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PL
W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę warunków meteorologicznych w północnej części Kaffiøyry (NW Spitsbergen, rys. 1) w sezonach letnich (21 VII – 31 VIII) w okresie 2012-2014 (tab. 1, rys. 2-9). Pomiary i obserwacje meteorologiczne prowadzono w ogródku meteorologicznym zlokalizowanym w pobliżu stacji polarnej UMK na morenie czołowo-bocznej Lodowca Aavatsmarka (φ=78°4’N, λ=11°51’E, h=11,5 m n.p.m.). Wykonywano je 4 razy na dobę, w terminach 00, 06, 12, 18 UTC (01, 07, 13, 19 LMT). W artykule uzyskane wyniki porównano z wieloletnimi wartościami większości elementów meteorologicznych obliczonymi z kilkudziesięciu sezonów letnich, w których zorganizowano Toruńskie Wyprawy Polarne w okresie 1975-2014 (tab. 1). W sezonach letnich 2012-2014 stwierdzono większą prędkość wiatru (5,3 m·s-1 w stosunku do 4,6 m·s-1 w wieloleciu 1975-2014). Przyczyniła się do tego przede wszystkim zwiększona jego prędkość w sezonie letnim 2012 r. (6,1 m·s-1). Świadczy to o wzroście działalności cyklonalnej na obszarze Spitsbergenu. Oprócz wiatru znaczącym zmianom podległy także wszystkie parametry temperatury powietrza (tab. 1). W największym stopniu wzrosła temperatura maksymalna (o 0,8 oC), a w najmniejszym minimalna (tylko o 0.4 oC). Warto też odnotować znaczny wzrost średniej dobowej amplitudy temperatury powietrza, o 0,5 oC. Ociepleniu klimatu w rejonie Kaffiøyry towarzyszy także znaczny wzrost opadów, który w latach 2012-2014 wyniósł nieznacznie powyżej 150% ich wielkości z lat 1975-2014. (tab. 1). Pozostałe elementy wymawiane w artykule nie wykazały większych zmian w porównaniu do danych wieloletnich.
EN
This article provides the characteristics of meteorological conditions in the north of Kaffiøyra (NW Spitsbergen, Fig. 1) in the summer seasons (21 July – 31 August) of 2012-2014 (Table 1, Figs 2-9). The observations and measurements were carried out at a meteorological site located near the NCU Polar Station on the terminal-lateral moraine of the Aavatsmark Glacier (φ=78°4’N, λ=11°51’E, h=11.5 m a.s.l.). The measurements were taken four times per day at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 UTC (01:00, 07:00, 13:00 and 19:00 LMT). In this article, the obtained results are compared with multi-annual values of most meteorological elements obtained from a few dozen summer seasons, during which Toruń Polar Expeditions were organised in the years 1975-2014 (Table 1). In the summer seasons of 2012-2014, the observed wind speed was greater than in the years 1975-2014 (5.3 m· s-1 vs. 4.6 m·s-1, respectively). This was mainly due to its increased speed in the summer of 2012 (6.1 m·s-1) and it is also an indication of intensified cyclonic activity in the area of Spitsbergen at the time. Besides the wind, all other parameters of air temperature were also subject to considerable changes (Table 1). The maximum temperature of air increased the most (by 0.8 oC), whereas the change in minimum temperature was the smallest (only by 0.4 oC). A substantial increase in the mean diurnal amplitude of air temperature by 0.5 oC is also noteworthy. The warming of the climate of Kaffiøyra is accompanied by greater precipitation, which in the years 2012-2014 slightly exceeded 150% of its respective amount for 1975-2014 (Table 1). The other meteorological elements analysed in this article do not show any major changes as compared with the long-term data.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono historię badań polarnych prowadzonych w latach 1968-2015 przez pracowników Katedry Meteorologii i Klimatologii Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu. Omówiono i scharakteryzowano problematykę badawczą dominującą w opublikowanych w Polsce i za granicą artykułach i monografiach. Wskazano na główne obszary badawcze położone w Arktyce i Antarktyce dla których powstało najwięcej opracowań z zakresu meteorologii i klimatologii. Szczegółowo przedstawiono historię badań terenowych oraz ich rezultaty.
EN
The article presents the history of polar research conducted from 1968 to 2015 by researchers at the Department of Meteorology and Climatology at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. It discusses and characterises the predominant research issues appearing in articles and monographs published in Poland and abroad. The article also indicates the main study areas located in the Arctic and Antarctic which have been the subject of the largest number of papers in the field of meteorology and climatology. In addition, there is a detailed outline of the history of field research and its results. The researchers at the Department of Meteorology and Climatology at NCU participated in a total of 34 polar expeditions during this period, including to Iceland (1), Spitsbergen (27) and Antarctica (6) (Tab. 1, Fig. 1). They have published 371 scholarly papers in the field of meteorology, climatology, hydrology and cryology (Tab. 2, Figs. 2-4), including three post-doctoral theses (habilitations) and five doctoral theses (Tab. 4) as well as being the supervisors of 49 Master’s (magister) theses. In the last 20 years they have taken part in 16 research projects, including two international ones (Tab. 3).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zróżnicowanie przestrzenne wilgotności względnej powietrza w północnej części rejonu Kaffiøyry i na Lodowcu Waldemara w okresie IX 2010 – VIII 2013. W okresie od września 2010 do sierpnia 2011, dla którego istnieją najpełniejsze dane dla wszystkich stanowisk pomiarowych, najwyższe wartości wilgotności względnej zostały zanotowane na szczytach górskich (89%) i na polu firnowym Lodowca Waldemara (86%). Najniższa wartość tego parametru wystąpiła natomiast na tundrze (79%). W całym okresie badawczym, na podstawie zredukowanej liczby stacji, stwierdzono, iż najsuchszy był punkt Kaffiøyra-Heggodden (KH, 83%) zlokalizowany na morenie czołowo-bocznej Lodowca Aavatsmarka, a najbardziej wilgotno było na polu firnowym Lodowca Waldemara (LW2, 85%). Wilgotność względna na badanym obszarze wykazała przeważnie wzrost wartości wraz ze wzrostem wysokości nad poziom morza. Najwilgotniejsze powietrze w rejonie badań towarzyszyło typom cyrkulacji Sc+SWc+Wc i Sa+SWa+Wa (anomalie dodatnie od 7 do 9%), a najsuchsze (anomalie ujemne wahające się od 6% do 9%) podczas napływu mas powietrza z sektora wschodniego, niezależnie od rodzaju układu barycznego. Najmniejsze różnice (do ok. 1-2%) wystąpiły w sytuacjach bezadwekcyjnych reprezentowanych przez typ Ka+Ca.
