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EN
This research examines the eutrophication process mainly by considering the chlorophyll-a concentration. A simple linear model was used to determine the correlation between Chlorophyll-a and dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP). The research was carried out on river mouths in the north coast of Central Java. The results of the linear model show that the relationship between chlorophyll-a and DIP follows the logarithmic model with the log [Chloa] = 1.52 + 1.60 log [DIP], R2 = 0.55. The model suggests that the high concentration of chlorophyll-a is related to dissolved inorganic phosphate concentrations. On the basis of the sufficient of conclusive evidence for these variables, the study sites with high stresses from several anthropogenic sources had higher chlorophyll-a than the sites that are relatively far from river mouths and lands.
EN
Froth flotation is one of the main methods for processing of phosphate ores. However, flotation of fine particles, especially phosphate ores, has always been one of the fundamental problems. For example, about 10% of Esfordi phosphate processing plant ore with a grade of more than 16% P2O5 and d80 of less than 30 μm is sent to the tailing dam. Flotation using nanobubbles generated by hydrodynamic cavitation is one of the latest industrial techniques to recycle fine particles of minerals. A significant recovery increment in flotation of fine particles using nanobubbles has been one of the main topics of flotation science in recent years. Fine bubbles have important effects on the gas holdup, which is necessary in the froth flotation cell of mineral based process industries. At a given gas holdup, using finer bubbles can reduce frother consumption. An exclusive nanobubble generation system has been developed at Iran Mineral Processing Research Center (IMPRC) for evaluating the effect of nanobubbles on froth flotation. This device enhances venturi tubes and works based on cavitation phenomena. In this study, a comparison of conventional flotation and nanobubble enhanced flotation in mechanical cells was carried out on two types of phosphate ore samples. As a result, the flotation recovery had a significant increment of more than 30% in the case of using nanobubbles versus conventional flotation in the same grade of P2O5.
EN
The impact of 2014 Major Baltic Inflow (MBI) on ferrous iron (FFe(II)) and phosphate (FPO43–) benthic fluxes was investigated. Sampling took place few months after the MBI, in August 2015, and over one year after the inflow, in February 2016. Materials were collected from three sites (depth of 106–108 m) located in the Gdańsk Deep. Total dissolved iron, Fe(II), phosphate, H2S and sulfate were analyzed in bottom and pore water. Benthic fluxes were estimated using Fick’s first law. All fluxes were directed from sediment. FFe(II) ranged from 0.31 × 10–2 to 1.25 × 10–2 μmol m–2 hr–1 and FPO43– from 1.53 to 2.70 μmol m–2 hr–1. At the deepest site, FPO43– was similar in both seasons, while at two other sites fluxes in August 2015 were 40–50% smaller than in February 2016. The increase in bottom water oxygen after the MBI enhanced Fe(oxyhydr)oxides formation. As a consequence, bottom and pore water concentrations of Fe(II) and FFe(II), decreased. Adsorption of phosphate onto Fe(oxyhydr)oxides resulted in binding of P in surface sediment and lower FPO43– in August 2015. This was particularly evident at the shallowest site. The reductive dissolution of Fe(oxyhydr)oxides and desorption of P during the subsequent months resulted in higher FPO43– in February 2016.
EN
Differences between vertical mobilities of nutrient and trace elements within a long-term sludge-treated and an adjacent untreated Alpine grassland cambisol were investigated by column experiments. The site had been intensely fertilized with urban sewage sludge for 10 years of 7.5 Mg/ha annually, whereas an adjacent site had been left untreated. A model column experiment was set up to investigate changes of permeabilities and trace element retentions at 0-20 cm and 20-60 cm layers thereof. Elution was performed with de-ionized water at amounts of expected rainfall at the sampling site (1000 mm), as well as with equal volume of manure after biogas production. Long-term sludge treatment increased organic carbon, formation of ammonium and nitrate, and increased vertical mobility of K, P, S, Cu, and Fe, but also slightly higher (below 10-fold) for Na, Sr, Ba, Ni and V. Additional application of manure was of minor effect, mainly upon nitrate formation, and upon leaching of Fe, Mn as well as Fe/Mn proportion. Prior addition of FeCl2 to the manure in order to increase sulfide precipitation, mainly affected the output of ammonia, but hardly the cations or anions (e.g. P) investigated.
