Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 211

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 11 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  exhaust emission
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 11 next fast forward last
PL
Celem artykułu było opisanie wpływu eksploatacji autobusów zasilanych energią elektryczną na jakość powietrza w Zielonej Górze. Przeanalizowano emisję węglowodorów, tlenków azotu, dwutlenku węgla i pyłów zawieszonych przed dokonaniem wymiany taboru na autobusy elektryczne oraz po jej zakończeniu. Do obliczeń wykorzystano maksymalne wartości emisji spalin określone normami EURO oraz liczbę kilometrów pokonanych przez autobusy przypisane do każdej z nich. Wyniki porównano również z badaniami jakości powietrza w mieście przeprowadzonymi przez Główny Inspektorat Ochrony Środowiska. W pracy przedstawiono także normy prawne kształtujące wpływ pojazdów wykorzystywanych w transporcie publicznym na ochronę środowiska oraz opisano system transportu publicznego w Zielonej Górze.
EN
The aim of the article was to describe the influence of exploitation of electric buses on air quality in Zielona Góra. The emission of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulate matter was analyzed before and after the replacement of the bus fleet to electric. For calculations author used the European emission standards for buses (EURO) and number of kilometres made by buses in Zielona Góra. The results were compared with air quality tests made by Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection. The article describes also the public transport system in Zielona Góra and ecological legal standards in public transport in Poland.
EN
Road traffic is a common phenomenon in cities, and all urban road users suffer its negative effects. Therefore, the subject of this article is a comparative analysis of the exhaust emissions of toxic compounds and the operating parameters of two-wheeled vehicles measured under real operating conditions. The comparison applies to two drive cycles: in the first, the vehicle was travelling in standard city traffic (without using the bus lanes), while in the second, the vehicle travelled on bus lanes, whenever those were available. Such analysis made it possible to evaluate the ecological usefulness of bus lanes by assessing the exhaust emissions and the travel time of the test vehicle. For this purpose, an analysis of the exhaust emission values in time was performed for gaseous compounds (HC, CO, CO2, NOx) from a scooter equipped with a 125 cm3 displacement engine with a maximum power of 9 kW. The tests were carried out under real operating conditions in the city of Poznań. The route has been chosen so that it consisted of roads with a number of bus lanes. AXIONR/S+ mobile apparatus belonging to the PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement Systems) group was used in the research. The device is one of the most modern measuring instruments, where the entire device is a suitcase weighing only 18 kg containing two analyzers for measuring the concentrations of both gaseous and solid exhaust components.
EN
The subject of this article was the analysis of the current state of legislation regarding the exhaust emissions from two-wheeled vehicles. The regulations and emission limits were analyzed and compared for different areas of the world. Moreover, the review of the legal provisions includes an individual approach to specific categories of two-wheeled vehicles. The study also describes the research and exhaust emission measurement methods from mopeds and motorcycles both under laboratory conditions and in actual operation. The methods were evaluated in the aspect of future emission requirements and trends. In addition, the results of emissivity measurements under actual operating conditions obtained in the Poznań agglomeration with the use of motorcycle units were discussed and analyzed. The values of road emissions of all toxic compounds limited by legislators were compared with emission standards.
PL
Infrastruktura lotniskowa wpływa na właściwe funkcjonowanie lotniska. Szczególną rolę odgrywa infrastruktura na lotniskach wojskowych. Jest to spowodowane innym, szerszym zakresem funkcji jakie spełnia. Wiele lotnisk wojskowych pomimo gruntownej przebudowy infrastruktury zachowało jej podstawowe rozmieszczenie nie w pełni dostosowane do współczesnych funkcji i zadań logistycznych. W artykule dokonano analizy wpływu rozmieszczenia wybranych elementów infrastruktury lotniskowej na bezpieczeństwo eksploatacji sprzętu lotniskowego. Analizą objęto również charakterystykę emisji spalin, jaką posiada sprzęt lotniskowy wybranej wojskowej bazy lotniczej. W ramach sformułowanych wniosków podjęto próbę poprawy poziomu emisji spalin eksploatowanego w wojsku sprzętu lotniskowego.