EN
This paper presents the spatial diversity of air relative humidity (2 m a.g.l.) in the northern part of the Kaffiøyra Plain and on the Waldemar Glacier (NW Spitsbergen), from September 2010 to August 2013, based on measurements taken at six sites located in different environments (Table 1, Figure 1). Results are described for years and seasons, defined as: autumn (Sep-Oct), winter (Nov-Mar), spring (Apr-May) and summer (Jun-Aug). In the period from September 2010 to August 2011, the highest relative humidity was noted on mountain ridges (89%) and in upper part of the Waldemar Glacier (86%). The lowest value of humidity (79%) occurred at a tundra site called ‘Terrace’, located about two kilometres from the coast (Table 2, Figure 2). In the entire period of observations, for which a reduced number (3) of observation sites exists, drier air (83%) was observed at the Kaffiøyra-Heggodden (KH) site, located in the terminal-lateral moraine of the Aavatsmark Glacier, whereas the wettest air (85%) was measured at the firn part of the Waldemar Glacier (LW2). Relative humidity generally shows an increase as altitude increases above sea level. The marked influence of atmospheric circulation on relative humidity was also noted. In the study period, as compared to long-term values from 1951 to 2006, a decrease in the frequency of occurrence of anticyclonic types and an increase in the frequency of cyclonic types (by 10% and 6.8%, respectively) was also noted (Figure 3). Most humid air in the study area occurred within the circulation types Sc+SWc+Wc and Sa+SWa+Wa (positive anomalies varied from 7% to 9%), and the driest (negative anomalies from 6% to 9%) during air advection from the eastern sector within both anticyclonic and cyclonic weather patterns (Table 3 and Figure 4). The smallest differences (up to 2%) were connected with non-advectional weather type Ka+Ca.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przebieg warunków meteorologicznych na Stacji H. Arctowskiego (Wyspa Króla Jerzego, Szetlandy Pd., Antarktyka) w 2012 roku. Pomiary prowadzono za pomocą automatycznej stacji meteorologicznej Davis Vantage Pro+ w interwale godzinnym. Przeanalizowano zmienność ciśnienia atmosferycznego, promieniowania słonecznego, temperatury i wilgotności powietrza oraz kierunku i prędkości wiatru w cyklu rocznym i dobowym. Uzyskane wyniki porównano z dłuższym okresem pomiarowym (1977-1999) oraz z równoległymi danymi z innych stacji prowadzących pomiary meteorologiczne na Wyspie Króla Jerzego.
EN
This paper presents the meteorological conditions at the Arctowski Station (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) in 2012. Measurements were carried out using an automatic weather station Davis Vantage Pro+. At the Arctowski Station the global solar radiation in the period from January 19 to December 31, 2012 amounted to 2985.3 MJ.m-2 (8.60 MJ.m-2.day-1). Taking into account the full year from 1 February 2012 to 31 January 2013, this totaled to 2909.6 MJ.m-2 (7.97 MJ.m-2.day-1). The highest monthly value of solar radiation occurred in December, 567.8 MJ.m-2 (18.32 MJ.m-2.day-1) and the lowest in June, 10.4 MJ.m-2 (0.35 MJ.m-2.day-1). The average annual air temperature was –1.5°C, with the highest monthly average in January (2.4°C) and lowest in June (–5.6°C). The maximum of air temperature was 9.6°C, and the minimum –17.2°C. In 2012 the average atmospheric pressure at sea level was 989.0 hPa, with a characteristic semi-annual oscillation of pressure with two minima: in summer (January 985.3 hPa) and winter (June 979.4 hPa) and two maxima: in autumn (April 996.7 hPa) and spring (September 994.9 hPa). The lowest pressure was 946.8 hPa and the highest 1020.7 hPa. At the Arctowski Station SW, NE, E and SE winds dominate in accordance with gradient of air pressure and the local orography. The average wind speed at 2 m above the ground was 4.8 ms-1, with maximum in winter (June 6.1 ms-1) and minimum in summer (December 3.1 ms-1). The maximum wind speed exceeded 40 ms-1. Relative air humidity was 83%. There is less humidity in summer (January 78%) than in winter (July, 87%). In the course of humidity indicate the day with low humidity during foehn winds. Arctowski Station area is warmer to other regions of King George Island (about 1°C in summer and 1.5°C in winter). On the King George Island and Antarctic Peninsula area occurred increase of air temperature. At the neighboring station Bellingshausen in the years 1968-2012 air temperature rise by 0.17°C/10 years.
EN
This paper presents the outline, methodology, and the state of the realization of a research project. Its goal is to study the influence of environmental, dynamic, and anthropogenic factors on meteorological and biometeorological conditions. It is also planned to work out a map of Toruń topoclimates. The research was performed for over a year on the basis of a network of 26 measurement points selected in different places in Toruń and its neighbourhood with automatic registration of basic meteorological elements and thermal imageries from Terra ASTER satellite. The environment geographic information system created in ArcGIS is used for interpolation of individual meteorological elements and for distribution of biometeorological indices. Various spatial data were used such as land cover, land use, localization and height of buildings, digital elevation model (DEM), and present-day colour orthophotomap. Project results relating to the variability of Toruń bioclimatic conditions may be used for organization of tourism and recreation, and the created map of topoclimates for spatial planning and further development of the city.
PL
Praca prezentuje założenia, metodykę oraz stan realizacji projektu naukowo-badawczego, którego celem jest zbadanie wpływu czynników środowiskowych, dynamicznych i antropogenicznych na warunki meteorologiczne i biometeorologiczne wraz z planowanym opracowaniem mapy topoklimatów miasta Torunia. Badania prowadzone są od ponad roku w oparciu o założoną w wybranych miejscach Torunia i okolic sieć 26 punktów pomiarowych z automatyczną rejestracją podstawowych elementów meteorologicznych oraz docelowo satelitarne obrazy termalne pozyskane z satelity Terra ASTER. Zbudowany w środowisku ArcGIS system informacji geograficznej (GIS) wykorzystywany jest do interpolacji rozkładu poszczególnych elementów meteorologicznych oraz rozkładu wskaźników biometeorologicznych. Do tego systemu pozyskano i wprowadzono już wiele danych przestrzennych, jak pokrycie/użytkowanie terenu, lokalizacja i wysokość budynków, model wysokościowy terenu (DEM) oraz aktualną barwną ortofotomapę. Uzyskane w projekcie wyniki dotyczące zmienności warunków bioklimatycznych Torunia będą mogły być wykorzystane w organizacji turystyki i rekreacji, a utworzona mapa topoklimatów w planowaniu przestrzennym i dalszym rozwoju miasta.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zróżnicowanie warunków meteorologicznych w rejonie Stacji H. Arctowskiego położonej na Wyspie Króla Jerzego (Szetlandy Południowe, Zachodnia Antarktyka) w okresie od 19 stycznia do 19 lutego 2012 r. Pomiary prowadzono na obszarze niezlodowaconym oraz na lodowcach Ekologii i Sphinx. Przeanalizowano różnice pomiędzy stanowiskami w zakresie temperatury i wilgotność powietrza (6 stanowisk), a ponadto promieniowania słonecznego oraz kierunku i prędkości wiatru (3 stanowiska). Stwierdzono znaczne zróżnicowanie topoklimatyczne związane z deniwelacjami terenu, ekspozycją, właściwościami podłoża oraz lokalną cyrkulacją atmosferyczną. Różnice te zmieniają się w cyklu dobowym oraz są ściśle uzależnione od czynników insolacyjno-radiacyjnych i cyrkulacyjnych.
