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PL
Ceramika budowlana stanowi jeden z najważniejszych materiałów stosowanych w tradycyjnych technikach budowlanych. Dla zobrazowania zagadnienia w niniejszym artykule omówione zostaną wybrane elementy ceramiki budowlanej z oznaczeniami, które zlokalizowano podczas badań terenowych na obszarze województwa lubuskiego. Szczegółowe zestawienie wyników tych badań zawarte zostanie w odrębnym opracowaniu katalogowym.
2
Content available remote Chilijski chill i ceramika
4
Content available remote Ceramiczna Kolumbia. Część 2
PL
Na podstawie analogii struktur budowli podziemnych – warszawskiego Elizeum i wielu obiektów fortecznych z XVIII-XIX w., artykuł podejmuje próbę zestawienia historycznych metod zabezpieczania ich wnętrz przed wilgocią przenikającą z nasypów, kondensacyjną, podciąganą kapilarnie lub dyfundującą z gruntu. Sposoby zabezpieczania przeciwwilgociowego w fortyfikacji nowożytnej zostały wypracowane w ciągu 4 wieków jej rozwoju (XVI-XIX), w wyniku stopniowego gromadzenia doświadczeń i wiedzy inżynierskiej. Ważnymi elementami tych zabezpieczeń były okładziny z gliny/iłu oraz korytarze obiegające pomieszczenia podziemne o funkcji nie tylko komunikacyjnej, ale również otuliny izolacyjno-wentylacyjnej. Budowle podziemne, poprawnie zaprojektowane na skrajnie niekorzystne warunki użytkowania, mogą trwać dzięki delikatnej równowadze, którą bardzo łatwo naruszyć. Pierwszym warunkiem równowagi jest utrzymanie właściwego reżimu wentylacji i ogrzewania wnętrz podatnych na kondensację. Na zakończenie zaproponowano działania pielęgnacyjno-eksploatacyjne mające na celu zahamowanie postępującej degradacji obiektu oraz zakreślono wskazania do programu badań i założeń przedprojektowych do przyszłych, niezbędnych prac remontowych i konserwatorskich.
EN
Based on the analogy of the structures of underground buildings - the Warsaw Elizeum and many fortress buildings from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century, the article is an attempt to present an overview of historical methods of protecting their interiors against moisture penetrating from embankments, condensation, pulled up by capillaries or diffusing from the ground. The methods of moisture protection in the modern fortifications were developed over 4 centuries of its development (16th – 19th c.), as a result of gradual accumulation of experience and engineering knowledge. Important elements of these protections were clay/loam cladding and corridors running around underground spaces, which had not only transport function, but also served as an insulation and ventilation buffer. Underground buildings, properly designed for extremely unfavorable conditions of use, can last thanks to the delicate balance, which is very easy to disturb. The first condition of this balance is to maintain a proper ventilation and heating regime for condensation-prone interiors. At the end, care and maintenance activities aimed at stopping the progressing degradation of the building are proposed, and indications for the research program and pre-design assumptions for future necessary renovation and conservation works are outlined.
6
Content available remote Investigation of lead removal from drinking water using different sorbents
EN
Lead is a heavy metal with strong toxic properties. This chemical element is found in wastewater and sometimes in drinking water. The article deals with the removal of lead(II) ions from polluted water using a sorption process to determine the most effective sorbent for the removal of lead(II) ions. Three sorbents were used in the research: clay, sapropel, and iron sludge. All three sorbents investigated reduce the concentration of lead(II) ions in water: clay efficiency was of 65.7-90 %, sapropel of 94.3-100 %, and iron sludge of 84.3-97 %, depending on sorbent type and contact duration. The research has shown that the most effective way to remove lead(II) ions from the test water is sapropel. Using different amounts of sapropel (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 g/dm3 and 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 g/dm3) and different duration of contact (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes), the concentration of lead(II) ions in the test water after purification did not exceed the permissible values for drinking water (10 mg/dm3), so that the lowest sapropel content of 0.1 g/dm3 can be used for sorption. Lead(II) ions are most effectively removed when contact time is 30 min.
