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EN
This paper presents a research in the field of maritime training and education for Search and Rescue (SAR) migrants at sea. This research is oriented to more effective method based on team training for SAR Operations utilizing ship simulation and process of Operational Planning. The training which conducts in cabinets and ship simulators at the Military Academy provides the best results in the optimal application of onboard and emergency/SAR procedures. The training method is in line with all conventions of the International Maritime Organization and models of maritime training courses. The proposed training method can be developed and applied in all schools and centers where seafarers and other Maritime Search and Rescue personnel are trained.
EN
The problem of “reshaping” the fundamental education of navigators in the conditions of intensive development of modern computer mathematics, intelligent technologies and high-performance computing is considered. The main attention is paid to the formation of the information-educational environment that provides intellectual support for the trainee. Examples of the use of intelligent technologies that contribute to the organization of the learning process as a creative process of building knowledge are presented.
EN
Training of seafarers is traditionally focusing merely on the ‘occupational’ aspect. Competent seafarers have always been defined as people who have good professional, navigational or engineering skills. However, practice shows that these skills alone are often not enough to solve complex situations at sea. This article attempts to look at life and work at sea as a multidimensional phenomenon. The personal reaction to the social field challenges is unique for every person because of his ideas, feelings, behaviour, needs, moral values and physical attributes. The aim of the presented article is to describe a theoretical research model, which reflects the interaction of young seafarers and a social space on board a ship, and to determine the adaptation and well-being support measures used by young seafarers on board.
EN
The paper shows the results of the research conducted in order to analyse the differences in understanding the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea among the students in countries practising two different systems of education for seafarers: the so-called “sandwich system” and the continuing system. Methods of learning as well as their effect on understanding the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea and students’ opinions on efficient methods of learning have also been analysed. Furthermore, the problems the teachers are facing have been identified. Measures for the improvement of the system have been proposed as well.
EN
This study proposes the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs) to solve two crucial problems in the unmanned ship navigation: insufficient training data for neural networks and convergence of optimal actions under discrete conditions. To achieve smart collision avoidance of unmanned ships in various sea environments, first, this study proposes a collision avoidance decision model based on a deep reinforcement learning method. Then, it utilizes GANs to generate enough realistic image training sets to train the decision model. According to generative network learning, the conditional probability distribution of ship maneuvers is learnt (action units). Subsequently, the decision system can select a reasonable action to avoid the obstacles due to the discrete responses of the generated model to different actions and achieve the effect of intelligent collision avoidance. The experimental results showed that the generated target ship image set can be used as the training set of decision neural networks. Further, a theoretical reference to optimize the optimal convergence of discrete actions is provided.
EN
In Maritime Education and Training (MET) where students are trained for professions with high standards of safety, the use of simulators is taken to provide opportunities for safe and cost-effective training. Although the use of simulators for training and certifying technical proficiency and so-called non-technical skills is well established and regulated by international standards, previous research suggests that simulator-based assessment has been poorly implemented in the MET system. Now the challenge is to contribute with knowledge about how to conduct consistent, unbiased, and transparent assessments of navigational skills and competencies. However, in current research it is not evident how training of non-technical skills in simulated environments should be assessed. The aim of this study is to explore the pedagogical challenges instructors face when assessing students’ navigational skills and competencies in a simulated environment. The study is based on video-recorded data from the certification part in a navigation course for second year master mariner students. A situated approach to cognition and learning is employed to analyze the co-construction of assessment in the simulated exercises by means of instructors’ questions and students’ answers. Results reveal an assessment practice where the students are still developing their navigational skills with instructional support from examiners whilst being certified on using Radar equipment in accordance to COLREG.
EN
This article presents a part of the qualitative research results from the GECAMET international academic study on gender issues in shipping. One of the aims of GECAMET research represents the understanding of human factors considering gender equality and cultural awareness issues met in the shipping industry. In this paper are published qualitative results obtained through 47 structured online interviews of women seafarers made in the period 201‐2018. The target group of respondents was formed by women leaders in the shipping sector which are current seafarers with careers on board ship. Other data collected involved leaders defined as ex-seafarers working in managerial positions working on shore. Results of the interviews provide an excellent source of inspirational leadership. Data obtained is useful for women seafarers that need models and motivational aid to join maritime education and maritime careers, and to surpass any future challenges. Data is also helpful for shipping organizations and MET to improve equal and adequate access to women to seafarer careers on board ship. The research was possible with the support of the International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU) and the Nippon Foundation in Japan.
8
Content available Teaching Celestial Navigation in the Age of GNSS
EN
Over the past two decades, we have witnessed the astounding development of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Celestial navigation has gradually been declining, displaced by the availability of these new, accurate, and easy-to-use electronic systems. Nonetheless, according to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW), deck officers onboard merchant ships must have been trained in the observance of celestial bodies to plot the ship’s position and to calibrate compass error. It is a real challenge in the current context to which lecturers in nautical astronomy can respond through innovation in their teaching methods. A new approach to training students in celestial navigation at the Nautical College of the University of the Basque Country is discussed in this paper. It has already achieved promising results in comparison with the traditional teaching methodology, and is both efficient and effective. The adoption of institutional measures is also proposed to ensure that the competence acquired in the training phase is at all times present throughout professional practice.