EN
The topoclimatic research carried out in the summer 2012 (January 19 - February 19) showed diversity of meteorological conditions in the H. Arctowski Station surroundings. The analysed period had changeable weather conditions. An average level of solar radiation at the Arctowski Station was 14.3 MJ.m-2 a day, while its daily sums ranged from 1.7 to 24.6 MJ.m-2. Atmospheric pressure oscillated considerably from day to day. Its mean value was 980.8 hPa. The highest temperatures were recorded on the coastal lowland where the H. Arctowski Station was built (2.4°C). Air temperature at the front of the Ecology (1.6°C) and Sphinx (1.8°C) Glaciers is lower due to frequent influx of cool air masses from the glacial interior of the island. On the non-glaciated area air temperatures lower with the altitude. Between the Point Thomas and Arctowski Station the temperature difference was 0.81°C/100 m and between Jardine Peak and Arctowski Station was 1.18°C/100 m. These higher lapse-rates inform about frequent föhn processes which take place on the leeward side of the King George Island. The largest temperature lapse-rate over the glaciated areas is recorded at the contact zone between the glacier and its marginal zone. These differences grow when insolation is intensive, as it results in significant heating of the morainic ground, while the temperatures above the glacial surface remain low (ablation takes place at 0°C). Relative air humidity in the H. Arctowski Station region is high due to a large share of maritime air masses. Mean relative humidity on the seacoast ranged from 81% at the Arctowski Station and grew with the altitude to 91 on the Jardine Peak. The course of the relative humidity is significantly influenced by föhn winds, during which humidity drops to 60%. Lower relative air humidity is also recorded when dry continental air masses inflow from the sector between E through S to SW. Wind direction at the three analysed stations corresponds with the local relief layout. The prevailing winds at the H. Arctowski Station include the winds from the sectors SW (28,6%), NW (10,9%), and SE (7,9%). The most frequent winds at the front of the Ecology and Sphinx Glaciers are katabatic ones blowing along the tonque of glaciers from the Warszawa Icefield. Considering the diurnal course, the highest wind velocities at all the stations are recorded around noon as this is the time thermal and pressure lapse-rates increase above varied ground (land, maritime and glacial). Topoclimatic diversity in the H. Arctowski Station area depends on weather conditions. It grows when the weather shows insolation and radiation character, and it lowers at high cloudiness.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zróżnicowanie wilgotności względnej powietrza oraz opadów atmosferycznych w rejonie Forlandsundet (NW Spitsbergen) w sezonie letnim (21 VII - 31 VIII) 2010 roku. Do analizy wzięto cogodzinne dane wilgotności względnej (z 18 stanowisk) oraz sumy opadów atmosferycznych z okresów 1-3 dniowych (z 11 stanowisk). Dla obydwu badanych elementów meteorologicznych stwierdzono znaczne przestrzenne zróżnicowanie ich wartości uwarunkowane rodzajem podłoża, wysokością nad poziom morza, odległością od morza, ekspozycją oraz lokalną cyrkulacją atmosferyczną. Zbadano wpływ cyrkulacji atmosferycznej na wartości wilgotności względnej i opadów atmosferycznych korzystając z kalendarza typów cyrkulacji dla Spitsbergenu.
EN
In the paper some main results concerning spatial differentiation of relative humidity and precipitation in the Forlandsundet region (NW Spitsbergen) in summer season (21 VII - 31 VIII) of 2010 are presented (Table 1, Figs 1-2). For analysis hourly data from 18 and 11 sites, respectively for relative humidity and precipitation have been used. Relative humidity was measured using automatic weather stations Davis Ventage Pro2 and MadgeTech sensors. On the other hand, for measurements of precipitation Hellmanns' ombrometers and automatic weather stations Davis Ventage Pro2 have been utilised. Large spatial differences of relative humidity and precipitation noted in the study area were influenced by different factors, e.g. character of ground, altitude above sea level, distance from the sea coast, exposition to the sun and incoming air masses, and local atmospheric circulation. Highest mean values of relative humidity (94.6%) occurred at the site surrounded by the sea (Sarstangen Peninsula, SAT), while the lowest one (86.4%) at the site located 200 m from the Waldemar Glacier termini (ATA) (Table 3, Fig. 3). The first half of the day saw highest values of relative humidity than the second one (Fig. 4). The reason of this may be explained by the opposite daily course of air temperature. Daily courses are getting more and more clear in line with decreasing value of cloudi-ness (Fig. 5). In the Forlandsunet region most frequent were air masses which can be described as humid and very humid. Days with moderate dry and dry air were noted very rarely (Fig. 6). Relative humidity shows usually very high and statistically significant correlation between data from the analysed sites (Table 3). Weak and not statistically significant correlations (r < 0.3) were calculated only between the following pair of sites SAT-PH2 and SJ1-PH2. In the summer 2010 the lowest total of precipitation (8.5 mm) in the KH station, out of all Toruń Polar Expeditions since 1975, have been observed (Table 4). In the firn part of the Waldemar Glacier seasonal total of precipitation was 3-4 times greater than in sites located on coastal plains. In the Kaffioyra Plain and Waldemar Glacier region vertical lapse rate was twofold greater between KH and LW1 than between KH and LW2 (14.7 and 7.7 mm/100m, respectively). In the entire study area, highest summer total of precipitation occurred in the middle part of the Prins Karls Forland island. Relationships between atmospheric circulation and relative humidity as well as precipitation were investigated using data from the KH station and calendar of daily synoptic types for Spitsbergen constructed by Tadeusz Niedźwiedź (Table 5). The most humid conditions in the summer 2010 were observed during inflow of air masses from south-western direction (6.6% above summer mean), while most dry air (-9.7%) - from the north-eastern direction. Similar relationships have been found for precipitation. Analysis of relationships occurring between direction of winds and relative humidity data confirms also the above results. Highest values of relative humidity (>90%) were observed during winds inflowing from the southern sector, while the lowest ones - from the north-eastern direction (Fig. 7).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki rejestracji składowych bilansu promieniowania na 3 stanowiskach: Kaffioyra-Heggodden (KH), Lodowiec Waldemara-czoło (LW1) i Lodowiec Waldemara-pole firnowe (NW Spitsbergen) w okresie od 16.07 do 31.08.2010 r. Pomiary prowadzono przy pomocy Radiometru CNR4 firmy Kipp&Zonen. Co minutę rejestrowano natężenie promieniowania słonecznego K?, promieniowania odbitego (K?), promieniowania ziemi (L?) i promieniowania zwrotnego atmosfery (L?). Na tej podstawie obliczono bilans radiacyjny (Q*), składający się z bilansu krótkofalowego (K*) i długofalowego (L*). Stwierdzono niewielkie różnice pomiędzy stanowiskami KH i LW2 założonymi na podłożu morenowym. Najmniej korzystny Q* wystąpił na LW2 nad powierzchnią śnieżno-lodowcową charakteryzującą się wysokim albedo. W artykule zbadano zróżnicowanie przestrzenne składowych bilansu radiacyjnego z dnia na dzień oraz w cyklu dobowym.