6
Content available remote Cations on Ion Chromatography by Phosphate-Coated Zirconia Stationary Phase Column
EN
Ion chromatography of inorganic cations using a phosphate-coated zirconia stationary phase (PZ) was first attempted. The retentions of cations to PZ increased by elevating the column temperature and the reproducibility of the separation could improve at the higher temperature. The PZ functioned as a cation-exchanger from changes in the retention factor of cations as a function of eluent pH. Furthermore, the Gibbs free energies of cations were estimated from enthalpy and entropy using the retention factors of cations as a function of the column temperature. The reaction was based on the endothermic reaction.
PL
W celu zwiększenia rozpuszczalności fosforytu kompostowano go z surowcami organicznymi. Używając bioreaktora do kompostowania biomasy, przygotowano 4 warianty kompostów. Do wytworzenia kompostów użyto mielonego fosforytu oraz rozdrobnionej słomy jęczmiennej, trocin i wysłodków buraczanych. Komposty różniły się rodzajem i ilością komponentów organicznych. Gotowe komposty zgranulowano za pomocą prasy matrycowej. Kompostowanie fosforytu z komponentami organicznymi zwiększało jego rozpuszczalność, a tym samym powodowało wzrost dostępności fosforu dla roślin.
EN
Rock phosphate was ground and added to org. composts. After 1-2 months long composting at humidity 60%, the composts were granulated, dried to H2O content below 8% and studied for various P forms. The composting resulted in an increase in content of HCOOH, citric acid and NH4 citrate-sol. P in the rock phosphate.
8
Content available remote The human bone oxygen isotope ratio changes with aging
EN
The oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) in tissues is the outcome of both climatic and geographical factors in a given individual’s place of abode, as well as the physiology and metabolism of his organism. During an individual’s life, various rates and intensities of physiological and metabolic processes are observable in the organism, also within the bone tissue. The aim of this study is to verify whether involutional changes occurring as a result of the organism’s ageing have a significant impact on δ18O determined in the bone tissue. The material used for analysis was fragments of the long bones taken from 65 people, (11 children and 54 adults), whose remains had been uncovered at the early mediaeval (X–XI century) cemetery located at the Main Market Square in Kraków (Poland). The correlation analysis between δ18O of bone tissue and an individual’s age shows that up to 40 years of age, such a relationship does not exist in both, males and females. However, the conducted correlation analysis prompted the observation that after 40 years of life, δ18O in bone tissue significantly drops as females increase in age. Results suggest that the δ18O in bone tissue among older people may be the outcome not only of environmental factors but also involutional changes in bone linked to an organism’s ageing. Therefore, the interpretation of δ18O results relating to the description of the origin and migrations of older individuals should be treated with caution.
EN
The problem of phosphorus discharge is related to environmental protection and food security. Struvite crystallization is a useful technology for phosphate recovery from wastewater. In the research, struvite crystallization process with CO2 degasification continuous U-shape reactor (CUSR) was application for phosphate recovery from animal manure wastewater. The result indicated PO43--P recovery ratio could achieve 47-53% without magnesium addition when CUSR hydraulic retention time controlled at 60 min. With extra magnesium addition, PO43--P recovery ratio could significant achieve 80-86% at magnesium addition amount 57.5 mg/dm3. PHREEQC modeling predictions trend of struvite crystallization was close to CUSR experimental results. The modeling calculation can provide a theoretical guide for operational parameters design. For seeding technology, high phosphate recovery efficiency was obtained and preformed struvite was the most effective seeding material. Surface characterization analysis demonstrated the dominant composition of chemical solids was struvite. Water extraction analysis indicated chemical solids recovery from animal manure wastewater could release PO43--P slowly and be available as slow-release fertilizer.
PL
Problem uwalniania fosforu jest związany z ochroną środowiska i bezpieczeństwem żywności. Krystalizacja struwitu jest przydatną technologią odzysku fosforanów ze ścieków. W opisanych badaniach proces krystalizacji struwitu zastosowano do odzyskiwania fosforanów z gnojowicy, do tego celu wykorzystano reaktor ciągłego odgazowywania CO2 w kształcie litery U (CUSR). Wyniki wskazują, że wskaźnik odzysku PO43- może osiągnąć 47-53% P bez dodatku magnezu, gdy kontrolowany, hydrauliczny czas retencji CUSR wynosi 60 min. Po wprowadzeniu magnezu w ilości 57,5 mg/dm3 wskaźnik odzysku PO43- może osiągnąć 80-86% P. Przewidywania modelu PHREEQC dotyczące krystalizacji struwitu był bliskie wynikom doświadczalnym CUSR. Obliczenia teoretyczne z wykorzystaniem modelu mogą stanowić wskazówkę do ustalania rzeczywistych parametrów eksploatacyjnych. Struwit otrzymany z gnojowicy może mieć zastosowanie w nasiennictwie. Analiza ekstrakcyjna wykazała, że materiał ten może powoli uwalniać PO43-P i dzięki temu znajduje zastosowanie jako nawóz.