EN
This study was determined the evaluation of the safety, security, and protection of the navigational trip in terms of safety among marine engineering students as an entire group and when they were classified according to section such as Polaris 3-A, Polaris 3-B, and Polaris 3-C. Respondents of the study were the one hundred twenty (120) Polaris marine engineering students who are currently enrolled in the College of Maritime Education of JBLFMU-Molo for School Year 2017-2018 who were on board or have undertaken the navigational trip and have observed some of the safety and security services on board. The researchers employed quantitative-qualitative research design by Creswell (2013) to determine the navigational trip and observations of the safety and security services on board. Results revealed that the respondents had “excellent evaluation” about the safety, protection, and security of the navigational trip vessel. There were no significant differences in the evaluation of the respondents as to the different sections; no relationships were observed when the respondents’ evaluation results were compared according to sections. The observations and comments cited in this study signify that the navigational trip vessel exhibited safety and security, maintain clean and safe environment, and followed the strict implementation of safety as prescribed by the international standards. The respondents’ comments attested that the navigational ship has implemented the international standard of safety and procedure on board.
EN
MET institution’s mission is not only preparing young people for maritime career at sea, forming their professional competences, but also providing help in their career management. For this reason, it is important to know new seafarers’ generation needs and career ambitions, as well as expectations from employers’ point of view. Mutual understanding would help to find a balance between expectations of both and adequately manage changes. Results of research, conducted by surveying 4th year full-time students studying at the Lithuanian Maritime Academy and experts from shipping and crewing companies in Lithuania and Latvia regarding desirable contract conditions and seafarers’ personal and/or professional characteristics, important for successful career, are presented in the article.
11
EN
From November 2015 to June 2016 Research and Development Centre of the Estonian Maritime Academy (hereinafter R&D Centre of EMARA) carried out a survey among the alumni of maritime institutions in Estonia. The survey based on a questionnaire developed by R&D Centre of EMARA in cooperation with the academies’ management, curricula leaders and maritime associations. Participants included different maritime education institutions alumni, including the citizens of the Republic of Estonia, who had studied in marine educational institutions abroad. In total 343 maritime educational institution alumni participated in the survey.
EN
The Portuguese Naval Academy is a military school with an university status and is equipped with one modern navigation and maneuvering simulator. The Navigation Simulator (NAVSIM) plays an essential role in the academic training for the Naval Academy and for its cadets, that are using this capacity since their first academic year as a learning tool. Identifying the non-technical skills that could be trained and focusing on the specific training of the technical skills is paramount, in order to maximize the training sessions for each cadet’s year. The assessment of statistical data referring to the last 6 years is important to identify where there are gaps in the exercises, as well as how the midshipman are prepared to perform functions of watch keeping on the ships fleet.
EN
The article examines applicability of the world experience of e-learning and distance education technologies structure to STCW recommendations and national legal requirements of the Russian Federation. There are comprehensive comparative analysis of a distance learning system and STCW recommendations. There are some results of the distance education system LMS “FARWATER” test period for the benefits of seafarers vocational education and the Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping (Admiral Makarov SUMIS) where the LMS “FARWATER” was designed.
14
Content available Active learning in maritime education
EN
In the field of education, the importance of active learning as a more effective educational method has recently been noted. The element of active learning was introduced to the anchoring training of the training ship for third-year students of Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, and its effects have been verified. The learning effect of training was confirmed by the questionnaire results of the students. Moreover, the self-evaluations of student and evaluation of instructor confirmed the skill of grasping a ship's position with improved accuracy and learning effects. Self-evaluation and evaluation by the other student, which were introduced as the element of active learning, both demonstrated a positive learning effect. Furthermore, since an effective training method was examined, a result is reported.
EN
When operating in confined waters such as ports, channels and canals, the ship’s master may not be familiar with the specific and up-to-date navigating conditions such as wind, current and tide. In this case, the master must rely on the knowledge and experience of local experts, the seaport and river pilots, to ensure the safety of the ship, crew and environment. This paper provides an overview of the initial and periodic training required by pilots directed by the China Maritime Safety Administration in accordance with IMO’s A.960 “Recommendation on Training and Certification and Operational Procedure Maritime Pilot Other Than Deep-Sea Pilot” and China’s pilot training requirements. The paper then goes into details describing how pilot training is implemented in Dalian Maritime University (DMU), taking into account the course setting, class hour arrangement, theory and practical class distribution of different class pilots, as well as examining the equipment requirements, trainer’s qualification, and trainee’s seagoing experiences. Based on the results of the China’s pilot training regime, recommendations will be made not only for improving China’s pilot training program, but also where DMU’s best practices may be implemented at other institutions engaged in pilot professional development.
