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EN
The paper deals with the effect of heating of various prepared batch materials into semisolid state with subsequent solidification of the cast under pressure. The investigated material was a subeutectic aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg0.3. The heating temperature to the semisolid was chosen at 50% liquid phase. The used material was prepared in a variety of ways: heat treatment, inoculation and by squeeze casting. Also the influence of the initial state of material on inheritance of mechanical properties and microstructure was observed. The pressure was 100 MPa. Effect on the resulting casting structure, alpha phase distribution and eutectic silicon was observed. By using semisolid squeeze casting process the mechanical properties and microstructures of the casts has changed. The final microstructure of the casts is very similar to the microstructure that can be reached by technology of thixocasting. The mechanical properties by using semisolid squeeze casting has been increased except the heat treated material.
EN
The fluidity is the term to determine the materials ability to fill the mold cavity properly. Fluidity is complex property with many variables. Up to this date, there is no methodology for defining the fluidity in a semisolid material state. Submitted paper deals with the proposal of a new method designed for aluminium alloy fluidity evaluation in semi-solid state trough the design of the layered construction die. Die will be primary used for fluidity tests of semi-solid squeeze casted aluminium alloy and to observe the pressing force flow by mentioned casting technology. The modularity consists of possibility to change each die segment. In the experiment the die design was evaluated by simulation in ProCAST 11.5 and by production of experimental castings. The die was made by laser cutting technology from construction steel S355JR. Experimental material was aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg0.3. The temperature of the semisolid state was chosen to achieve 35% of solid phase. The result of next study should be a selected parameters observation and their effect on the fluidity of aluminium alloy in semi-solid state. This will be very important step to determine the optimal conditions to achieve a castings with certain wall thickness produced by the method of semi-solid squeeze casting.
EN
NiTi alloys are successfully used in engineering and medical applications because of their properties, such as shape memory effect, superelasticity or mechanical strength. A composite with Mg matrix, due to its vibration damping properties, can be characterized by low weight and good vibration damping properties. In this study, a combination of two techniques was used for successful fabrication of Mg composite reinforced by NiTi alloy preform. The porous preforms synthesized by Self-propagating Hightemperature Synthesis (SHS) from elemental powders were subsequently infiltrated with Mg by squeeze casting. The effects were examined with scanning electron microscope with EDS detector, X-ray diffraction and microindentation. The inspection has shown well-connected matrix and reinforcement; no reaction at the interface and open porosities fully infiltrated by liquid Mg. Moreover, analysis of samples’ fracture has exhibited that crack propagates inside the Mg matrix and there is no detachment of reinforcement.
EN
The paper deals with squeeze casting technology. For this research a direct squeeze casting method has been chosen. As an experimental material, the AlSi12 and AlSi7Mg0.3 alloys were used. The influence of process parameters variation (pouring temperature, mold temperature) on mechanical properties and structure will be observed. For the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy, a pressure of 30 MPa was used and for the AlSi12 alloy 50 MPa. The thicknesses of the individual walls were selected based on the use of preferred numbers and series of preferred numbers (STN ISO 17) with the sequence of 3.15 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, 6.3 mm and 8 mm. The width of each wall was 22 mm and length 100 mm. The mechanical properties (Rm, A5) for individual casting parameters and their individual areas of different thicknesses were evaluated. For the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy, the percentage increase of the tensile strength was up to 37% and the elongation by 400% (at the 8 mm thickness of the casting). For the AlSi12 alloy, the strength increased from 8 to 20% and the tensile strength increased from 5 to 85%. The minimum thickness of the wall to influence the casting properties by pressure was set to 5 mm (based on the used casting parameters). Due to the effect of the pressure during crystallization, a considerable refinement and uniformity of the casting structure occured, also a reduction in the size of the eutectic silicate-eliminated needles was observed.