7
Content available remote Stabilizacja pęczniejącej ziemi w celu wykonywania budowli z ziemi
PL
Przeprowadzone badania dotyczą metod odlewania budowli z ziemi, jako część programu badawczego poświęconego budowlom ziemnym. Badano wpływ dwóch inhibitorów pęcznienia ziemi zawierającej glinę: poli(tlenku etylenu) [PTE] i karboksymetylocelulozę [KMC], aby była możliwa jej stabilizacja cementem CEM I 42,5N. Ziemię zawierającą 14% gliny, kwarc i kalcyt, stabilizowano 10% dodatkiem cementu. Dodawano równocześnie 3% plastyfikatora polikarboksylanowego w stosunku do masy cementu, aby ziemia uzyskała zdolność do płynięcia. Uzyskane wyniki wykazały, że PTE i KMC – inhibitory pęcznienia gliny, zmniejszyły to pęcznienie o około 30% i 40%, przy czym maksymalne pęcznienie odpowiadało po 90 dniach odpowiednio 24% i 46% wytrzymałości na ściskanie. Omówiono interakcję gliny z cementem i inhibitorami pęcznienia. Znalezione zależności pozwoliły na korzystne zastosowanie tych materiałów do wytwarzania elementów budowlanych, zastosowanych we wznoszeniu budynków na obszarach pustynnych.
EN
This study is concerned with the method of cast earth as part of an investigation series on earth construction. The effect of two clay swelling inhibitors; polyethylene glycol [PEG] and of carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC] on the swelling of a clay-bearing soil are studied to enable the stabilization of the soil with CEM I 42.5 N. The soil composed of 14% clay, quartz, and calcite, is stabilized with 10% cement. 3% polycarboxylate superplasticizer is added relative to the mass of the cement, to gain the soil pourable properties. The results show that the PEG and CMC clay-swelling inhibitors reduce the expansion of the soil by ~30 and ~40% and lead to a maximum increase of 24 and 46% in the 90-day compressive strength respectively. The interactions between clay, cement, and swelling inhibitors are discussed. The findings allow advantageous applications for producing building units for construction purposes in desert areas.
EN
The question about the harmfulness of electromagnetic radiation is ever more often raised in scientific discussions it is also interesting for the public. Unfortunately, there are no easy answers and no settled opinion. Followers of the catastrophic vision of the future argue, that the electromagnetic smog never grew as fast as today, and our bodies are probably not prepared for such conditions. Opponents, being accused of favoring telecommunication companies, claim that there are (or were) enough sources of electromagnetic radiation in the natural environment for organisms to learn how to self-protect, either by adaptation or development of specific sensory mechanisms. Questions are raised not only about health aspects, but also about security of data transmission and possible military applications, such as protection against radar localization. We want to present our recent investigations about the uses of natural materials for suppressing electromagnetic waves. The materials in question are ordinary clays, which role in Nature is barely now being discovered. Clay minerals, the basic ingredient of clay, are unusual materials, formed by Nature into nanostructures. Just recently we have begun to understand their role, behavior and possible applications. Those minerals, especially kaolinite and halloysite, are widespread, but in pure form occur only in few places in the world. Polish deposits belong to the richest ones.
9
Content available Desert loess: a selection of relevant topics
EN
In discussions on loess, two types are often demarcated: glacial loess and desert loess. The origin of the idea of desert loess appears to lie with V.A. Obruchev who observed wind-carried silt on the Potanin expedition to Central Asia in 1895. It might be considered that desert loess would be defined as loess associated with deserts but it came to be thought of as loess produced in deserts. This led to some controversy as no mechanism for producing silt particles in deserts was readily available. Bruce Butler in Australia in particular cast doubt on the existence of desert-made loess. Butler indicated loess-like deposits in Australia which he called Parna; these are very like loess but the silt sized particles are actually clay mineral agglomerates of silt size- formed in dry lake regions. At the heart of the desert loess discussion is the problem of producing loess material in deserts. It has been suggested that there are no realistic mechanisms for forming large amounts of loess dust but there is a possibility that sand grain impact may produce particle shattering and lead to the formation of quartz silt. This would appear to be a reasonable mechanism for the African deposits of desert loess, but possibly inadequate for the huge deposits in China and Central Asia. The desert loess in China and Central Asia is loess associated with a desert. The material is formed in cold, high country and carried by rivers to the vicinity of deserts. It progresses then from deserts to loess deposit. Adobe ground may be defined as desert loess. Adobe occurs on the fringe of deserts, notably in the Sahelian region of Africa, and in SW USA. The use of adobe in construction represents the major utilization of desert loess in a social context. More understanding of adobe is required, in particular with respect to the adobe reaction, the low order chemical reaction which provides modest cementitious properties, and can be likened to the pozzolanic reactions in hydrating cement systems. The location of loess and loess-like ground on the peripheries of deserts is aided by the observation of the nesting sites of bee-eater birds. These birds have a determined preference for loess ground to dig their nesting tunnels; the presence of nest tunnels suggests the occurrence of desert loess, in desert fringe regions. We seek amalgamation and contrast: ten main topics are considered: words and terms, particles, parna, geotechnical, adobe, people, birds, Africa, Central Asia, Mars. The aim is some large generalizations which will benefit all aspects of desert loess investigation.