EN
Phosphate concentrator at Eshidiya, of Jordan Phosphate Mines Co. Plc, Jordan treats two different types of ores. Both these ores are de slimed to remove clay minerals and the slimes are discarded as tailings. The discarded slimes contain P2O5 as high as 20%. Tests were conducted to use these slimes as direct P fertilizer in alkaline/saline soils both in Jordan and India. It is noted that the slimes along with N containing materials either of organic or inorganic origin work as efficiently as known phosphatic fertilizers.
PL
Zagęszczacz fosforanowy w Eshidiya (Jordańskie Kopalnie Fosforanu) jest stosowany przez Jordanię w przypadku dwóch typów rud. Obie rudy są odszlamowane aby usunąć gliny, natomiast szlam jest odrzucany. Odrzucony szlam zawiera do 20% P2O5. Przeprowadzono testy nad wykorzystaniem tego szlamu jako głównego nawozu zawierającego fosfor w przypadku gleb zasadowych/zasolonych w Jordanii i Indiach. Należy zauważyć, że szlam wraz z materiałami zawierającymi N pochodzenia organicznego lub nieorganicznego funkcjonuje jako znany nawóz fosforowy.
11
Content available remote Porównanie stanu troficznego zbiorników Dojlidy i Zarzeczany
PL
Badania miały na celu porównanie stanu troficznego dwóch zbiorników małej retencji charakteryzujących się różnym zagospodarowaniem zlewni i zróżnicowaną powierzchnią zbiornika (34 ha – Dojlidy i 8,75 ha - Zarzeczany). Na podstawie wykonanych oznaczeń parametrów fizyko-chemicznych w wodach omawianych zbiorników obliczono poszczególne wskaźniki cząstkowe i wartość średnią wskaźnika trofii (OPT – ogólny poziom trofii) w poszczególnych porach roku. Wskaźniki ogólnego poziomu trofii badanych zbiorników retencyjnych przyjmowały wartości 42,0 – 64,37 w Zarzeczanach oraz 47,78 – 68,31 w Dojlidach. Na podstawie danych literaturowych oba zbiorniki można zaklasyfikować do eutroficznych. Największy wpływ na stan trofii miało stężenie fosforu ogólnego, a wraz z nim obliczone wartości TSI(TP). Największym zagrożeniem eutrofizacyjnym dla zbiorników jest wynoszenie fosforu deponowanego w osadach dennych zbiorników do toni wodnej.
EN
Studies aimed comparison of the trophic state of two small retention reservoirs characterized by various catchment management and different water-table surface (3,4 acres – Zarzeczany and 8,75 acres – Dojlidy podlaskie viovodship). On the basis of the carried out physico-chemical researches it had calculated partial and the average trophic state index (OPT – general trophic level) during the various seasons of the year. During the period of researches values of general trophic levels were 42,0 – 64,37 in Zarzeczany and 47,78 – 68,31 in Dojlidy. On the basis of literature database both reservoirs can be classified to eutrophic. The greatest impact on trophic state was the total phosphorus concentration and with it calculated values of TSI(TP). The biggest eutrophication treat for retention reservoirs is leaching of phosphorus from floating bottom sediments to the water.
12
EN
The bromide analogue of pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Br was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The solubility of the brompyromorphite was measured at 25°C and pH values of 2.0, 2.6 and 3.2. For the 3 pH measurements, the average solubility product, log KSP, for the reaction Pb5(PO4)3Br ⇔ 5Pb2+ + 3PO4 3– + Br– at 25ºC is –77.38 ± 0.70. The free energy of formation, ΔG˚f,298, calculated from this measured solubility product is –3724.7 ± 4.3 kJ mol−1. These results confirm that brompyromorphite is more soluble than pyromorphite.