EN
Airport infrastructure affects on proper functioning of the airport. A special role is played by the infrastructure at military airport. This is due to the other wider range of functions it performs. Many military airports despite a thorough reconstruction of infrastructure, have kept its basic layout not fully adapted to modern logistics functions and tasks. This article analyzes the impact of the distribution of selected elements of airport infrastructure on the safety of operation of airport equipment. The analysis also covered the exhaust emission characteristics of the airport equipment of a selected military air base. As a part of the formulated conclusions, an attempt was made to improve the level of exhaust emissions of airport equipment used in the army.
EN
The paper aims to present a generating set selection methodology for a modernized diesel locomotive. An analysis of the number of rolling stock, with particular emphasis on the number of diesel locomotives owned by national carriers was performed. Based on the popularity of the locomotives operated on Polish railways, the TEM2 locomotive was chosen to be the base reference for the modernized 19D locomotive described in the paper. The scope of the locomotive's modernization was described. Modernization included: replacement of the internal combustion engine, replacement of the generator set, installation of a new braking system with a pneumatic board and air preparation and treatment system, application of a modern control and diagnostics system with anti-slip system at start-up and braking, and the installation of railway traffic safety devices.
6
EN
Road transport holds for the largest share in the freight transport sector in Europe. This work is carried out by heavy vehicles of various types. It is assumed that, in principle, transport should take place on the main road connections, such as motorways or national roads. Their share in the polish road infrastructure is not dominant. Rural and communal roads roads are the most prevalent. This fact formed the basis of the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption tests of heavy vehicles in real operating conditions. A set of vehicles (truck tractor with a semi-trailer) meeting the Euro V emission norm, transporting a load of 24,800 kg, was selected for the tests. The research was carried out on an non-urban route, the test route length was 22 km. A mobile Semtech DS instrument was used, which was used to measure the exhaust emissions. Based on the obtained results, the emission characteristics were determined in relation to the operating parameters of the vehicles drive system. Road emission, specific emission and fuel consumption values were also calculated.
EN
New testing procedures for determining road emissions of exhaust pollutants for passenger vehicles were established in 2018. New road testing procedures are designed to determine actual exhaust emissions, which may not always reflect laboratory emissions. Test procedures for the emission of pollutants in real traffic conditions are divided into four stages. The latest research on the emission of pollutants from motor vehicles in road traffic conditions, carried out using mobile measuring systems, reflects the actual ecological state of vehicles. The article compares the results of exhaust emissions obtained in road tests using the latest legislative proposals for passenger cars. Then, an attempt was made to determine the engine operating parameters in which exhaust road emission would be the lowest. Solution scenarios were defined as part of permissible changes to dynamic parameters that are included in European legislation on RDE testing. For this purpose, an optimization tool was used, allowing on the basis of given input data to determine the minimum objective function, defined as the smallest emission value of individual harmful compounds. The results of the exhaust gas emissions in the RDE test were used to determine the road emissions of individual harmful compounds. A thorough analysis of the emission intensity of individual compounds has shown that it is possible to approximate such values using functional rela-tionships or adopting them as a constant value. This division was used to determine the extremes (in this case the minima) of the objective function (minimum road emissions of harmful exhaust components). This task resulted in obtaining (within the permissible tolerances of all driving parameters and durations of individual road test sections) the value of exhaust emissions in the range from 26% to 81% lower than in the actual road test. This means that there is a tolerance range, where you can obtain the value of emissions in road tests. As a result, you can use the process of determining the minimum emissions tests RDE calibration of the drive units already at the stage of preparation so that in the real traffic conditions characterized by the lowest exhaust emissions.
EN
This paper discusses the environmental characteristics of assets of the public transport systems in Górnośląsko-Dąbrowska Metropolis. The public transport is served by a number of companies. This poses the problem of integrating their behaviour in a coherent manner for environment protection. The Metropolis includes regions highly populated with good road networks as well as small localities which generates small transport demands. The transport potential is assessed and categorised in relation to its impact on the environment. The volume of emission of pollutants and the severity of their presence in the environment are summarised. Conditions of the functioning of the constituents of the systems were analysed, accounting for their contribution to pollution as well as health hazards cases.