EN
The paper shows the results of research aimed to assess the impact of high squeeze pressure on the porosity of AlZn5Mg alloy castings, including its distribution in slab-type castings with dimensions of 25 x 100 x 200 mm. The research was carried out on castings made by two methods: squeeze casting and gravity casting. The pressing was conducted at a pressure of 100 MPa at an initial mould temperature of 200°C. The research identified the middle and outer parts of the casting. Experimental research was preceded by numerical simulation of the casting solidification, then a porosity assessment was carried out using the hydrostatic weighing method, which was supplemented by structural observations. The results of the research showed a two-fold decrease in the porosity in the middle part of the casting which is most exposed to the occurrence of shrinkage voids formed in the final clotting phase. Structural tests revealed the occurrence of dispersed porosity in castings, mainly of shrinkage and / or shrinkage-gas origin. The impact of pressure of 100 MPa during solidification caused fragmentation of the primary structure of castings, which resulted in a higher grain density.
6
Content available remote Thermal properties of Al alloy matrix composites reinforced with MAX type phases
EN
A method was developed for manufacturing Al-Si alloy matrix composites reinforced with MAX phases by squeeze casting pressure infiltration of porous preforms. MAX phases in the Ti-Al-C system were synthesized using self-propagating hightemperature synthesis (SHS) in the microwave assisted mode in order to obtain spatial structures with open porosity consisting of a mixture of Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2. The manufactured composite together with a reference sample of sole matrix material were subjected to the testing of thermal properties such as: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion in the temperature range of 50÷500°C, which corresponds to the expected working temperatures of the material. The specific heat and mass change during heating were also established by means of thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained thermal conductivity coefficients for the Al-Si+Ti-Al-C composite were higher than for the sole MAX phases and equaled 27÷29 W/m·K. The thermal expansion values for the composite material were reduced two-fold in comparison with the matrix.
PL
Opracowano metodę wytwarzania kompozytów na osnowie stopu Al-Si wzmocnionego fazami typu MAX metodą infiltracji ciśnieniowej porowatych preform. Fazy typu MAX syntezowano metodą samorozprzestrzeniającej się syntezy wysokotemperaturowej (SHS), wspomaganej mikrofalami w układzie Ti-Al-C, w celu uzyskania przestrzennych struktur o porowatości otwartej z mieszaniny faz Ti2AlC i Ti3AlC2. Wytworzone materiały kompozytowe wraz z próbką referencyjną w postaci materiału osnowy poddano badaniom właściwości cieplnych, tj. przewodności cieplnej, dyfuzyjności cieplnej oraz rozszerzalności cieplnej w zakresie temperatur 50÷500°C, który przyjęto jako spodziewany zakres temperatur pracy wytworzonych materiałów. Wyznaczono również wartości ciepła właściwego oraz, za pomocą analizy termograwimetrycznej, zmiany masy w stosunku do zmiany temperatury. Uzyskane współczynniki przewodności cieplnej dla materiału kompozytowego Al-Si+Ti-Al-C były wyższe niż dla samych faz typu MAX i wynosiły 27÷29 W/m·K. Zmierzone wartości współczynnika rozszerzalności cieplnej dla materiału kompozytowego były dwukrotnie niższe w odniesieniu do materiału osnowy.
EN
The paper deals with squeeze casting technology. For this research a direct squeeze casting method has been chosen. The influence of process parameters variation (casting temperature, mold temperature, pressure) on mechanical properties and structure will be observed. The thicknesses of the individual walls were selected based on the use of preferred numbers and series of preferred numbers (STN ISO 17) with the sequence of 3.15, 4.00, 5.00, 6.00 and 8.00 mm. The width of each wall was 22 mm with a length of 100 mm. As an experimental material was chosen the AlSi12 and AlSi7Mg0.3 alloys. The mechanical properties (UTS, E) for individual casting parameters and their individual areas of different thicknesses were evaluated. In the structure the influence of pressure on the change of the eutectic morphology, the change of the volume of eutectic and the primary alpha phase, the effect of the pressure on the more fine-grain and the regularization of the structure were evaluated.