13
Content available remote Geochemical mapping in the area of L’ubietova, Slovak Republic
EN
L’ubietova is a village in the Banska Bystrica Region in the Slovak Republic. There is an old mining spot in its vicinity, where copper was extracted from the Bronze Age to the 19 century. Currently, the region is interesting by mineral collectors due to a p that can be found there, called libethenite. According to the literature (Kodera 1990, Duda & Paulis 2002) there are two areas of copper mineralization near L’ubietova, which differ in the occurrence of copper compounds formed with arsenic and phosphorus. The first deposit (Podlipa) is mainly known for its secondary-mineral paragenesis of copper phosphates, especially libethenite and pseudomalachite. On the second, (the Svatodusna deposit) diverse paragenesis of secondary arsenic minerals developed. The most characteristic of these arsenians are olivenite, euchroite and pharmaco siderite. Many scientific works concern the L’ubietova region (Andras et al. 2009, Rusko et al. 2009), however none of them has yet paid attention to the differentiation and the lateral distribution of copper-phosphorus and copper-arsenic mineralization and to the description of primary and secondary causes of the differentiation and the distribution. The aim of this study was to determine these phenomena and to optimise future analytical procedures, which would allow the local copper mineralization to be examined thoroughly. The project was based on the assumption that surface geochemical mapping will help to establish the range of copper mineralization in two areas distinct from each other if regard to the copper compounds. In order to draw up appropriate methodology, it was necessary to conduct research that included terrain inspection, preliminary sampling and analysis of soil specimens and dump-field material in regard to the content of copper, phosphorus and arsenic. The field study was based on extracting three soil specimens and two dump-field material samples along the profile line. Their chemical composition was later analysed by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and their mineral composition was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The preliminary examination confirmed the existence of lateral differentiation of copper mineralization, which was proved by establishing the differentiation of samples' content of copper, phosphorus and arsenic along the profile line.
PL
Celem pracy było zbadanie procesu wiązania jonów fosforanowych na syntetycznym getycie Fe3+O(OH). Wyznaczono izotermy adsorpcji oraz zbadano wpływ zawartości żelaza w getycie na ten proces. Badano izotermy adsorpcji jonów fosforanowych z ich roztworów w wodzie odjonizowanej oraz z dwóch wód naturalnych, pochodzących ze zbiornika Rusałka i Jeziora Głębokiego. Parametry w równaniu izotermy Freundlicha, którym opisano usuwanie fosforanów z roztworów wodnych z udziałem syntetycznego getytu wskazują, że adsorpcja z wód naturalnych jest większa niż z wody odjonizowanej i przebiega najefektywniej na getycie o najmniejszej zawartości żelaza.
EN
The aim of this work was to study the process of binding phosphate ions by synthetic goethite Fe3+O(OH), to define adsorption isotherms and to examine the influence of iron content in goethite on this process. Adsorption isotherms were examined in deionized water and in two natural waters taken from Rusałka Reservoir and Lake Głębokie. Parameters calculated from the Freundlich isotherm equation, which describes the removal of phosphates from aquatic solutions in the presence of goethite, show that the adsorption from natural waters is several times higher than the adsorption from deionized water and is most effective in the presence of synthetic goethite with the lowest iron content.
EN
This study aimed to examine and explain the spatial distribution of total phosphorus in sediments and orthophosphates in interstitial water in four Polish dam reservoirs with varying hydrological and geochemical characteristics. The results are linked to physicochemical parameters of sediments: organic matter and calcium carbonates content, pH, redox potential and conductivity. In two of the studied reservoirs hydrological dynamics were a driving force in phosphorus circulation, despite the big difference in their mean water retention times, and interactions with Ca and Fe were of secondary importance In other reservoirs with complicated shorelines and reservoir beds, due to water flow disturbance the hydrological impact was not as pronounced. Geochemical processes, such as precipitation of phosphorus associated with Ca^+2, Fe(III) or in complexed with humic substances became more significant.
EN
The vertical profiles of phosphate, total CO2 and oxygen/hydrogen sulphide were determined in the deep water of the Gotland Sea during March 2003 to July 2006 with a temporal resolution of 2-3 months. This time span included the shift from anoxic to oxic conditions resulting from a water renewal event, as well as the transition back to anoxic waters during the subsequent two-year stagnation period. The data from depths below 150 m were used to identify and quantify phosphate release and removal processes. The relationship between the total CO_2 generated by mineralization (CT, min) and the PO_4 concentrations indicated that the initial decrease in the phosphate concentrations after the inflow of oxygen-rich water was mainly a dilution effect. Only about one third of the PO_4 removal was a consequence of the precipitation of insoluble iron-3-hydroxo-phosphates (Fe-P), which occurred slowly at the sediment surface under oxic conditions. From the CT, min/PO4 ratios it was also concluded that the formation of Fe-P was reversed during the later phase of the stagnation, when the redoxcline approached a depth of 150 m. A phosphate mass balance was performed for four deep water sub-layers in order to quantify the dissolution of Fe-P during the stagnation period and thus to estimate the amount of Fe-P deposited during the last inflow of oxygen-rich water. A value of about 50 mmol-P m-2 was found, which refers to the specific biogeochemical conditions during the change from anoxic to oxic conditions that preceded the stagnation period.