PL
Przemysł motoryzacyjny (sektory pojazdów osobowych – LDV i ciężarowych – HDV) znajduje się obecnie pod bezprecedensową presją ze strony wielu czynników politycznych i społecznych, szczególnie pod względem negatywnego wpływu na środowisko naturalne poprzez emisje związków szkodliwych spalin i emisję gazów cieplarnianych, szczególnie CO 2 /zużycie paliwa. Zmieniające się w ostatnich latach metody badań homologacyjnych i procedury testowe oraz limity emisji związków szkodliwych stają się coraz trudniejsze do spełnienia, co wymaga zmian w metodach badawczo-rozwojowych, konstrukcjach silników spalinowych, strategiach sterowania, paliwach i – co najważniejsze – konstrukcjach całych układów napędowych. W niniejszym artykule przeanalizowano obecną sytuację w zakresie rozwoju legislacji dotyczącą regulacji metod badania pojazdów i limitów emisji związków szkodliwych spalin oraz ich wpływu na układy napędowe stosowane w nowych pojazdach samochodowych na świecie, przedstawiono również skrótowo trendy rozwojowe w tej dziedzinie na przyszłe lata.
EN
The automotive industry (LDV and HDV sectors) is currently under unprecedented pressure from a wide range of factors particularly in terms of environmental performance and fuel consumption. Long-established test procedures are changing and standards are becoming much harder to meet, necessitating changes in R&D methods, strategies and calibrations, fuels and – crucially – powertrains. This paper examines the current situation regarding regulation of emissions rules and the impact on powertrains used in new vehicles across the world. Powertrain technologies which can help to overcome challenges are mentioned and key trends are analysed. Finally, some brief comments are offered on what will bring the next few years.
EN
Searching for further reduction of fuel consumption simultaneously with the reduction of toxic compounds emission new systems for lean-mixture combustion for SI engines are being discussed by many manufacturers. Within the European GasOn-Project (Gas Only Internal Combustion Engines) the two-stage combustion and Turbulent Jet Ignition concept for CNG-fuelled high speed engine has been proposed and thoroughly investigated where the reduction of gas consumption and increasing of engine efficiency together with the reduction of emission, especially CO2 was expected. In the investigated cases the lean-burn combustion process was conducted with selection of the most effective pre-combustion chamber. The experimental investigations have been performed on single-cylinder AVL5804 research engine, which has been modified to SI and CNG fuelling. For the analysis of the thermodynamic, operational and emission indexes very advanced equipment has been applied. Based on the measuring results achieved for different pre-chamber configurations the extended methodology of polioptimization by pre-chamber selection and the shape of main chamber in the piston crown for proposed combustion system has been described and discussed. The results of the three versions of the optimization methods have been comparatively summarized in conclusions.
EN
The article presents toxic exhaust components emission measurement results as well as solid particles mass and number. The test involved a direct gasoline injection engine, in which special attention should be paid to the particulates number emission. Small diameters of nanoparticles make them particularly dangerous to human health. Nowadays, vehicle engines are constantly improved and modernized as a result of the need to meet existing exhaust gas emission standards. One of the few ways to determine the actual content of toxic and harmful compounds in the exhaust gases is the RDE (Real Driving Emissions) procedure, the requirements of which apply from 2016 for new vehicles, and from 2019 will apply to all registered passenger cars. The RDE procedure does not replace the WLTP (World Light-Duty Vehicle Test Procedure), but complements it. The tests on the dynamometer are separated from external conditions such as traffic volume or congestion and are not a sufficient indicator of emissions in real traffic conditions.
