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EN
The objective of the paper was to learn about behavioural consumer preferences with regard to organic products distribution on the area of Małopolskie Voivodeship. The research studies covered purposefully selected a 100-person group of respondents. On account of the growing awareness of consumers concerning healthy food, they will even more often reach for organic products. Thus, the process of their distribution should be properly prepared so that the demand for this kind of food is the highest. The investigated respondents use a previously prepared shopping list and carefully read available products while shopping. Majority of them look for loose products. A proper quality of products and form of sale may increase the consumers’ interest and consequently their distribution.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki mieszania dwuskładnikowego niejednorodnego układu ziarnistego metodą przesypu (ang. funnel flow system) Mieszalnik laboratoryjny został wyposażony we wkładki daszkowe systemu Roof Shaped Insert. Wykonano cztery serie badań, trzy z wkładkami RSI o różnych średnicach podstawy oraz jedną kontrolną (bez elementów wspomagających). Do oceny rozmieszczenia składników ziarnistych posłużono się komputerową analizą obrazu. Na podstawie danych dotyczących udziału procentowego trasera na powierzchni analizowanych przekrojów poprzecznych obliczano stopień zmieszania Rose'a. Następnie wykonując analizę wariancji Anova określono wpływ zastosowanych wkładek.
EN
The paper presents results of mixing a two-component heterogeneous granular pattern using the funnel flow system method. Laboratory mixer was equipped with inserts of the Roof Shaped Insert system. Four test series were performed: three with the RSI inserts with varying base diameters and one check series (without supportive elements). Computer image analysis was employed to assess the layout of granular components. Data concerning percent share of tracer on the surface of analysed cross-sections allowed to compute Rose's mixing degree. Then, the researchers carried out analysis of variance (ANOVA) in order to determine the effect of employed inserts.
EN
The paper focuses on problems of optimizing the forming temperature of grade 100CrMnSi6-4 bearing steel under partial heating. In order to assess its formability, tensile tests at elevated temperatures ranging from 100 to 800 °C were carried out. Tensile diagrams revealed jump changes of mechanical properties in the brittle region under blue heat and in the region of phase transformations. Experimental examination was then concentrated on assessing the plastic deformation capability of the material under pressure at elevated temperatures, by means of the upsetting test. Another goal of the paper consisted in comparing the two experimental methods chosen for establishing the optimum temperatures of forming grade 100CrMnSi6-4 bearing steels at elevated temperatures. To have a complex assessment of the experimental material the structure and phase analyses of the bearing steel were performed in dependence on heating temperature.
EN
The forming process is associated with the plastic deformation capability of materials. The formability of metals and alloys is influenced by physical-metallurgical properties of material and by external forming conditions, forming temperature in particular. A kind of borderline for the division of forming is the recrystallization temperature, according to which forming is divided into cold forming, partially hot forming and hot forming. The paper is concerned with problems of optimizing the temperature of forming grade 100CrMo7-3 bearing steel under partial heating. Experimental establishment of the optimum range of forming temperatures was based on the results of tensile testing at elevated temperatures from 100 to 800 °C. Experimental verification of the behaviour of bearing steel under pressure was conducted via the upsetting test at elevated temperatures. The experimental part of the work is also concerned with the analysis of phase composition of grade 100CrMo7-3 bearing steel using computer simulation, and by the verification of simulation via metallographic evaluation.
EN
The utilization of laser is wide and namely in the field of heat cutting of materials where this method is the most progressive. The optimization of all parameters of cutting arrangement is the most important for achievement the best quality of cutting area; it means rate, power, pressure, and focal distance of laser. Suitable setting of various parameters can influence the quality of cutting area. The quality of specific cutting material is also considerable factor of cutting process. The finding optimal cutting conditions for achievement maximal cutting rate were the goal of this work. The setting of individual parameters was evaluated with regard to quality and heat affected cutting area. The carbon steel grade 11 373 and high-alloy Cr-Ni steel 17 240.2 were used for experiments. The quality and heat affected cutting area of individual materials were evaluated by means of measurements of roughness and metallographic evaluation and microhardness of heat affected zone.
EN
The structure of ductile cast iron is formed from graphite and basic metal matrix, which is composed from pearlite, ferrite and alternatively their mixture and other structural components (steadite, inclusion). The cast iron with ferrite matrix is characterized by quite high plasticity, toughness, and good workability whereas the tension strength is lower. The ferrite structure is reached by means of very low content of manganese, phosphorous and perhaps even higher contents of silicon. Higher strength is typical for cast iron with pearlite matrix. Higher additives of manganese and especially cooper promote the formation of pearlite. Alloying by cooper is suitable because ledeburite cannot be formed, as this is possibility for alloying by manganese. The contribution is concerned with the influence of manganese and copper on the structure and mechanical properties of ductile cast iron. The casting wedge blocks with graded content of manganese and copper were used for studying of effect of alloying elements. These castings were used for the metallographic evaluation and determination of the basic mechanical properties. On the base of experiments the correlation among basic mechanical characteristics and structure of DCI (ductile cast iron) matrix in the dependence on the content of manganese and copper was found. The all obtained information can be utilized for optimalization of chemical compounds with regard to requirement properties and for production of ADI alloys.
8
Content available remote Determination of chemical composition of Ni-SiO2 nanocomposites
EN
Nanostructured materials have been noted a massive scientific progress and industry development over the last few decades. The nanostructured materials can be produced from ceramics, metals, polymers, etc. The nanocomposites are the one type of nanomaterials. The nanocomposites with metal matrix and nanoparcicles coating have been prepared by means of electrodeposition process. The chemical composition is one of the most important factors for prediction of mechanical and physical properties of nanomaterials. The polycrystalline nickel reinforced by SiO2 nanoparticles was synthesized by electrodeposition method. The chemical composition of Ni-SiO2 nanocomposite was studied by two different methods. The Scanning Electron Microscopy fitted with by EDX detector and Atomic Absorbance Spectroscopy was used for determination of exact content of SiO2 in nanocomposite. The sample preparation was provided by microwave-assisted digestion.
EN
This contribution deals with study of weld joints of carbon and austenite Cr-Ni steels and the diffusion of carbon, aluminiím, iron, chromium and nickel in depence on time and temperature of anneal. The strengthening process affected by diffusion of elements were evaluated by measurements of microhardness over the interface of weld joints and were established by means of metallographic microscope.
EN
The paper is an example of an application of the possibilities of utilization of a well equipped metallographical laboratory for the medicine practics. It deals with the metallographic analysis and determination of the chemical composition of the hip joint cotyles material of the used as well as unused joint implants and also the analysis of surfaces of a used joint implant in order to verify its integration with bone.
11
Content available remote The analysis of surface layer with glow discharge OES method - basic data
EN
Glow discharge is well known as an extremely stable excitation source that creates a very flat uniform sputter spot on the analyzed sample. This unique characteristic makes glow discharge an ideal source for quantitative depth profile analyses, or highly accurate bulk content analyses.
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