PL
W pracy opisano wyniki badań stabilizacji dwóch rodzajów glin lessowych, pozyskanych z miejsc budowy dróg na obszarze Moraw, które uzdatniono dodatkami 5%, 10% i 15% dwóch popiołów lotnych: krzemionkowego z konwencjonalnego kotła oraz wapiennego ze spalania w kotle fluidalnym. Uzyskane wyniki pokazały, że badane popioły lotne krzemionkowy i wapienny mają potencjał do wykorzystania ich do uzdatniania gruntów. Właściwości mechaniczne gruntów zależą od rozkładu wielkości ziaren oraz zawartości frakcji iłowej. Wpływają one głównie na wilgotność oraz nośność. Popiół lotny wapienny z elektrowni przy hucie żelaza i stali w Trzyńcu wykazuje właściwości hydrauliczne, a jego wartość wskaźnika nośności CBR wynosiła 500% po 28 dniach dojrzewania. Dodatek tego popiołu lotnego spowodował zmniejszenie maksymalnej gęstości objętościowej szkieletu gruntowego uzdatnionych gruntów oraz zwiększenie wytrzymałości na ścinanie, a także wpłynął na kontrolę zmian objętości.
EN
The paper describes the results of stabilization tests of two types of loess clays obtained from road construction sites in the area of Moravia, which were treated with 5%, 10% and 15% additions of two fly ashes: siliceous one from a conventional boiler and calcareous one from combustion in a fluidized bed boiler. The obtained results showed that both investigated fly ashes have the potential to use them for soil treatment. The mechanical properties of soils depend on the grain size distribution and the clay fraction content. They affect mainly moisture content and load capacity. Fly ash from the power plant at the iron and steel plant in Třinec exhibits hydraulic properties, and its CBR capacity index was 500% after 28 days of maturing. The addition of this fly ash caused a reduction in the maximum bulk density of the soil backbone of the treated soils and increased shear strength, as well as influenced the control of volume changes.
EN
This article discusses the differences between the classification of cohesive soils according to the obsolete PN-86/B-02480 Polish standard and to the applicable PN-EN ISO 14688:2006 standard. Differences in the ways of recognizing and classifying these soils according to these standards are debated in the scientific and professional world, and due to the different approach to their nomenclature they seem difficult to overcome. The author analyzes these Polish research methods, which are closest to the macroscopic analysis required by PN-EN ISO 14688:2006, and then points to the real possibility of harmonizing both classifications.
EN
Laser diffraction particle sizing is increasingly used in grain-size analysis. Commercially available laser analyzers have a number of practical advantages such as detailed particle sizing over a broad size range, built-in ultrasonic dispersing system, and short time of analysis. Grain-size measurements based on laser diffraction analysis (LDA) are characterized by high-repeatability and high accuracy. However, there is no standardized test procedure especially because the research methodology should depend on the type of land. LDA-based measurements of fine-grained sediments rich in clay minerals can contain untrue information due to high anisotropy of participle shape. This causes the optical particle diameter measured by the laser is much larger than that determined as the equivalent spherical diameter in traditional sedimentation techniques for grain-size analysis. This results even in twice reduction of clay fraction quantity, while the silty particles are overestimated in relation to traditional techniques based on Stoke’s law. The aim of this article is to assess the possibilities of using laser diffraction methods for the identification and differentiation of clayey sediments with common origin. The article provides the results of analyses of Neogene clays characterized by significant lithological differences with respect to the participation of clay fraction particles. The research was conducted on clay samples taken in Bydgoszcz. Significant differences in the content of clay fraction particles were found in relation to the applied methods of grain-size analysis. However, as statistical tests showed, results obtained using the LDA method could be useful to characterize lithological variability within the tested soils.
EN
The paper presents the characteristic of peculiar Miocene soil which occurs in Zielona Góra. Geological structure of Zielona Góra is determined by glaciotectonic disturbances. Shallow occurrence ofMiocene sediments, as clays or lignite, is connected with a structure called Wal Zielonogórski. This is a moraine formed in Warthe glaciation and built from Miocene and old-Pleistocene sediments. The height of the moraine is about 150 m. Lignite clay contains high amount of lignite silt (organic material); hence should be classified as an organic soil. Some laboratory tests (oedometer tests, organic material content, index of swelling) andfield tests (Cone Penetration Test) were done. The results show that the strength parameters of lignite clay are close to "clear” clay. The findings show that lignite clay cannot be recognized as a non-carrying soil although high amount oforganic material. Oedometer test results allow to design building foundation with standard continuousfooting. The occurrence of lignite clay in subsoil in Zielona Góra always indicates the glaciotectonic deformation and high soil variety, hence such area should be investigated more carefully, with an increased number ofdrilling and probing points.