EN
A method for manufacturing of Al-Si alloy (EN AC-44200) matrix composite materials reinforced with MAX type phases in Ti-Al-C systems was developed. The MAX phases were synthesized using the Self-propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS) method in its microwave assisted mode to allow Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 to be created in the form of spatial structures with open porosity. Obtained structures were subjected to the squeeze casting infiltration in order to create a composite material. Microstructures of the produced materials were observed by the means of optical and SEM microscopies. The applied infiltration process allows forming of homogeneous materials with a negligible residual porosity. The obtained composite materials possess no visible defects or discontinuities in the structure, which could fundamentally deteriorate their performance and mechanical properties. The produced composites, together with the reference sample of a sole matrix material, were subjected to mechanical properties tests: nanohardness or hardness (HV) and instrumental modulus of longitudinal elasticity (EIT).
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań odlewów z czterech stopów aluminium wykonanych z zastosowaniem technologii prasowania w stanie ciekłym. Do badań zastosowano stopy: EN AW 7022 (AlZn5Mg3- Cu) oraz jego modyfikację poprzez dodatek tytanu, A201.0, EN AC-4800 (AlSi13Mg1CuNi) oraz stop Al-Si-Zn według patentu PL 158900. Ze stopów wykonano odlewy z wykorzystaniem technologii prasowania w stanie ciekłym oraz – w celach porównawczych – odlewy kokilowe. Przeprowadzono badania podstawowych właściwości mechanicznych otrzymanych odlewów. W celu polepszenia ich właściwości mechanicznych przeprowadzono obróbkę cieplną według indywidualnie dobranych – w zależności od stopu – parametrów procesu. Parametry obróbki cieplnej dobrano na podstawie m.in. analizy wykresów DSC. Wykazano skuteczność technologii prasowania w stanie ciekłym do otrzymywania wysokowytrzymałych odlewów z badanych stopów.
EN
The article presents the results of investigations into castings made of four aluminum alloys produced with the use of squeeze casting technology. The investigations used the following alloys: EN AW 7022 (AlZn5Mg3Cu) and its modification with a titanium addition, A201.0, EN AC-4800 (AlSi13Mg1CuNi), Al-Si-Zn according to the patent PL 158900. The alloys were used to make castings with the use of squeeze casting technology and – for comparison – die castings. Investigations were performed on the basic mechanical properties of the obtained castings. In order to improve their mechanical properties, thermal treatment according to individually selected process parameters (depending on the alloy) was performed. The thermal treatment parameters were selected based on e.g. an analysis of the DSC diagrams. The tests proved the effectiveness of squeeze casting technology in obtaining high-strength casts made from the examined alloys.
10
Content available remote Tribological properties of Al matrix composites reinforced with MAX type phases
EN
A method was developed to manufacture Al-Si alloy matrix composites reinforced with MAX phases by squeeze casting pressure infiltration of porous preforms. The MAX phases were synthesized using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the microwave assisted mode. For the produced composites abrasive wear resistance tests were carried out using the pin-on-flat method with reciprocating motion for different load values (0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 MPa), while maintaining other parameters (sliding distance, speed) constant. The sliding distance equaled 2000 m with the average speed of 0.3 m/s, whereas the flat counterpart was made of CT70 tool steel with the hardness of 67 HRC and roughness Ra = 0.4÷0.6. Before testing both of the tribosurfaces were degreased with acetone. Volumetric sample consumption was investigated and changes in the structure of the working surfaces were analyzed. Optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis were also performed and elaborated in order to facilitate understanding and interpretation of the wear mechanisms. It was confirmed that the composite materials exhibit more than two times higher wear resistance than that of the matrix itself. The wear rate of the matrix falls within the range of 3.5÷5.5-10−4mm3/Nm, while for the composite material - 1.3÷2.4-10−4 mm3/Nm. In the Al-Si matrix the main wear mechanism was identified to be based on plastic deformation composed of scaling and cracking processes, while for the MAX phase composite it is principally abrasive wear leading to pre-fracture, delamination and extraction of MAX phase platelets.
