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W artykule przedstawiono rozmieszczenie i wartości udokumentowanych zasobów geologicznych metanu w pokładach węgla (CBM) na świecie oraz dane dotyczące ich wydobycia. Scharakteryzowano warunki występowania akumulacji metanu w pokładach węgla kamiennego. Omówiono korzyści płynące z wykorzystania metanu w procesach technologiczno-produkcyjnych oraz zagrożenia związane z jego wydobyciem.
The paper presents the distribution and value of documented coalbed methane (CBM) geological resources in the world and presents the history of the production of coaldbed gas. Conditions of the CBM accumulations occurrence were characterized. The benefits of using methane in the process of technological production – and the risks associated with its extraction were discussed.
Content available Metan pokładów węgla: zasoby i eksploatacja
Gas produced from coal can be subdivided into three categories: coalbed methane (CBM), coal mine methane (CMM) and abandoned mine methane (AMM). CBM is extracted from virgin coal using wells drilled from the surface. In recent years horizontal drilling is widely used as a primary CBM recovery technique. A pair of wells - a vertical production well intersected by a horizontal multilateral well - is considered the most effective in dewatering a coal reservoir and thus enables maximizing its productivity. Although CBM world resources are huge (100-216 bcm), only a few countries produce coalbed gas commercially. While the US is still the leader, Australia has the fastest CBM production growth. It has been observed that many mature CBM plays reveal highly variable productivity, possibly due to coal heterogeneity. Therefore, CBM reserves/resources should be estimated using probabilistic methods. In spite of its substantial CBM resource potential, Poland has produced only coal mine methane (CMM) whereas significant efforts of CBM exploration conducted in the 1990s failed to flow gas in commercial quantities due to low permeability. Dart Energy operates a CBM exploration license in the Upper Silesia and has recently finished testing the CBM production pilot using a surface-to-inseam horizontal well with vertical production well intersection. This state-of-the-art CBM completion technology has been used for the first time in Poland and, hopefully, will unlock the sizeable CBM resource of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin.
Coalbed methane (CBM) should be considered complementary to conventional gas. CBM resource is estimated at 28.5 billion m3 for active coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and 124.5 billion m3 for the prospective areas outside of coal mines. The large CBM resource of the USCB, which is comparable with all conventional gas reserves in Poland, could significantly improve the energy balance of our country. Currently, CBM is produced only in association with coal production, and methane is considered as a by-product of coal extraction. Methane production from active coal mines is 289 million m3 whereas only 50% of methane gas is utilized. If the sizeable CBM resource of the USCB could be successfully combined with the state-of-the-art technologies of CBM production (horizontal wells), coalbed gas would soon become a significant portion of natural gas supply in Poland. Undoubtedly, an active role of the Polish government in stimulating CBM investments would significantly help to achieve this objective.
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