EN
Measurements of radiation balance (Q*) were carried out in the Kaffioyra region (NW Spitsbergen) between 16 July and 31 August 2010 at three stations with different surfaces: KH on the glacial moraine of the Aavatsmark (11.5 m a.s.l.), LW1 - on the terminal moraine of the Waldemar Glacier (130 m a.s.l.), and LW2 - on the firn field of the Waldemar Glacier (375 m a.s.l.) - Fig. 1. A Kipp&Zonen CNR 4 Net Radiometer was used to register - minute by minute - the short wave radiation balance (K*), which is the difference between incoming solar radiation K? and reflected solar radiation (K?), and the long wave radiation balance (L*), which is the difference between downward long wave atmospheric radiation (L?) and upward long wave radiation (L?) - Table 1. In the studied period the maximum intensity of incoming solar radiation reached 709.4 W.m-2 at KH, 882.1 W.m-2 at LW1 and 836.2 W.m-2 at LW2. The mean diurnal sums of incoming solar radiation ranged from 11.04 MJ.m-2 at KH to 10.46 MJ.m-2 at LW1 and 10.60 MJ.m-2 at LW2 (Table 2, Fig. 2). The surface albedo varied, reaching between 13% (LW1) and 15% (KH) on the moraines, and up to 61% (LW2) on the firn field (Table 2, Fig. 3). Thus the lowest value of short wave radiation balance, +4.31 MJ.m-2, was registered at LW2, whereas it was doubled on the moraines: KH +9.50 MJ.m-2 and LW1 +9.09 MJ.m-2 (Table 4, Fig. 4). The flux of downward long wave atmospheric radiation coming from the atmosphere does not reveal any significant differences between individual stations: KH: 27.26 MJ.m-2, LW1: 27.47 MJ.m-2 and LW2 - 27.37 MJ.m-2 in 24h (Table 3). The Earth's surface (upward long wave radiation) was losing, on average: 30.31 MJ.m-2, 29.88 MJ.m-2 and 30.10 MJ.m-2, respectively, and the mean daily values of long wave radiation balance were negative: KH -3.05 MJ.m-2, LW1 -2.42 MJ.m-2 and LW2 -2.73 MJ.m-2. The surface radiation balance (Q*) was the most favourable on moraine bases: LW1 +6.67 MJ.m-2, KH +6.45 MJ.m-2, whereas the snow-covered firn field received the smallest amount of energy: LW2 +1.58 MJ.m-2 (Table 4, Fig. 5). In spite of the polar day, the diurnal cycle of the radiation balance components appears symmetrical with regard to the solar noon, related to the elevation of the sun over the horizon and the temperature of the surface and of the atmosphere. The flux of incoming solar radiation reached its peaks during midday hours with the following mean values: KH: 278.7 W.m-2, LW1: 275.9 W.m-2, and LW2: 295.2 W.m-2 (Fig. 6). At the time of lower culmination of the sun the values of K* were falling to zero. The balance of long wave radiation was negative and reached its highest values around midday hours (KH -50.0 MJ.m-2, LW1 -40.1 MJ.m-2 and LW2 -47.5 MJ.m-2). Q* was the highest in midday hours, when it was 2.5 times higher for moraine bases (KH +194.8 MJ.m-2 and LW1 +201.5 MJ.m-2) than for snow and glacial surfaces (LW2 +79.1 MJ.m-2). At low elevation of the sun Q* became negative: KH -6.8 MJ.m-2, LW1 -5.4 MJ.m-2 and LW2 -19.4 MJ.m-2. On individual days the diurnal cycle of the components of Q* was affected not only by the elevation of the sun, but also by the atmospheric state and the presence of clouds, in particular. For example, on 27 and 28 July 2010 a different weather types occurred (Table 5, Fig. 7). On the first day the sky was completely overcast with St and Sc clouds and no sunshine was observed. On the following day it cleared up with partial cloudiness (Cu, Ac, Ci), and the sunshine duration reached 16.2 h. On 27 July a slight influx of incoming solar radiation was registered (mean intensity 68.6 W.m-2, diurnal sum 5.92 MJ.m-2), K* was 5.14 MJ.m-2, and L* -0.84 MJ.m-2 due to the total cloudiness, which supported substantial downward atmospheric radiation (downward long wave atmospheric radiation 339.3 W.m-2). On the other hand, on 28 July, when the amount of cloudi-ness was moderate, the maximum intensity of incoming solar radiation was 668.7 W.m-2. In 24 hours the total radiation that reached the surface amounted to 22.04 MJ.m-2, and K* increased to 18.90 MJ.m-2. L* was negative (-5.26 MJ.m-2) due to substantial radial emittance of the ground (upward long wave radiation 352,0 W.m-2) and some downward atmospheric radiation (downward long wave atmospheric radiation 291.1 W.m-2). However, the overall radiation balance was three times higher than on 27 July and amounted to 13.65 MJ.m-2. In the studied period, the individual components of Q* were decreasing in value, as a result of the lower and lower elevation of the sun over the horizon and the ending of the polar day.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono podsumowanie wyników badań dotyczących zmian temperatury gruntu w otoczeniu Stacji Polarnej UMK na Kaffioyrze (NW Spitsbergen) w sezonie letnim. Do analizy wzięto dane pomiarowe z 5 głębokości (1, 5, 10, 20 i 50 cm) z 3 różnych ekotopów (plaża, morena i tundra) wykonane w trakcie 17 dotychczasowych wypraw polarnych zorganizowanych przez Instytut Geografii UMK w różnych latach okresu 1975-2009. W celu uzyskania pełnej porównywalności wyników wybrano okres 21.07-31.08, dla którego dostępne są kompletne dane dla niemal wszystkich sezonów letnich analizowanych w artykule. Serie temperatury gruntu na wszystkich stanowiskach i poziomach są ze sobą bardzo silnie skorelowane. Wyraźnie największy wpływ na zmierzone wartości temperatury gruntu w całej badanej warstwie wywiera tempe-ratura powietrza (współczynniki korelacji wahają się od 0,6 do 0,86). Inne elementy meteorologiczne takie jak prędkość wiatru, zachmurzenie i usłonecznienie również w sposób istotny wpływają na temperaturę gruntu, ale głównie w warstwie 0-20 cm (współczynniki korelacji wahają się od 0,15 do 0,28). Istotny statystycznie, chociaż ilościowo bardzo niewielki, wpływ na temperaturę gruntu w warstwie do 20 cm ma także opad atmosferyczny.
