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EN
The paper presents, the chemical composition and the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (238U, 234U,226Ra and 228Ra) in selected therapeutic mineral waters from: Krynica-Zdrój (Zuber I, Zuber II and Słotwinka), Rabka-Zdrój (Krakus, Warzelnia and Rabka IG-2), Iwonicz-Zdrój (Elin 7 and Emma 7), Klimkówka (Klimkówka 27) and Lubatówka (Lubatówka 12). The analyses were carried outfor water samples collected twice in 2008 and in 2016. The analyzed waters are used mainly for crenotherapy and therapeutic bathing. Some waters are also bottled and used for production of cosmetics and medicinal waters. The measured uranium activity concentrations in the studied groundwater were very low, below 3 mBq/dm3 and 11 mBq/dm3 for 238U and 234U, respectively. In the case of radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra), their activity concentrations varied in a wide range from ca. 150 to ca. 1500 mBq/dm3. The total mineralization of the analyzed waters variedfrom 3.5 to ca. 24 g/dm3. A significant variation of both chemical composition and radium concentrations were observed in the water from Warzelnia intake. For the remaining waters, variation of 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations was observed in three (Zuber I, Słotwinka, Emma 7), and six intakes (Zuber I, Słotwinka, Krakus, Klimkówka 27, Emma 7, Elin 7), respectively.
EN
This study analyzed the temporal variation of tropospheric ozone (O3) in Poznan (midwestern Poland) on the basis of data collected from a State Environmental Monitoring air quality assessment station. The aim was to investigate the distribution and variation of O3 levels and to assess the relationship with nitrogen oxides (NOx) and meteorological conditions. These relationships were assessed by multiple regression analysis and cluster analysis. The O3 levels showed a high annual, seasonal and daily volatility, and were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions and NOx levels. High O3 levels were accompanied by above-average levels of radiation (Rad), air temperature (Ta) and wind speed (Ws), together with below-average values of NOx and humidity (Rh). Atmospheric pressure (Ph) had an ambiguous effect on O3 levels.
PL
Analizę czasowej zmienności ozonu troposferycznego w Poznaniu (środkowo-zachodnia Polska) podjęto na podstawie danych zebranych ze stacji oceny jakości powietrza Państwowego Monitoringu Środowiska. Celem pracy było poznanie rozkładu i zmienności stężenia O3 oraz ocena zależności między rozpatrywanym zanieczyszczeniem a zawartością NOx i przebiegiem warunków meteorologicznych. Do oceny zależności między rozpatrywanymi zmiennymi posłużyły analiza regresji wielokrotnej i analiza skupień. Stężenie O3 odznaczało się dużą zmiennością roczną, sezonową i dobową. Warunki meteorologiczne i zawartość NOx istotnie determinowały wielkość stężenia O3. Dużym stężeniom analizowanego zanieczyszczenia sprzyjały głównie ponadprzeciętne wartości: Rad, Ta i Ws oraz poniżej przeciętne wartości NOx i Rh. Niejednoznaczny wpływ na wartość stężenia O3 miało Ph.
PL
Celem pracy było opracowanie charakterystyki okresu wegetacyjnego w rejonie Bydgoszczy na podstawie 60-letniej (1949-2008), nieprzerwanej serii pomiarów temperatury powietrza, wykonywanych w Stacji Badawczej UTP Bydgoszcz w Mochełku ( =53°13', =17°51', h=98,5 m npm). Na podstawie temperatur wyznaczono daty początku, końca oraz długości trwania okresu wegetacyjnego w oparciu o metodę rachunkową i wzory Gumińskiego, przyjmując próg termiczny okresu wegetacyjnego 5,0°C. Stwierdzono, iż okres wegetacyjny w rejonie Bydgoszczy rozpoczyna się przeciętnie 30 marca i trwa 219 dni do 3 listopada. Wykazano bardzo dużą niestabilność czasową charakterystyk okresu wegetacyjnego, właściwą dla umiarkowanego i przejściowego klimatu Polski. Zbliżonego do średnich warunków okresu wegetacyjnego w rejonie Bydgoszczy możemy spodziewać się w około 40% lat, czyli przeciętnie raz na 2,5 roku. W pozostałych latach charakterystyki okresu wegetacyjnego wykazują odstępstwo od normy, przy czym bardziej niestabilna jest data początku okresu wegetacyjnego, w porównaniu z dalą jego końca. Stwierdzono, ze w ostatnim 60-leciu w rejonie Bydgoszczy nie nastąpiła żadna, dająca się udowodnić statystycznie zmiana, dotycząca zarówno długości trwania okresu wegetacyjnego, jak i jego kalendarzowych dat początku i końca.
