequency exhibit an insertion loss of -0.4/0.3dB and a return loss of −20/23dB for a bandwidth ranging from 11.85GHz to 12.15GHz that shows good electromagnetic responses for the simulated filters.
EN
This study aims to present mathematical modelling to evaluate and analyze double crankrocker engine performance. The study suggests the use of two methods to reduce system vibration through balancing optimization and vibrational analysis. The combination of both methods acts as a verification method; besides it can be used as a tool for further system design enhancement and condition monitoring. The derived mathematical model is then used for balancing optimization to identify system shaking forces and moments, while variable speed is considered as an added parameter to evolve the optimization process. This factor shows better enhancement in reducing system shaking forces and moments compared to constant speed balancing method. Next, the system characteristics were concluded in terms of mode shapes and natural frequencies using modal and frequency response analysis, which give clear clue for secure system operational ground. Finally, the reduction in system vibrations was translated into engine’s centre of mass velocity, which evaluates balancing process effectiveness and indicate if further enhancement should be conducted.
16
Content available remote Bond Graph Modeling of Muscle-Tendon Actuationof a Phalange
EN
In musculoskeletal actuation systems, it is essential to understand and analyze the exten-sion and force patterns generated in the muscle-tendon units (MTUs) responsible for themotion of a phalange. This work proposes a systematically developed bond graph modelfor the muscle-tendon actuation system for the desired motion of the phalange of thehand. The phalange is represented by a cylindrical rigid body, actuated by four MTUsattached to it symmetrically. The MTU is based on Hill’s muscle model. The role of thecentral nervous system (CNS) that commands desired motions to the phalange is emulatedthrough a virtual domain in the model. The virtual domain decides the activation patternof MTUs. Accordingly, the MTUs apply forces on the phalange to achieve the desiredmotion. Simulation results for important motions such as flexion-extension, adduction-abduction, and circumduction show that the model effectively captures the dynamics ofthe musculoskeletal actuation system.
EN
The main objective of this study was to design a journal bearing, such that it can withstand the forces that arise in context to increasing the length of the shaft in an automotive turbocharger. The work will also provide information on how the design changes affect the overall performance of the bearing. The design changes include the thickness of the oil film, the number of grooves, the dimension of the grooves, the number of inlets and outlets, the dimension of the babbitt and mainly the length of the journal bearing. The simulation models were created using CATIA V5 and the analysis is done using ANSYS 19.2. The flow is considered to be laminar and is calculated using Reynold’s Equation. The new concept gave insight on how the design considerations affect the pressure distribution and the pressure developed. From the results, it was interpreted that the new design can withstand the four times the pressure while distributing the pressure over twice the original design.
EN
In terms of simulation research, it is important to simulate real conditions as precisely as possible. This type of approach makes it possible to minimize the error in the obtained results. The dynamics of acceleration is one of the most important factors having a direct impact on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from vehicles. The work was carried out with the use of PTV Vissim microscopic vehicle motion simulation software. The considerations were carried out on theoretical acceleration profiles with different dynamics values and the actual character of acceleration, recorded during road tests. The simulations were carried out for a car powered by spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. The research showed that the calibration of the acceleration character of the vehicle in simulation tests may result in significant differences in obtained results of exhaust emissions.
19
Content available The study of co-design in the area of manufacturing
EN
The study is devoted to the co-design concept which is not widely studied in the manufacturing industry area. The concept is just practiced but not theorized and not investigated enough, although it greatly deserves it because of its perspectives and advantages potential in the technology changes era. This study aims to present an investigation of literature views on co-design in manufacturing operations, with the comparison to service literature where it is widely discussed; the study also aims at in-depth investigations of co-design occurrences in two industrial cases of product development to understand their nature and circumstances. In addition, the influence of Industry 4.0 technologies and their coexistence with the concept of sustainability will also be strongly taken into consideration in the empirical part of this study. The process of the individualized production of the industrial line for animal food packing and cardboard packaging production has been studied according to case study methodology. The study demonstrates that co-design could contribute to bettering the process of new product development and achieving products more accurate for the final users’ requirements. It goes hand in hand with one of the core ideas of sustainability, which is to have long-lasting products, exploited by the customer with a high level of satisfaction for a longer time. The study implies that the technologies of Industry 4.0 could support wider and more effective co-design exploitation by manufacturing entities.
PL
Artykuł to studium przypadku doboru instalacji PV dla domu jednorodzinnego oraz optymalizacji położenia paneli na dachu płaskim z wykorzystaniem narzędzi projektowania generatywnego i optymalizacji genetycznej. Celem przeprowadzonych symulacji było wykazanie przydatności wybranego narzędzia do analiz zmiennych projektowanego systemu w relacji do zapotrzebowania na energię zdefiniowanego przez obecność i aktywności użytkowników obiektu.
EN
This paper describes a case study of the selection of a PV installation for a single-family house and its configuration on a flat roof, using generative design and genetic optimisation tools. The purpose of the simulations carried out was to demonstrate the suitability of the chosen tool for the analysis of the variables of the designed system in relation to the energy demand defined by the presence and activity of the users of the facility.
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