EN
In the present paper a comprehensive synthesis of ground temperature changes on the Kaffiřyra Plain (NW Spitsbergen) in the summer season (21st July to 31st August) from 1975 to 2009 is described. This has been done with two main aims in mind: i) to examine the influence of different ecotypes on ground temperature values in the layer 1-50 cm, and ii) to examine long-term changes of ground temperature. The highest values of long-term average ground temperature in the summer season have been observed between 20th and 25th July. After this period a gradual decrease in ground temperature is observed (Table 2, Fig. 3). One clear cold singularity can be distinguished here occurring at the end of July and start of August which is connected with a significant decrease in air temperature observed very often during this time. In the period 1978-2009 the warmest ground in the entire analysed layer was observed at the ‘Moraine’ site (6.2°C), and the coldest was at the ‘Tundra’ site (5.1°C) – Table 3, Fig. 4. However, in the shallowest layer (up to 1 cm) markedly the warmest site was the beach, while the coldest was at a depth of 50 cm (Fig. 4). The reason for the large decrease of temperature in this layer was that this was where the permafrost roof was at its shallowest. As a consequence of this temperature behaviour in the layer, the ‘Beach’ site shows the greatest lapse rate of ground temperature (-0.78°C/10 cm) (Table 4). In the warmest summer seasons a greater range of ground temperature in the daily cycle is observed than in the coldest ones, which is very clearly seen, in particular in the layer from surface up to 20 cm (Fig. 5). In the study period a significant increase in ground temperature in the layer 1-20 cm was observed starting in 1998, while at a depth of 50 cm this rise can be seen from 2005 onward (Fig. 6). Very high and statistically significant correlation have been found between series of daily ground temperature taken from all sites and all measurement depths (Table 5). Air temperature is a meteorological variable, which has the greatest influence on the values of ground temperature. Correlation coefficients between series of its daily values and series of average daily ground temperature in all analysed depths at the ‘Beach’ site oscillate from 0.6 to 0.86 (Table 6, Fig. 7). Important factors controlling values of ground temperature in the layer 0-20 cm are also wind velocity, cloudiness and sunshine duration (correlation coefficients oscillate between 0.15 and 0.28).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zróżnicowanie temperatury i wilgotności względnej powietrza oraz kierunku i prędkości wiatru w rejonie Kaffioyry (NW Spitsbergen) w sezonach letnich 2005-2009. Na podstawie pomiarów w 8 punktach stwierdzono znaczne różnice topoklimatyczne uwarunkowane rodzajem podłoża, wyso-kością nad poziom morza, odległością od morza, ekspozycją oraz lokalną cyrkulacją atmosferyczną. W rejonie Kaffioyry często występują sytuacje inwersyjne, związane nie tylko ze stratyfikacją termiczno-wilgotnościową napływających mas powietrza, ale również oddziaływaniem czynników lokalnych. Zróżnicowanie topoklima-tyczne zmienia się w zależności od stopnia zachmurzenia i pory doby oraz w czasie formowania się wiatrów lokalnych (wiatry lodowcowe i fenowe).
EN
The paper presents the spatial differentiation of the meteorological conditions in the summer seasons in the Kaffiřyra in the period 2005-2009. The meteorological measurement points (4 automatic weather stations and 4 electronic devices measuring temperature and humidity, 2 m a.g.l.) were located on the Kaffiřyra Plain (KH) on the Waldemar Glacier area (ATA, LW1, LW2) and on the mountains: Kuven (KU), Grĺfjellet (GF) and Prins Heinrichfjella (PH1, PH2). The analysed five seasons had changeable weather conditions dependent on types of synoptic situations. The highest air temperatures were recorded on the coast (KH 5.8°C) and on the marginal zone of the Waldemar Glacier (ATA 5.1°C). On the glaciated area air temperature is decreasing with the altitude (LW2 2.9°C). The largest temperature lapse-rate is recorded at the transitional area between the glacier and its marginal zone. Growing altitude lowers air temperature on the mountain ridges (GF 4.0°C, PH2 3.6°C), but temperature inversions are recorded quite frequently in the region. Relative air humidity is high due to low temperature and large frequency of occurrence of maritime air masses. The highest mean relative air humidity was recorded on the coast (KH 88%) and on the firn field of the Waldemar Glacier (LW2 84%) as well as on the mountain ridges (PH2 92%). The course of the relative humidity is significantly influenced by foehn winds. Wind directions and velocity in the study area are strongly dependent on the synoptic situation and influence of local factors, mainly orography (foehn winds). Wind regime in the Waldemar Glacier significantly differs from that observed in the Kaffiřyra (here the tunnel effect is observed as a consequence of the narrow Forlandsundet, presences to the abovementioned plain), mainly due to katabatic winds occurrence.
PL
W artykule zostały zaprezentowane rezultaty pomiarów meteorologicznych przeprowadzonych w południowej części Ziemi Wedela Jarlsberga, SW Spitsbergen w roku 2009. Pomiary były prowadzone na czterech stanowiskach: na terasie morskiej (PSP), morenie bocznej lodowca (WER) i na lodowcu: w strefie akumulacji (HT9) i poniżej linii równowagi (HT4). Informacje o wartościach elementów meteorologicznych zostały wykorzystane do oceny warunków biotermiczno-meteorologicznych jakie występowały w tych typach terenu. W tym celu przeanalizowano wartości wskaźnika ochładzania wiatrem (WCI), temperatury odczuwalnej (STI) oraz poszczególnych strumieni wymiany ciepła między człowiekiem a otoczeniem.