PL
Opracowano metodę wytwarzania kompozytów na osnowie stopu Al-Si wzmocnionego fazami typu MAX metodą infiltracji ciśnieniowej porowatych preform. Fazy typu MAX syntezowano metodą samorozprzestrzeniającej się syntezy wysokotemperaturowej (SHS) wspomaganej mikrofalami. Dla wytworzonych kompozytów przeprowadzono badania odporności na zużywanie ścierne metodą pin-on-flat realizującą ruch posuwisto-zwrotny dla różnych wartości obciążenia (0,1, 0,2 i 0,5 MPa) przy zachowaniu pozostałych parametrów (droga ścierania, prędkość) stałych. Droga ścierania wynosiła 2000 m przy prędkości średniej 0,3 m/s, zaś przeciwpróbka wykonana była ze stali. Zbadano objętościowe zużycie próbki oraz przeanalizowano zmiany w strukturze powierzchni współpracujących. Przeprowadzono analizę mikroskopową metodami mikroskopii optycznej i skaningowej w celu ułatwienia zrozumienia i interpretacji mechanizmów zużycia. Potwierdzono, że materiały kompozytowe wykazują ponad dwa razy większą odporność na zużywanie ścierne od materiału osnowy. Współczynnik zużycia osnowy wynosił 3,5÷5,5x10−4 mm3/Nm, podczas gdy dla materiału kompozytowego był równy 1,3÷2,4⋅10−4 mm3/Nm. W przypadku osnowy Al-Si zaobserwowano mechanizm zużycia oparty na odkształceniu plastycznym, zaś dla kompozytu wzmocnionego fazami typu MAX było to głównie zużywanie ścierne, prowadzące do powstania pęknięć, delaminacji i ekstrakcji fragmentów płytek faz typu MAX.
EN
This paper deals with influencing the crystallisation of Al alloys by a direct squeeze casting method. The effects of changed cooling rates of the casting is evaluated using a heat transfer coefficient at different casting conditions. The experimental results obtained by temperature measurement of the casting and the mould were used to predict the casting and mould surface temperatures using regression curves. The measured temperatures in the sub-surface layers were used to determine the amount of heat transferred from the casting to the mould. The amount of transferred heat increased 20-fold due to the effect of pressure. We also evaluated the effect of the acting pressure on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the alloy used. The process parameters were varied in the experiment.
EN
The paper deals with the impact of technological parameters on the mechanical properties and microstructure in AlSi12 alloy using squeeze casting technology. The casting with crystallization under pressure was used, specifically direct squeeze casting method. The goal was to affect crystallization by pressure with a value 100 and 150 MPa. From the experiments we can conclude that operating pressure of 100 MPa is sufficient to influence the structural characteristics of the alloy AlSi12. The change in cooling rate influences the morphology of the silicon particles and intermetallic phases. A change of excluded needles to a rod-shaped geometries with significantly shorter length occurs when used gravity casting method. At a pressure of 100 MPa was increased of tensile strength on average of 20%. At a pressure of 150 MPa was increased of tensile strength on average of 30%. During the experiment it was also observed, that increasing difference between the casting temperature and the mold temperature leads to increase of mechanical properties.
EN
The paper presents the results of research of impact strength of aluminum alloy EN AC-44200 based composite materials reinforced with alumina particles. The research was carried out applying the materials produced by the pressure infiltration method of ceramic preforms made of Al2O3 particles of 3-6mum with the liquid EN AC-44200 Al alloy. The research was aimed at determining the composite resistance to dynamic loads, taking into account the volume of reinforcing particles (from 10 to 40% by volume) at an ambient of 23°C and at elevated temperatures to a maximum of 300°C. The results of this study were referred to the unreinforced matrix EN AC-44200 and to its hardness and tensile strength. Based on microscopic studies, an analysis and description of crack mechanics of the tested materials were performed. Structural analysis of a fracture surface, material structures under the crack surfaces of the matrix and cracking of the reinforcing particles were performed.
EN
The paper deals with the impact of technological parameters on the heat transfer coefficient and microstructure in AlSi12 alloy using squeeze casting technology. The casting with crystallization under pressure was used, specifically direct squeeze casting method. The goal was to affect crystallization by pressure with a value 100 and 150 MPa. The pressure applied to the melt causes a significant increase of the coefficient of heat transfer between the melt and the mold. There is an increase in heat flow by approximately 50% and the heat transfer coefficient of up to 100 fold, depending on the casting conditions. The change in cooling rate influences the morphology of the silicon particles and intermetallic phases. A change of excluded needles to a rod-shaped geometries with significantly shorter length occurs when used gravity casting method. By using the pressure of 150 MPa during the crystallization process, in the structure can be observed an irregular silica particles, but the size does not exceed 25 microns.