EN
Modernization of passenger cars and constant development of existing legislation lead to a reduction of exhaust emissions from these vehicles. In accordance with package 3 of the RDE test procedure, the European Commission has extended testing methods by including exhaust emissions during a cold start. The article compares the research results on the impact of ambient temperature during the cold start of spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines in road emission tests. The tests were carried out in line with the requirements of the RDE test procedure for passenger cars meeting the Euro 6d-Temp emissions standard. The obtained results were analyzed, i.e. there were compared the engine and vehicle operation parameters and the values of road exhaust emissions, during the cold start of gasoline and diesel engines at the ambient temperature of approximately 25°C. The summary presents the share of cold start phase of a passenger car (at the ambient temperature of around 25°C) for each exhaust emission compound in the urban part of the test, and in the entire RDE test, depending on the engine type used.
EN
The article concerns the use of an in-cylinder catalyst that allows reducing the exhaust emissions during diesel engine operation. This is an additional method of exhaust emission reduction - however, the active component is placed inside the combustion chamber - hence much closest to the combustion process. This allows reducing the emissions at the very source (catalyst applied on the glow plugs). Such solutions are necessary because the reduction of exhaust emissions from vehicles is a key aspect of reducing the negative impact of transport on the environment.
PL
W artykule omówione zostały problemy decyzyjne związane z kształtowaniem proekologicznego systemu transportowego. Przedstawiono problematykę kształtowania systemu transportowego z uwzględnieniem aspektów proekologicznych oraz omówiono kryteria oceny. Przedstawiono model proekologicznego systemu transportowego oraz sformułowano przykładowe zadanie optymalizacyjne rozłożenia potoku ruchu dla proekologicznego systemu transportowego.
EN
The article discusses decision problems related to shaping the pro ecological transport system. The problems of shaping the transport system including pro-ecological aspects were discussed and evaluation criteria were discussed. The model of a pro-ecological transport system was presented and an exemplary task of optimizing the distribution of a traffic flow for a pro-ecological transport system was formulated.
EN
The article presents and compares the results of exhaust emission tests in conditions of real vehicle traffic with the results obtained during bench tests on a chassis dynamometer in conditions of road traffic simulation. A series of tests were carried out using a mobile exhaust analyzer and a vehicle speed recorder. The research route was designated in the center of a large urban agglomeration. Laboratory tests were designed according to an algorithm approximating the actual driving sections, and when choosing their order during the test construction, a random factor was introduced. The presented approach reflects the random nature of road traffic while ensuring the representativeness of toxic emissions from the vehicle's exhaust system. The results of measurements of carbon dioxide emission, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons registered in road and stationary, laboratory emissin tests were compared. Substantial agreement was found between the tests. Difficulties and differences in results due to research problems have also been described.
PL
Przedstawiono analizę wyników pomiarów stężenia rtęci w spalinach pochodzących ze spalania węgla (kamiennego i brunatnego). Porównywano ze sobą wyniki pomiarów wykonanych metodą Ontario Hydro (O-H) oraz analizatorem do ciągłego pomiaru emisji rtęci HM-1400 TRX firmy Durag wyposażonym w by-pas konwertera (SCME). Pomiary wykonywano przed i za urządzeniami odpylającymi (filtr tkaninowy, elektrofiltr) oraz przed i za instalacją odsiarczania (metodą półsuchą i mokrą). Na podstawie wyników pomiarów określono wpływ miejsca pomiaru na różnicę pomiędzy uzyskanymi wynikami.
EN
Total Hg contents in exhaust gases from combustion of hard coal and lignite were detd. by using both methods before and after dedusting as well as before and after desulfurization to est. the impact of the measurement site on the results. The concns. of Hg in dedusted exhaust gases as well as in desulfurized exhaust gases obtained using both methods were at a similar level (SO2 concentration below 600 mg/m3).