14
Content available remote Właściwości, parametry i zastosowanie tynków glinianych
PL
W artykule omówiono parametry i właściwości tynków oraz budowę systemów tynków glinianych. Podano wskazówki dotyczące rodzaju i przygotowania podłoża oraz sposoby wykańczania powierzchni. Zwrócono uwagę na kwestie związane z wysychaniem tych materiałów.
EN
The article discusses the parameters and properties of clayplasters and construction of clay plastering systems. Instructions are given for surface types and surface preparation, as well as surface finishing methods. Attention was drawn to the aspects of drying of these materials.
EN
The suitability of using lateritic clays from Aviele and Igarra has been investigated both in the Northern part of Edo state, Nigeria as liners of an engineered landfill and to adsorb metals in leachates. Geotechnical characteristics, pH, and elemental composition for the lateritic clay samples were determined. The chemical composition, pH, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity were determined for leachates collected from two dumpsites. The capacities of the lateritic clay soils to adsorb heavy metals in the leachates were determined using the batch equilibrium adsorption technique. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of soils were found to be sufficient to resist damage. By both the standard and modified Proctor compaction tests, it was found that the coefficients of permeability for the soil samples were lower than 1×10–9 m/s that is widely recommended for soils that are to be used as landfill liners. Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr2+ were the heavy metals in the leachates. The sorption selectivity order for tested soils depended on the soil type and properties.
16
Content available Contemporary overview of soil creep phenomenon
EN
Soil creep deformation refers to phenomena which take place in many areas and research in this field of science is rich and constantly developing. The article presents an analysis of the literature on soil creep phenomena. In light of the complexity of the issues involved and the wide variety of perspectives taken, this attempt at systematization seeks to provide a reliable review of current theories and practical approaches concerning creep deformation. The paper deals with subjects such as definition of creep, creep genesis, basic description of soil creep dynamics deformation, estimation of creep capabilities, various fields of creep occurrence, and an introduction to creep modeling. Furthermore, based on this analysis, a new direction for research is proposed.
EN
In recent years, large steps have been taken in the field of nanotechnology, and many nanotechnology-based breakthroughs have been made in geotechnical engineering. It is apparent that nanomaterials will be used to improve the geotechnical properties of soils in the near future, extensively. In this paper, we discussed previous studies on the use of nanoparticles in soil, their properties, their effects on soil and the equipment used in nanotechnology. A new categorization was introduced and the significant effects of nanoparticles on the properties of soil were studied. According to the new categorization, clay particles vary between 0.1 and 2 μm, while nanosol contains particles in the range of 1–100 nm.
18
Content available remote Nowatorskie i ekologiczne budownictwo z gliny
PL
W opracowaniu nakreślono zarys budownictwa naturalnego , pokazując najistotniejsze właściwości materiałów ekologicznych w odniesieniu do energii pierwotnej. Przedstawiono charakterystykę słomy i gliny jako materiału budowlanego. Opisano dwa przykłady technik wznoszenia budynków mieszkalnych z gliny, obecnie bardzo popularnych w Polsce i na świecie. Szczególnie zwrócono uwagę na metodę wznoszenia ścian z mieszanki gliny i słomy w deskowaniu tynkowanych gliną, pokazując ją na przykładzie budynku w Karniowicach. Przedstawiono także technologię wznoszenie ze słomy w nowatorskiej metodzie, przy pomocy modułów drewniano-słomianych tynkowanych gliną.
EN
In study shown natural building focused on crucial properties of ecological materials in reference to primary energy. Presented description of straw and clay as building material. Described two methods of rising houses made from clay, which are very popular in the word. There were special emphasis took under method of rising walls made of clay and straw in boarding, plastered clay, which were shown by the example house in Karniowice. Presented also rising structures made fron straw in innovatory method with wooden-straw method plastered clay.
EN
This paper reports the variations of strength, resistivity and thermal parameters of clay after high-temperature heating. Experiments were carried out to test the physical properties of clay heated at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800°C in a furnace. The experiment results show that below 400°C the uniaxial compressive strength and resistivity change very little. However, above 400°C, both increase rapidly. At a temperature under 400°C, the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity decrease significantly. The thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) test indicate that a series of changes occur in kaolinite at temperatures from 400 to 600°C, which is considered the primary cause of the variation of physical and mechanical properties of clay under high temperatures.
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