EN
Presented paper is focused on the meteorological and biometeorological conditions observed in south part of the Wedel Jarslberg Land (SW Spitsbergen) in 2009. Meteorological data used in presented study were collected in four locations: at the Polish Polar Station (PSP: 77.00159°N 15.54131°E, 10 m a.s.l.), lateral moraine of Werenskiold Glacier (WER: 77.07101°N, 15.17852°E, 31 m a.s.l.), middle part of Hans Glacier below equlibium line (HT4: 77.04738°N, 15.63275°E, 180 m a.s.l.) and accumulation’s zone of Hans Glacier (HT9: 77.11656°N, 15.48781°E, 430 m a.s.l.). The average air temperature registered in 2009 was -2.7°C and it is one of the warmest year from starting of the meteorological observations at the Polish Polar Station in 1978. The last two months (November and December) were exceptional: with almost 6°C higher monthly average of air temperature (in comparison with average from 1983 to 2006). Meteorological data as: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar irradiation were used for calculating the following biometeorological indexes: wind chill index (WCI), subjective temperature index (according to Błażejczyk; STI), man-environment heat exchange fluxes (mC, mE, mRes), radiation and total heat exchange balances (mQ, mS). A significant variety of the biometeorological stimuli at investigated area were observed: in lateral moraine (WER) the most often “comfortable” conditions occurred – up to 34% of the time of August – if wind chill index is taken into account – while this class of thermal feelings at HT4 location is rare (less than 1% of the time of August). The high value of negative heat balance of man exposed to meteorological conditions at the Hans glacier during winter could be danger for human body, if no special arctic wear is used.
PL
W opracowaniu przedstawiono zróżnicowanie warunków opadowych w rejonie Kaffioyry (NW Spitsbergen) w sezonie letnim na podstawie danych z lat 1980-2008. Zbadano wpływ cyrkulacji atmosferycznej i warunków lokalnych na opady atmosferyczne. Uzyskane wyniki porównano ze stacją Ny-Alesund.
EN
Precipitation in the Arctic, including Spitsbergen, is very important for both the biosphere and for the mass balance of glaciers. Our knowledge about its values inside Arctic islands is limited because almost all meteorological stations are located on tundra below 200 m a.s.l. Therefore any information about precipitation conditions occurring on glaciated and non-glaciated areas lying in the inner parts of Spitsbergen is very valuable. In this paper we present results of precipitation measurements carried out in north-western Spitsbergen (the Kaffioyra region and the Ny Alesund station) in selected summer seasons during the period 1980-2008. Precipitation measurements in the Kaffioyra region have been done during Toruń Polar Expeditions in three stations (base station – Kaffioyra-Heggodden (KH) and two glacier stations located in the lower part (LW1) and upper part (LW2) (see Figure 1 and Table 1). Data for the Ny Alesund (NA) station were obtained from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. In the KH and NA stations measurements were recorded every day, while in LW1 and LW2 they were generally taken every 1-2 days. Results of precipitation conditions are presented for a common period of observations, i. e. for 21st July-31st August. The influence of atmospheric circulation on precipitation was investigated using the catalogue of circulation types constructed by Niedźwiedź (2009). In the summer season precipitation is greater at the end of the study period, than at the beginning. Year-to-year variability of summer precipitation totals is very large. For example, in KH, the highest precipitation (122.5 mm) occurred in 1997, while the lowest (12.3 mm) was in 2007 (Table 2). Also, the frequency of daily precipitation (.0.1 mm) is significantly greater in most wet summer (61.9%) than in most dry summer (28.6%) (see Table 3). Daily precipitation of .10 mm is rare in the KH station and occurred in only 4 out of the 12 summer seasons. It is well known that precipitation is greater in the inner parts of Spitsbergen than in tundra areas. Less is known, however, about the magnitudes of these differences. For the Kaffioyra region precipi-tation observations are available for 9 summer seasons (Tables 5 and 6). From these Tables and Figure 2 it is clear that precipitation on glaciers is almost always greater than in tundra. On average, summer precipitation totals are greater in LW1 and LW2 than in KH by 21.5 and 35.1 mm, respectively. The greatest differences occurred in 1980, while the lowest were in 2007, when even in LW1 precipitation was lower than in KH (Table 5, Figure 3). Lapse rates of precipitation in the Kaffioyra region are greatest between tundra and glaciated areas (oscillating between 13.2mm/100m and 18.5mm/100m between KH and LW2 and KH and LW1, respectively (Table 7)). On the other hand, this lapse rate between stations LW1 and LW2 is the lowest (only 10.7 mm/100 m). Correlation coefficients of 10-day precipitation totals between the meteorological stations in the Kaffioyra region are very high and exceed 0.9. The greatest precipitation in the Kaffioyra region occurred during the inflow of air masses from the southern sector (Table 8, Fig. 7).
PL
W artykule dokonano charakterystyki warunków meteorologicznych i biometeorologicznych w rejonie Hornsundu w okresie ciepłym (od 1 czerwca do 30 września) w roku 2007 i 2008. Pomiary wykonywano w czterech punktach: w Hornsundzie, na Lodowcu Hansa (na linii równowagi i w jego partii firnowej) oraz na szczycie Fugleberget. Przeanalizowano zróżnicowanie warunków meteorologicznych i biometeorolo-gicznych w zależności od: wysokości nad poziomem morza, odległości od morza i charakteru podłoża. Wyko-rzystano m.in. cztery wskaźniki biometeorologiczne: wskaźnik ochładzania wiatrem (WCI), przewidywaną termo-izolacyjność odzieży (Iclp), wielkość ochładzającą powietrza (H) oraz temperaturę odczuwalną (STI). Stwierdzono, że zróżnicowanie przestrzenne badanych elementów meteorologicznych oraz wskaźników biometeorologicznych w rejonie Hornsundu latem 2007 i 2008 roku było znaczące. Przedstawiono wpływ cyrkulacji atmosferycznej na poszczególne elementy meteorologiczne i wskaźniki biometeorologiczne.
EN
In the paper meteorological and biometeorological conditions in the region of Hornsund during the warm season are discussed. The measurements of meteorological and biometeorological para-meters were carried out from 1st June to 30th September 2007 and 2008 at four points: Hornsund (HOR, ö = 77°00’N, ë = 15°33’E, 10 m above sea level), Fugle (FUG, ö = 77°01’ N, ë = 15°34’ E, 568 m above sea level), as well as at middle (HT4, ö = 77°04’ N, ë = 15°63’ E, 184 m above sea level) and firnal (HT9, ö = 77°11’ N, ë = 15°48’ E, 421 above sea level) parts of Hans Glacier (Fig. 1). Spatial differentiation of biometeorological conditions were studied in relation to altitude, ground cover and distance from the sea shore. To define biometeorological conditions the following indices were used: subjective temperature (STI), cooling power (H), wind chill index (WCI) and insulation predicted (Iclp). Significant temporal and spatial differences in studied indices were found. The most severe stimuli were observed at the glacier (HT4 and HT9) and in the mountains (FUG). However, relatively mild conditions were noted during sunny hours. We have also observed close relationships between meteorological elements and biometeorolo-gical indices and atmospheric circulation. The greatest possibility of unfavourable thermal sensations occurs during air advection from N-NNW-NW. The mildest conditions can be expected at advection from SW and W.