EN
The near net shaped manufacturing ability of squeeze casting process requiresto set the process variable combinations at their optimal levels to obtain both aesthetic appearance and internal soundness of the cast parts. The aesthetic and internal soundness of cast parts deal with surface roughness and tensile strength those can readily put the part in service without the requirement of costly secondary manufacturing processes (like polishing, shot blasting, plating, hear treatment etc.). It is difficult to determine the levels of the process variable (that is, pressure duration, squeeze pressure, pouring temperature and die temperature) combinations for extreme values of the responses (that is, surface roughness, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) due to conflicting requirements. In the present manuscript, three population based search and optimization methods, namely genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization based on crowding distance (MOPSO-CD) methods have been used to optimize multiple outputs simultaneously. Further, validation test has been conducted for the optimal casting conditions suggested by GA, PSO and MOPSO-CD. The results showed that PSO outperformed GA with regard to computation time.
PL
Istotą podjętych badań eksperymentalnych opisanych w niniejszej publikacji była adaptacja zainstalowanego na terenie Instytutu Odlewnictwa w Krakowie nowoczesnego stanowiska do prasowania w stanie ciekłym (squeeze casting) VSC 500 firmy UBE dla potrzeb kompleksowej technologii wytwarzania elementów lekkiego, kompozytowego pancerza ochronnego. Zakres badań obejmował opracowanie projektu podstawowego elementu pancerza i dobór materiałów do jego budowy, a także opracowanie konstrukcji specjalistycznej formy odlewniczej oraz wyznaczenie optymalnych parametrów procesu prasowania w stanie ciekłym. Zaprezentowana unikalna ciekło-fazowa technologia wytwarzania elementów kompozytowych pozwala uzyskiwać elementy pancerza charakteryzujące się wysoką skutecznością ochronną w przypadku ochrony przed małokalibrowymi pociskami przeciwpancernymi typu AP i może wchodzić w skład modułowego systemu ochrony mobilnych środków transportowych (pojazdów naziemnych i latających).
EN
Experimental studies described in the present article adapt modern VSC 500 equipment produced by UBE for the squeeze casting technology, located at Foundry Research Institute in Cracow, Poland. The aim of such adaptation was to set up a comprehensive technology capable to manufacture essential elements for lightweight composite armour protection. The overall scope of the study included development of basic design of an armour element and the selection of materials necessary for its construction. Furthermore development of special mould design along with determining the optimal parameters for the squeeze casting process has been considered. The presented unique liquid-phase technology of composite element manufacture allows obtaining armour elements with a high protection efficacy against small-calibre armour piercing projectiles. The elements can also be part of a modular protection system for mobile transport means (land and aerial vehicles).
EN
An attempt was made to obtain ceramic preforms with different contributions of porosity. Compressive strength tests were carried out to estimate the ability of ceramic preforms to be utilised in the process of squeeze casting for the fabricating of metal matrix composites. The achieved ceramic preforms were subjected to the squeeze infiltration process, and materials with much higher mechanical properties relative to monolithic materials were obtained.
PL
Podjęto próbę uzyskania preform ceramicznych o różnym stopniu porowatości. Przeprowadzono badania ich wytrzymałości na ściskanie w celu określenia możliwości ich zastosowania w procesie otrzymywania kompozytów metalowo-ceramicznych technologią prasowania w stanie ciekłym. Otrzymane preformy poddano infiltracji ciśnieniowej i otrzymano kompozyty o znacząco wyższych właściwościach wytrzymałościowych w stosunku do odlewów monolitycznych.