EN
The study is a climatological characteristic of a growing season variability in the region of Bydgoszcz. The work is based on 60-year period of a constant air temperatur measurements taken in the Research Centre of the Faculty of Agriculture UTP, in Mochelek (cp=53o13', X=17o51', h=98,5 m a.s.l.). Diurnal air temperature was the fundamental element to estimate the date of beginning, end and the duration of growing season using an arithmetic method and the equations by Gumiński. The temperature of 5,0°C was a thermal level of the growing season. It was found that the growing season in the region of Bydgoszcz begins on the 30th of March and lasts 219 days until the 3rd of November. A great instability of growing season factors was confirmed during the analyzed period, which is typical for the moderate and transition climate in Poland. Therefore, in 40% of years (one per 2,5 year ) the mean conditions of growing season can be expected. For the rest of the time some deviations from the climatological standard norm were proved. However, the date of beginning is more instable compared to the date of its end. It was ascertained that during the last 60-year period there were no statistically confirmed changes of the duration, the date of beginning and the date of end of growing season in the region of Bydgoszcz.
4
Content available remote Dynamika glebowych zasobów wodnych w Polsce współcześnie i w przyszłości
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań nad zmiennością uwilgotnienia strefy aeracji w Polsce w kontekście zmian klimatu oraz możliwych zmian procesów hydrologicznych. Analizowano wieloletnią i sezonową zmienność wilgotności gleb w Polsce na podstawie symulacji uwilgotnienia według modeli ECHAM5 oraz GFDL, w wybranych wieloleciach XX i XXI wieku. Analizowano względną efektywną wilgotność gleby. Dane pozyskano ze Światowego Programu Badania Klimatu WCRP (World Climate Research Programme), z projektu CMIP3 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3). Stwierdzono, że w perspektywie najbliższych 50-100 lat może nastąpić wzrost ekstremalnych stanów uwilgotnienia gleby, ze znacznym obniżeniem uwilgotnienia w lecie. Przewiduje się, że okres, w którym występuje wyczerpywanie zapasów dostępnej dla roślin wody, będzie dłuższy.
EN
Special focus of this research is on the variability of soil water storage in Poland in the context of climate change and possible changes in the hydrological processes. In this paper long term variation of soil water storage in Poland is analyzed based on climate models simulations, comprising the ECHAM5 and GFDL models. Long-term mean monthly values of the soil water storage have been evaluated for selected periods of twenty and twenty first century. Index of effective relative soil water storage is calculated and analyzed. Data used in this research were possessed from the World Climate Research Programme, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Projections for second half of the twenty first century show that considerable changes in soil water storage should be expected. Increase of extreme stages is expected and the amount of available water is projected to decrease in summer. Period of decrease in soil moisture is projected to extend
5
Content available remote Klimatyczne uwarunkowania rozwoju turystyki na Pomorzu Środkowym
EN
In the paper the analysis of the time variability of meteorological elements affecting tourist values of the climate in Central Pomerania in 1971-2000 was carried out. On the basis of the tourism climatic index (TCI) the usefulness of climatic conditions of the towns of Chojnice and Szczecinek for tourism during a year was assessed. It was observed that in 1971-2000 the values of some meteorological elements changed statistically significantly. The largest changes were noticed in the number of cloudy days (an increase from 1.3 to 3.5 days/10 years in Szczecinek, a decrease by 1.7 days/10 years in Chojnice in October) in the maximum air temperature (an increase from 1.3 to 1.6 o C/10 years in January and April), in the minimum temperature (a decrease from 0.8 to 1.1°C/10 years in August and in Chojnice also from June to September) and in the precipitation total (an increase by 7.6 to 11.7 mm/10 years in February and March, a decrease by 10.2 mm/10 years in Szczecinek in November). According to the value index TCI the climatic conditions of Central Pomerania are at least “good” for the tourism for five months during a year, from May to September. In a holiday season (July-August) the conditions are very good and even excellent in Chojnice in August. Unfavourable weather conditions occur during two-four months in a year, from November to February in Chojnice and in December and January in Szczecinek.
