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A reform of real estate taxes which is surely unavoidable in the future and introduction of a cadastral tax will cause the necessity of a mass appraisal of real estates, in other words - value assessment of all real estates. One of the basic methods of determining market value of real estate is valuation accomplished by means of a comparative approach. This approach assumes that market value of real estate is assessed through comparison to other similar real estates, for which transaction prices and characteristics distinguishing these real estates and having the essential influence on their value are known. One of the essential difficulties of comparative approach is the necessity to have information about real estates similar to the one to be appraised, which were subjects of trade on a given property market. Generally used method of object attributes determination on the basis of maps and reconnaissance requires participation of a man (an operator). In case of mass appraisal it would cause enormous expenditure of labour, resulting in huge costs. But to solve these problems Geographic Information Systems can be used. One of their classical applications are spatial analyses allowing determination of spatial characteristics of objects and relationships between them. In the paper communication acces sibility attribute was analysed in detail. The access to real estate was considered in two categories: movement with own transportation means and using public transport facilities. The first case is more important in rural areas, but also the second case is significant because of weak public communication network. The term movement with own transportation means refers to journey along the road network from the central point, around which concentrates the life of inhabitants, directly to real estate. Such analysis can be conducted independently for each real estate, by calculation of best route to the centre, or determination of zones of specified travel times around the centre and assigning particular real estates to them. Regarding mass transport facilities, one can ride only to the nearest stop, and then has to move on foot. Such partition into two stages significantly complicates the modeling. Examination of conditions of journey to real estate was conducted based on two data models: vector and raster. In the first case functions for geographical networks analyses were used. Two tools were applied: Best Route between two points and Service Area. In case of rasters the Cost Distance function was used, which calculates the least-accumulative-cost distance to the nearest centre for each pixel. Vector analyses were limited to movement along elements of road network, unfortunately also for pedestrian traffic. As for rasters, every variant of journey forced preparation of suitable data. When travel only along roads was considered, pixels outside roads were assigned .no data. value in reclassification process. In case of raster data, there is no need to have information concerning road network, recorded as linear objects. Information coming from land register on parcels under roads or land use type road will be sufficient. Raster data makes it also possible to conduct analyses regarding movement outside the road network, which can be applied in case of pedestrian traffic examination. After suitable preparation of a movement cost raster, it also appeared possible to integrate in one analysis getting to the stop on foot and further travelling using public transportation means. An advantage of raster data is also the possibility of taking into account the centre of elongated shape, for example situated along the main street, which is often the case in countryside. However, resulting raster data sets were finally converted into vector form, containing borders of zones, for easier assignment of real estates to them. Research described in the paper confirmed the usefulness of tools for vector network analyses and raster cost analyses for determination of real estates communication accessibility. The only problem can be, as in many other cases, the availability of suitable data.
Jednym z podstawowych sposobów określania wartości rynkowej nieruchomości jest wycena realizowana metodą porównawczą. Podejście to zakłada, że wartość rynkowa nieruchomości wyznaczana jest poprzez ich porównanie z innymi podobnymi nieruchomościami, dla których znane są ceny transakcyjne, a także cechy różniące te nieruchomości i mające istotny wpływ na ich wartość. Jedną z zasadniczych trudności jest konieczność posiadania informacji o nieruchomościach podobnych do wycenianej, które były przedmiotem obrotu na danym rynku nieruchomości. Ocena wymaganych i dostępnych danych oraz znajomość funkcjonalności oprogramowania systemów informacji geograficznej (SIG) pozwoliła na przedstawienie propozycji zawartości bazy informacji o nieruchomościach oraz zakresu danych, które będzie można przekazywać bezpośrednio z innych baz SIG lub też wygenerować za pomocą narzędzi analitycznych.
One of the basic ways of the definition of the market value of real estates is its evaluation carried out in a comparative approach. This approach assumes that a market value of real estates is determined by comparison to other similar real estates of known transaction prices as well as prices differentiating these real estates and having a strong influence on their value. One of main difficulties is the necessity of having the information on real estates similar to the one that is to be evaluated. Such real estates should be a subject of pursuing in a given market of real estates. The evaluation of required and available data and the knowledge of the functionality of GIS software enabled us to present the proposal of the content of a database on real estates and the range of data that can be transferred directly from other GIS bases or generated by analytical tools.
Land and mortgage registers, the cadastre of real estate, the records of the utility networks and spatial development plans are basic information sources used for valuation of real estates. It is useful to collect them in the form of a suitable database. Such database should contain information describing each real estate. However, the construction of an independent database supporting the process of real estate valuation is long-lasting and expensive. GIS technology can help to solve this problem. One can suppose that data from GIS databases would be able, at least partially, to fill databases supporting valuation. In this paper the results of an analysis of the necessary content of such databases are presented. The problems with databases being able to constitute the potential source of such data were also noticed. They are distracted, they are managed by many different institutions and the access to them can be troublesome. This is why the review of existing and planned GIS databases was also performed. The analysis of their availability and the detailed subject range was conducted. It proved that they do not contain the complete set of the required information to make the valuation. Particularly the spatial attributes of real estate and relationships with other objects in the direct and further neighbourhood (utility networks, major roads, industrial plants) are essential. Most often such data are not recorded directly in the database. One of the classical applications of GIS are spatial analyses allowing the determination of spatial attributes of objects and relationships between them. Data processing tools (analytic functions) can be used to calculate some real estate attributes, required in the process of the valuation. The comparison of required and available data and the knowledge of the GIS software functionality allowed to present the proposal of the data range, which may be transferred directly or generated by analytical tools of the GIS software. The results of earlier research, which showed many possibilities of "non-standard uses of analytic functions of the GIS software, partially confirm such statement. In particular, the buffering function, belonging to the canon of spatial analyses, which can determine the real estate distance to other objects, and functions from the domain of geographical networks analyses, making possible calculation of shortest paths, deserve the attention.
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