PL
W pracy opisano wyniki prób wytwarzania odlewów ze stopów aluminium do przeróbki plastycznej: 2024, 6061, 7075. Badaniom poddano odlewy wytworzone pod wysokim ciśnieniem (150 MPa) na maszynie do realizacji procesu prasowania w stanie ciekłym (ang. squeeze casting) UBE VSC 500. Za odlewy odniesienia posłużyły elementy odlewane grawitacyjnie. Odlewy poddano obróbce cieplnej do stanu umocnionego wydzieleniowo T6. Przeprowadzono badania kalorymetryczne, badania właściwości mechanicznych oraz metalografii ilościowej. Stwierdzono korzystny wpływ ciśnienia prasowania zarówno na mikrostrukturę oraz właściwości mechaniczne odlewów w stanie lanym, jak i obrobionym cieplnie.
EN
The paper presents results of wrought alloys casting trials under external pressure. Three alloys were used in the experiment – namely: 2024, 6061 and 7075. The examinations were conducted on squeeze cast parts that solidified under high pressure (150 MPa) in a Vertical Squeeze Casting machine UBE VSC 500. Gravity castings were used as a reference. The castings were heat treated to T6 condition. DSC and quantitative metallographic examinations were carried out. Mechanical properties were also tested. The advantageous effect of the external pressure has been assessed based on the results of the quantitative metallography and mechanical properties in cast and in the T6 condition.
EN
The aim of this work is the development of Cu-Al2O3 composites of copper Cu-ETP matrix composite materials reinforced by 20 and 30 vol.% Al2O3 particles and study of some chosen physical properties. Squeeze casting technique of porous compacts with liquid copper was applied at the pressure of 110 MPa. Introduction of alumina particles into copper matrix affected on the significant increase of hardness and in the case of Cu-30 vol. % of alumina particles to 128 HBW. Electrical resistivity was strongly affected by the ceramic alumina particles and addition of 20 vol. % of particles caused diminishing of electrical conductivity to 20 S/m (34.5% IACS). Thermal conductivity tests were performed applying two methods and it was ascertained that this parameter strongly depends on the ceramic particles content, diminishing it to 100 Wm-1K-1 for the composite material containing 30 vol.% of ceramic particles comparing to 400 Wm-1K-1 for the unreinforced copper. Microstructural analysis was carried out using SEM microscopy and indicates that Al2O3 particles are homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix. EDS analysis shows remains of silicon on the surface of ceramic particles after binding agent used during preparation of ceramic preforms.
EN
Purpose: Parameters for new manufacturing route of Cu casting reinforced with alumina fibers were elaborated. There was observed improvement of hardness and wear properties of composite materials comparing to the unreinforced copper and this indicates for the proper applied process parameters. Design/methodology/approach: Manufacturing of composite materials involves two stages, preparation of porous preforms and next their infiltration with molten Cu. Preforms exhibits semi-oriented arrangement of fibers and their open porosity makes possible the production of composite materials with 10 and 20% by volume of Al2O3 fibers (Saffil). Wear tests were carried out applying the pin-on-disc concept at constant sliding velocity and under two different pressures. Specimens were pressed against the cast iron counterpart prepared from standard brake disc material. Findings: Reinforcing of pure Cu with ceramic fibers results in the significant increase of hardness both by reducing the grain size and creating high level of residual stresses due to thermal mismatch of composite components. Fibers improves effectively wear resistance and under lower pressure of 0.2 MPa, in relation to unreinforced Cu, composite with 20% of fibers exhibits 6 times lower volume lost. Under smaller pressure wear process proceeded with plastic deformation of subsurface, cracking of reinforcement and transferring such segments to friction surface. Wear products containing hard fragments of alumina fibers as well as iron and copper oxides are transferred between surfaces and abrade weared parts. Thus only after friction against composite with 10% of fiber wear of iron counterpart was relatively small. Research limitations/implications: Reinforcing of Cu by squeeze casting method requires application of the die from high temperature resistant steel tool. Preform preheated to high temperature before infiltration, should be transferred to the mold very quickly in order to keep temperature. Practical implications: Reinforced copper , locally reinforced, exhibit high hardness and wear resistance under applied pressures. Production of electronic devices where simultaneously the high thermal and electric conductivity and good wear resistance are required can be potential area of future applications. Originality/value: Investigations are valuable for persons, who are interested in Cu cast composite materials reinforced locally with ceramic fiber performs.
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