EN
The aim o f the studies was to characterize time structure of the real sunshine totals in the Szczecin Lowlands and frequency and variability of number of hours with the sun lasting > 4, > 6 and > 10 h in 2000-2004. The largest daily real sunshine total in the Szczecin Lowlands amounting to 6.6 hours occurs in the first ten days of May, whereas the lowest one, 0.8 h, in the third ten day period of December. During the calendar spring (March-May) a 40% larger number of hours with direct sun radiation is observed as compared to that in autumn (Sept. - Nov.). In March, June and September the real sunshine totals before the noon are larger than those in the afternoon, whereas in December there are no distinct differences between them. An average number of days with real sunshine lasting > 4, > 6 and > 10 h is respectively 141, 97 and 14 and its maximum occurs in May. In spring and summer the frequency of days with the above threshold values is approximate and it amounts on average to about 55, 40 and 10% respectively.
EN
The methods for analysing of temporal variability of air temperature are presented in the paper. Special attention is paid to the application of GIS tools. Being a leading and so-called continuous climatic element, air temperature is the best known climatic parameter and therefore makes a good base for various theoretical and practical studies. It concerns temporal analyses as well as spatial issues. In the recent years spatial analyses using GIS techniques are fairly frequent. However, there is the lack of studies devoted to temporal analyses of this particular climatic element. The paper is an attempt to use average annual and monthly air temperature for the territory of Poland. The data originate from 213 meteorological stations in Poland and in neighbouring areas ansd cover 53 years (1951-2003). The data series studied here are fully homogenous, already checked and verified earlier. Application of GIS methods also requires the use of other layers, so in the study digital terrain model (DTM), hydrographical network as well as administrative information were applied. Elevation plays the most important role in the spatial temperature distribution and determination coefficients even exceed 0.95. In the first phase the traditional, classical characteristics for temporal analysis were applied such as: linear trend, standard deviation, variation coefficient. Spatial distribution of the above mentioned measures is presented on the maps of Poland. The next step is based on the gridded values. They are available for the 10 km resolution and have been created from the air temperature maps formerly constructed by the residual cringing method. Such data enabled detailed temporal air temperature analyses for the territory of Poland as well as for individual regions. Gridded data provided the base for the construction of different diagrams showing absolute and relative temporal variability for particular territories. Digital dimension of all these graphs allows many various calculations indicating the range and intensity of the air temperature variability. The study contains only some examples of the temporal analyses from a large variety of particular cases. They are rather universal, so they can be applied for different climatic elements and for many temporal and spatial scales. That approach can be a good tool for further detailed processing as well as for formulating synthesis. All investigations confirm relatively large warming in the recent years. It concerns the whole Poland with the special regard to the central and western regions. However, due to relatively short period this trend does not allow to formulate further conclusions as to the future long-term tendency. Special attention was paid to the extreme thermal seasons of winter and summer. The results univocally show temperature increase during winter since the last years of 80s of the 20th century and they do not confirm any significant tendency for summer. All these results were received based on traditional (station) data as well as on gridded values. Application of the gridded data is quite important from the practical point and for the perspectives of climate change and variability studies. The obtained results point to the main features of the temporal thermal variability and also indicate a considerable spatial diversity not only in the mountain areas but also on Polish Lowlands. At the same time the examples presented here show that digital maps and diagrams allow for various types of calculating and analysing which may add a prominent practical dimension. The results show that climatologic studies with this kind of methodological approach may have a prior cognitive as well as practical meaning. Applied methods can be also used for other environmental elements.
8
Content available remote Wielkość zachmurzenia w Polsce w drugiej połowie XX wieku
EN
The paper presents the results of the research of the variability of cloudiness in Poland in the second half of 20th century. Average series of cloudiness in the area of Poland (excluding mountains) was analysed. The series was calculated based on data from 48 weather stations of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The direction and rate of changes of cloudiness and its fluctuation were described. Particular attention was paid to anomalous values of cloudiness. Structure of atmospheric circulation, i.e. frequency of circulation types in season and years with anomalous cloudiness was determined.
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