EN
Going back to the beginning of 90-ies of last century before the present STCW-78/95 Convention was established the shipping industry relied on Maritime Education and Training Institutions for well-educated and trained seafarers. Every shipowner simply employed seafarers that his ships needed and the relevant Minimum Safe Manning Certificate required. Generally speaking MET Institutions were the only Institutions responsible for initial and following education and training of seafarers. The last decade in the shipping industry has been marked by plenty changes and quick development in different directions. One of the directions is improving the quality of seafarer’s education and training, knowledge and skills as well. The obligatory competences in STCW-78/95 Convention are not enough for shipowners and they try to extend the education process outside the Convention’s requirements and recommendations. It is a well known and more and more spread practice for Shipowners to organize and perform meetings with officers and engineers working on board their vessels. Such meetings get publicity as Fleet Officer’s Meetings (FOM) or Fleet Officer’s Seminars (FOS). The meetings or seminars are performed at least on a yearly basis but it is the Owner’s decision to establish the agenda and the scope of the topics. The usefulness of the above mentioned events is visible enough and it is easy to understand that the applied efforts are not time wasted. The question is whether the companies can perform such kind of training and whether their lecturers and instructors, who are usually part of the office staff, are ready to deliver their experience at an acceptable level. It has to be highlighted that it is not a rule that good professionals as Masters and Engineers are always good lecturers and trainers. This article describes the summary results of the authors’ experience in participating as a fleet officer and as an assessor in fleet officers’ seminars. The article makes a SWAT analysis of such events and shares experience as a conclusion. The author gives his personal collaboration to the lifelong learning process in the shipping industry. The article makes an attempt to open the door to the co-operation between the shipping industry and MET Institutions at a higher level after the seafarers’ graduation in their MET Institutions.
17
Content available e-Nav, is it enough?
EN
In the paper the Author tries to present the background to e-Navigation and its definition, the key elements which in the vision for e-Navigation were covered and the IMO's strength as the co-ordinator of e-Navigation, including strategy implementation plan. The underlying important principles were stated, together with the need to take user needs into account. Recent presentations and comments showed just how ambiguous the term „users? can be in the context of e-Navigation. This led to a more in depth review of the components of the IMO Strategy Implementation Plan. The author tries to answer the question of whether these assumptions, decisions and actions taken were appropriate and sufficient. The author asks the simple question whether the mere adoption and introduction of the concept of e-Navigation in life will be enough to meet all the challenges of the twenty-first century.
EN
A review of maritime accidents conducted over the last decade confirms that human error is the main contributing factor in these incidents. Well‐developed Non‐Technical Skills (NTS) can reduce the effects of human error. NTS include both interpersonal and cognitive skills such as situation awareness, teamwork, decision‐making, leadership, managerial skills, communication and language skills. In a crisis situation good NTS allow a deck officer to recognise the problem quickly, take action to manage the situation, and utilise the available team members safely and effectively. This paper identifies the importance of NTS training for merchant navy deck officers. It also highlights room for improvement in the existing HELM training. Research has shown that at present the structure of HELM training is not very effective. The other safety critical domains’ efforts into NTS developments are investigated and examples of best practice are adapted into the maritime domain’s NTS training. Suggestions are given for improvements to the HELM course based on proven successful methods in other safety critical domains (aviation and anaesthesia). A subsequent Cost Benefit Analysis for improving deck officers’ NTS is also carried out through the use of Bayesian Networks and Decision Tree Modelling.
EN
Under the Manila 2010 amendments to the STCW , all crew members on board cruise vessels, mainly those assisting passengers during emergency situations and not only, “should be able to communicate safety-related issues in English or in the language spoken by the passengers and other personnel on board.” Having in view that navigational and safety communications from ship to shore and vice versa, ship to ship, and on board ships must be precise, simple and unambiguous, so as to avoid confusion and error, besides the need to standardize the language used, there is a growing demand of developing communication skills in English, especially for personnel working on cruise vessels, but also on RORO vessels, yachts and small passenger vessels. This is the reason why we have designed, developed and are already delivering the “Maritime English for Auxiliary Personnel" course in Specialized Maritime English to auxiliary personnel working on board cruise vessels to develop their ability to communicate with passengers, mainly during an emergency. The course covers the specific language used to describe the parts of ships, organisation on board ships, all essential safety-related matters and work-specific topics. It also reflects the situations in which auxiliary personnel need to communicate, with each other, with other crew members and with shore side authorities. The final goal of this course is to improve fluency in spoken English in real life situations which, of course, can be both routine and non-routine.
EN
Simulator based training has its own unique features and problems associated with it. There is a need to discuss these issues in order to understand the real meaning of simulator based training and to handle it effectively. Like other fields of training, use of simulation in the maritime industry is owing to the multiple factors covering technological, financial and training needs of the time. When properly used, supported by well trained and experienced instructors, simulator training, through its risk free environment, can contribute to a reduction in accidents and improve capability and efficiency, by providing trainees with the necessary experience and self confidence to carry out their roles, functions and tasks.
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