PL
Na podstawie danych pomiarowych zarejestrowanych w Hornsundzie w okresie od 1 maja 2008 do 30 kwietnia 2009 r. scharakteryzowano roczny przebieg struktury salda promieniowania powierzchni czynnej. Dodatkowo w pracy wykorzystano materiały pomiarowe z Ny-Alesund ze stacji “Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research” w celu porównania przebiegu elementów salda promieniowania z danymi z Horn-sundu. W analizowanym okresie roczna suma strumienia całkowitego promieniowania słonecznego wyniosła 2307 MJm-2, a roczna suma salda promieniowania powierzchni czynnej 105 MJm-2. Porównując dane z Horn-sundu i Ny-Alesundu, stwierdzono, na korzyść stacji w Ny-Alesund, wyższe roczne wartości całkowitego pro-mieniowania słonecznego (+184 MJm-2), a także wyższe roczne wartości salda promieniowania powierzchni czynnej (+69 MJm-2).
EN
This case describes annual course of surface radiation balance based on data recorded in Hornsund from 1.05.2008 to 31.03.2009. Further data are added from Ny-Ĺlesund z “Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research” to compare data from Hornsund and Ny-Ĺlesund. Annual amount of total solar radiation string was 2307 MJm-2 and annual amount of surface radiation balance was 105 MJm-2 in analyzed period. Comparing data from Hornsund and Ny-Ĺlesund higher annual values of total solar radiation (+183 MJm-2) and higher annual values of surface radiation balance (+69 MJm-2) were indicated in Ny-Ĺlesund.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono porównanie warunków meteorologicznych w sezonie letnim 2005 r. na podstawie danych zebranych w trakcie trwania polskich wypraw polarnych do Hornsundu, Calypsobyen, doliny Ebby i Kaffiöyry. Dodatkowo, aby szczegółowiej poznać ich zróżnicowanie na zachodnim wybrzeżu Spitsbergenu skorzystano z dostępnych danych dla 2 norweskich stacji: Ny Alesund i Svalbard Lufthavn. Ze względu na różny czas pracy polskich ekspedycji polarnych do porównania warunków meteorologicznych wybrano wspólny okres 21.07-31.08. Stwierdzono, iż zróżnicowanie przestrzenne większości badanych elementów meteorologicznych na zachodnim wybrzeżu Spitsbergenu latem 2005 r. było znaczące. Na kształtowanie warunków meteorologicznych na badanym obszarze, a więc i na ich zróżnicowanie przestrzenne, w pełni sezonu letniego większy wpływ wywiera stopień kontynentalizmu klimatu niż szerokość geograficzna. Jednak wraz ze zbliżaniem się końca lata polarnego rola wspomnianych czynników się odwraca.
EN
The paper presents the data concerning the spatial diversification of meteorological conditions occurring on the western coast of Spitsbergen during the summer season of 2005. For the analysis daily data have been used from four Polish stations (Kaffiöyra - KH, Ebby valley - EBB, Calypsobyen - CAL and Hornsund - HOR) and two Norwegian stations (Ny Ĺlesund - NYA, Svalbard Lufthavn - SVA), mainly for the common period of observation (from 21st July to 31st August) (Fig. 1). The Hornsund station was used as a reference station. Differences have been computer for all the analysed meteo-rological variables between stations for every 24-hour period, ten- / eleven-day period, and for the common period of observations as a whole (the meterological variables analysed include air pressure (AP), wind speed (v), cloudiness (C), sunshine duration (SS), maximum daily temperature (Tmax), mean daily temperature (Ti), minimum daily temperature (Tmin), relative humidity (f), and atmospheric precipitation (P)) (Table 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 5). All results proved that the spatial diversification of almost all analysed variables is significant. It is very evident that in the summer the degree of climate continentality has a greater influence on this diversification than the geographical latitude. Local topography plays also important role in the diversification of meteorological variables on the western coast of Spitsbergen. A good example of this influence is presented in Figure 4, showing different kinds of wind roses. It can be seen that winds from different directions dominate in each station. Mean daily courses of some selected meteorological variables (Fig. 3) also show that spatial diversification is varied throughout the day. For example, greater differences are noted during "night" hours for atmospheric pressure and wind speed, while an opposite relation exists for air temperature and relative humidity. Extreme values of analysed meteorological variables during the common period of observation (from 21st July to 31st August 2005) are shown in Table 2. The highest temperature (13.1°C) occurred in Svalbard Lufthavn located in the most continental part of Spitsbergen, while the lowest (0.5°C) was in the Hornsund region, where cyclones bringing thick clouds are very common. Day-to-day variabilities of the majority of the analysed meteorological variables on the west coast of Spitsbergen are quite large (Table 3).
PL
W artykule porównano warunki klimatyczne i bioklimatyczne N części Ziemi Oskara II z innymi obszarami zachodniego wybrzeża Spitsbergenu w okresie 1975-2000. Klimat Ziemi Oskara II przedstawiono na podstawie danych meteorologicznych ze stacji Ny Alesund. Klimat centralnej i południowej części zachodniego wybrzeża Spitsbergenu reprezentują odpowiednio stacje: Svalbard-Lufthavn i Hornsund. Dla wymienionych obszarów obliczono i przeanalizowano różnice pomiędzy średnimi miesięcznymi i rocznymi wartościami wybranych elementów meteorologicznych (wiatr, zachmurzenie, temperatura i wilgotność powietrza oraz opady atmosferyczne) i wskaźników biometeorologicznych (niedosyt fizjologiczny, wielkość ochładzająca powietrza, wskaźnik ochładzania wiatrem, temperatura ochładzania wiatrem, przewidywana izolacyjność odzieży).