EN
We report the results of high-precision (±0.05‰) oxygen isotope analysis of phosphates in 6 teeth of fossil sharks from the Mangyshlak peninsula. This precision was achieved by the offline preparation of CO2 which was then analyzed on a dual-inlet and triple-collector IRMS. The teeth samples were separated from Middle- and Late Bartonian sediments cropping out in two locations, Usak and Kuilus. Seawater temperatures calculated from the δ18O data vary from 23–41oC. However, these temperatures are probably overestimated due to freshwater inflow. The data point at higher temperature in the Late Bartonian than in the Middle Bartonian and suggest differences in the depth habitats of the shark species studied.
PL
Związki azotu i fosforu są powszechnie występującymi związkami w wodach powierzchniowych, których ilość waha się w zależności od różnych czynników. Jak wynika z analiz przeprowadzonych w ciągu minionych kilkunastu lat (1997-2010), zawartość azotanów (V), azotanów (III) i fosforanów (V) w wodach powierzchniowych Wisłoki, na wysokości miasta Mielca, wykazywała tendencję malejącą, a azotu organicznego i amoniaku rosnącą. Występowała także zależność pomiędzy zawartością związków azotowych i fosforanów (V), a porą roku i pH wody. Na ogół ich zawartość wzrastała wraz ze zwiększaniem się pH wody, a największe zawartości stwierdzano latem lub jesienią, najniższe zaś wiosną.
EN
Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds are common in surface waters, whose quantity varies depending on various factors. As it comes from studies conducted over the past several years (1997-2010), content of nitrates, nitrites and phosphates in the surface waters of Wisloka, at the height of the town Mielec, showed a downward trend and organic nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen the upward trend. There was a relationship between the content of nitrogen compounds and phosphates and the season and pH of the water. In general, their content increased with increasing of the pH in the water and the greatest contents was found in summer or autumn and the lowest in spring.
PL
Wody podziemne są obecnie coraz częściej wykorzystywane jako źródło wody pitnej i stosowanej do celów bytowo-gospodarczych. W Toruniu ujęcia wody podziemnej używanej na potrzeby zaopatrzenia miasta w wodę pitną obejmują czwartorzędowy poziom wodonośny. Celem badań było określenie jakości wód jednego z ujęć wody podziemnej w Toruniu - "Wrzosy II", analiza zmian wybranych parametrów tych wód oraz porównanie różnych punktów pobierania wody. Badania oparto o wyniki analiz prób wody podziemnej, pobieranych w latach 2005-2009 dwa razy w roku, w pięciu studniach ujęcia "Wrzosy II". Wyniki poddano analizie statystycznej. W celu określenia zmian stężeń oznaczanych analitów posłużono się średnimi wartościami rocznymi, a do porównania punktów pobierania próbek wykorzystano analizę czynnikową (FA) opartą na analizie składowych głównych. Jakość badanych wód była na pograniczu wód klasy I i wód klasy II. Największą zmienność stężenia wykazywały substancje biogeniczne: azotany (V) i fosforany oraz azotany (III) i amoniak. Zaobserwowano wzrostowy trend poziomu stężeń jonów azotanowych i fosforanowych, spowodowany antropogenicznymi ogniskami skażeń wód podziemnych. Konieczne wydaje się ograniczenie emisji substancji biogenicznych z pobliskich osiedli domków jednorodzinnych. Zidentyfikowano studnie o najlepszej jakości wody oraz stwierdzono, iż obecnie jakość wód polepsza się poprzez zmniejszanie stężenia jonów żelaza i manganu.
EN
Groundwater is presently more and more often used as a source of drinking water as well as water for household purposes. In Toruń water intake areas of groundwater used for providing the city with drinking water are in the quaternary aquifer. The aim of the research was to determine water quality of one of the groundwater intake areas in Toruń - "Wrzosy II", analysis of changes in several parameters of the groundwater and comparison of various water intake points. The study was based on the results of analyses of groundwater samples, taken twice a year in 2005-2009, from five wells of the water intake area "Wrzosy II". The results were analysed statistically. In order to determine changes in concentration of the investigated analytes yearly means were used, whereas to compare the sampling points factor analysis (FA) was exploited, based on principal component analysis. The water quality was found to be on the border between lst and 2nd class. The most distinctive variability in concentration was found for biogenic substances: nitrates and phosphates, and nitrites and ammonia. Increasing trend was observed in the concentration of nitrate and phosphate ions, which was caused by anthropogenic centres of groundwater pollution. It seems vital to limit the emission of biogenic substances from nearby districts of detached houses. Wells of best water quality were identified and it was found that presently water quality becomes better due to decrease in concentration of iron and manganese ions.
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