EN
The paper describes the climate and bioclimate of the tundra zone in the northern part of Oscar II Land (the area from Jonsfiorden to Kongsfiorden) from 1975 to 2000. A comparison with the climate and bioclimate of other parts of the west coast of Spitsbergen is also presented. For the analysis, meteorological data from three stations (Ny Alesund, Svalbard Lufthavn and Hornsund) were used (Fig. 1). Significant differentiation of climatic conditions on the west coast of Spitsbergen was found (Table 1 and Fig. 2). Wind direction and speed was strongly modified by the local topographic conditions. For this reason, the lowest mean annual wind speed (by 1.2 to 1.7 m/s) of the three analysed stations, was in Ny Alesund. The degree of cloudiness was similar at Ny Alesund and Svalbard Lufthavn, while at Hornsund it was greater by about 6%. Mean annual air temperature at Ny Alesund is slightly higher (by 0.1°C) than at Svalbard Lufthavn and significantly lower (by 1.1°C) than at Hornsund. In the annual course, in comparison with the central part of the west coast, the northern part of Oscar II Land is markedly warmer in winter (on average by 1.0°C) and significantly colder in summer (by 1.0°C). An opposite relationship may be noted when comparison is made with the southern part of Spitsbergen. The greatest values of relative humidity occur in the southern and northern parts of Spitsbergen, while in the central part of the western coast their values are smaller (in particular in summer). Atmospheric precipitation was twice as low in the central part of the western coast of Spitsbergen as it was in its northern and southern parts. Differences in bioclimatic conditions were found on the west coast of Spitsbergen (Table 2, Fig. 3). To establish their characteristics, a number of biometeorological and thermophysiological indices were used. These enabled the estimation of the sensations of heat in humans standing outdoors in this part of Spitsbergen. Analysis of the physiological deficit (D) values on the west coast of Spitsbergen indicate that water evaporation from the human upper respiratory tract during the whole year is high. The cooling power (H) shows significant differences between different parts of western Spitsbergen. The mean number of days per year with thermal comfort for humans oscillated between 11 at Svalbard Lufthavn and 18 at Hornsund to 42 at Ny Alesund. On the other hand, days with cold discomfort were most frequent in central (277) and southern (271) parts of Spitsbergen, while in the northern part they rarely occurred (only 217). The best thermal sensations (described as 'cool') according to the wind chill index (WCI) occur from June to September at all stations, and also in May at Ny Alesund. In the other months conditions described as 'cold' were noted over the entire area. Days with a possibility of frostbite were noted with an annual average frequency of about 10 at Ny Alesund and 25 at Svalbard Lufthavn and Hornsund. The wind chill temperature (WCT) throughout the west coast of Spitsbergen shows the dominance of moderate sensations of cold from November to April. During the summer months (July and August) sensations of 'cold' did not occur. The insulation predicted index (Iclp) was used to estimate the bioclimate of Spitsbergen from the point of view of an individual's need for clothes to obtain thermal comfort. The index was calculated for a standing man and a man who is walking at a speed of 4km/h. Its values for the standing individual oscillated from 4.35 clo at Hornsund to about 4.49 clo at Svalbard Lufthavn. On the other hand, for the walker, clothes would need half the thermal insulation level to obtain thermal comfort.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozkład przestrzenny zmian niedosytu fizjologicznego w Arktyce Norweskiej w okresie 1971-2000. W badaniach zmienności niedosytu fizjologicznego wykorzystano dane ze stacji: Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Airport, Hornsund, Hopen, Bjornoya i Jan Mayen. Wpływ cyrkulacji atmosferycznej na przebieg niedosytu fizjologicznego przeanalizowano wykorzystując katalog typów oraz wskaźniki cyrkulacji Niedźwiedzia (2001, 2002) dla Spitsbergenu.
EN
The paper presents the results of the study of the physiological deficit (D) in the Norwegian Arctic in the period 1971-2000. The values of physiological deficit are indices of evaporation from the lungs and upper respiratory tract of man. The analysis of the physiological deficit in the Norwegian Arctic showed a high value of evaporation from the lungs an upper respiratory tract of man over the whole study area (Tab. 1, Fig. 1-3). During the year the occurrence of 'dry' feeling was noted from 89% of the days at Bjornoya to 98% of the days at Hopen. 'Comfortable' feeling occurred only in summer and sporadically in autumn (Tab. 2). The negative trends of the mean annual and seasonal physiological deficit values are mostly statistically significant (Tab. 3). This means that during the period studied the water evaporation from the upper respiratory track of man decreased significantly in this part of the Arctic (Fig. 4). The highest value of water evaporation from the upper respiratory track was found in the winter season with air advection from the north-eastern sector, independently from the baric system type. The most favourable sense of humidity according to the analysed coefficient physiological deficit was noted in summer with air advection from the southern sector, in case of cyclonic as well as anticyclonic situation (Fig. 5).
EN
The paper presents the analysis of the spatial variability of relative humidity in the Norwegian Arctic during the year (Fig.1, Table 2) for 6 meteorological stations (Table 1). We determined the frequency of relative humidity according intervals (Fig. 2) and examined its connection with atmospheric circulation indices (Table 3, Fig. 3). In the Norwegian Arctic 3 types of courses of the relative humidity have been distinguished on the basis of mean monthly values, amplitudes and occurrence frequency in distinguished intervals: 1) very wet - characterised by monthly and annual mean values of the relative humidity higher than 80%, small annual amplitudes up to 10%. This type includes the stations Bjornoya, Hopen i Jan Mayen. During the year at these stations very wet air dominates (236, 218 and 175 days, respectively). 2) wet - characterised by large annual amplitudes over 10%. Mean monthly values exceeding 80% occur only in summer and early autumn. This type occurs at the stations Hornsund and Ny-Alesund. At these stations wet air is the most frequent: 181 and 141 days during the year, respectively. 3) moderately wet - characterised by even level in every month below 80%, very small annual amplitude up to 5%. This type occurs at Svalbard Lufthavn where wet (171 days) and moderately dry (135 days) air is the most frequent.
EN
The paper presents the results of soil temperature measurements on the Kaffiöyra Plain from the polar summer period 1997 (Tab. 1) and 1998 (Tab. 2) compared to the period 1975-1998 (Tab. 3). The soil temperature measurements were carried out on three ecotops: on the sandy beach, on end moraine of the Aavatsmark Glacier, and on tundra (Fig. 1). The measurements were taken daily at 01, 07, 13 and 19 LMT at depths: 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cm by soil thermometers. The thermal characteristics of soils at different ecotops differ by physical characteristics, moisture, degree of vegetation cover and thickness of active layer. The paper presents the question of thermal changes in the soil with general weather conditions. The 1997 summer was very wet, strong winds domination and mean sunshine. The 1998 summer, on the contrary, was more cloudy and warmer, and the atmosphere dynamics lower with rare light rainfall (Fig. 2, Tab. 4). The comparison of summer seasons was made for the common period 21 July - 31 August. The thermal changes of the soil on the Kaffioyra Plain are best illustrated by the data from the beach because observations at this stand were made during all of the expeditions. The mean temperature at all depth was the lowest in 1982 and 1997, the highest in 1985 and 1998 (Fig. 5). In the analysed period the measurement point on the beach was the coldest stand, tundra was warmer, and the stand on the moraine the warmest (Tab. 3, Fig. 4).
EN
Measurements and meteorological observations at Hornsund were carried out in the frame of the 22nd Polish Polar Expedition "Spitsbergen 1999/2000" research work. This was the consecutive year-long expedition organized by the Geophysical Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Circulation factors have a great influence on the meteorological conditions at Hornsund. The mean annual atmospheric pressure at the sea level (1005.0 hPa) was lower than its long-term average. The mean wind velocity was 5.8 m/s. There were 971.9 hours with sunshine. The analysed year was characterised by high air temperature as for the Arctic conditions. The mean annual air temperature was -3.7°C, and was 1.1OChigher then its long-term average. The analysis of the air temperature trend in the period 1978-2000 shows a systematic warming about 0.07°C/year on the southern Spitsbergen. The annual sum of precipitation was 500.9 mm, i.e. about 77 mm higher then the long-term average. In September the highest monthly precipitation sum (230.0 mm) was measured till now.
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