EN
It is not possible to meet the current type approval standards for the exhaust emission from internal combustion engines without the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems. An additional problem is in the increased emissions in real driving conditions compared to the values obtained in type approval tests. The current legislative trends are not limited to just lowering the emission limits for new vehicles, but also actions aimed at reducing the impact of vehicles that are already in operation. One of such actions is known as retrofitting, described as retrofitting older structures with modern exhaust aftertreatment systems, without the need for any changes in the engine design. Research has shown that the emission of toxic compounds from agricultural machinery engines can reach values up to 30 times higher than those of an average passenger vehicle. This problem has been noticed by the legislators and regulations concerning operated non-road machines are successively being introduced. Such restrictions are already present in the Berlin city center for example, where all vehicles operated within the given zone must meet the Stage 3b emission limits. Retrofitting is a multi-stage process. The article discusses the issue of performing this process, starting with NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery) emission measurements, through simulation studies of a virtual model of a particulate filter in CFD software (Computational Fluid Dynamics), to verify its operation in an agricultural tractor, i.e. one of the most numerous vehicle types within the non-road vehicle group in Poland.
PL
Nie jest możliwe spełnienie aktualnych norm homologacji typu dla emisji spalin z silników spalinowych bez stosowania układów oczyszczania spalin. Dodatkowym problemem jest zwiększona emisja w rzeczywistych warunkach jazdy w porównaniu z wartościami uzyskanymi w badaniach homologacyjnych. Obecne tendencje legislacyjne nie ograniczają się tylko do obniżenia limitów emisji dla nowych pojazdów, ale także do działań mających na celu ograniczenie wpływu już eksploatowanych pojazdów. Jednym z takich działań jest modernizacja, opisywana jako modernizacja starszych konstrukcji za pomocą nowoczesnych systemów oczyszczania spalin, bez potrzeby wprowadzania jakichkolwiek zmian w projekcie silnika. Badania wykazały, że emisja szkodliwych związków z silników maszyn rolniczych może osiągnąć wartości do 30 razy wyższe niż w przypadku przeciętnego pojazdu pasażerskiego. Problem ten został zauważony przez ustawodawców i sukcesywnie wprowadzane są regulacje dotyczące eksploatowanych maszyn pozadrogowych. Takie ograniczenia są już obecne na przykład w centrum Berlina, gdzie wszystkie pojazdy eksploatowane w ramach danej strefy muszą spełniać limity emisji Stage 3b. Modernizacja jest procesem wieloetapowym. W artykule opisano problem prowadzenia tego procesu, wychodząc z pomiarów emisji NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery), poprzez badania metodą symulacji wirtualnego modelu filtru cząstek w oprogramowaniu CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), w celu sprawdzenia jej działania w ciągniku rolniczym, czyli jeden z najliczniejszych rodzajów pojazdów w grupie pojazdów nieporuszających się po drogach w Polsce.
EN
This article presents a comparison of CO2, CO and NOx emission from Saab 9-3 1.9 JTD and Fiat Bravo 2.0 JTD engines. The tests were conducted on the same route and reflect real driving emission from following passenger cars. Fiat Bravo engine is an evolution of 1.9 engine redeveloped to meet EURO 5 requirements. Despite cylinder diameter enlargement and increased fuel consumption harmful exhaust gases components were significantly reduced. Both of the engines had not exceeded the considered regulations. The results were obtained using SEMTECH DS device from PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System).
PL
W artykule przedstawiono porównanie emisji CO, CO2 oraz NOx dla dwóch pojazdów: Saab 9-3 z silnikiem 1.9 JTD oraz Fiat Bravo, którego silnik 2.0 JTD jest ewolucją wymienionego powyżej. Testy przeprowadzone zostały na tej samej trasie i odzwierciedlają rzeczywiste warunki ruchu dla danych pojazdów osobowych. Oprócz powiększenia średnicy cylindra o 1 mm innowacji poddano także zawór recyrkulacji spalin w celu spełnienia wymagań normy EURO 5. Oprócz limitu emisji NOx przekroczonej przez silnik Saaba pozostałe składniki pozostały w normie. Wyniki uzyskano za pośrednictwem aparatury SEMTECH DS z grupy PEMS (Portable Emissions Measurement System).
20
Content available remote Latest harmful exhaust emission limits for non-road category vehicles
EN
Non-road vehicles are a large group of machines and a vast majority of them utilize CI engines. This group includes agricultural vehicles, construction machinery, stationary engines, etc. Their regulations are less restrictive compared to vehicles from the HDV category which use similar engine units. For this reason, the Stage V standard will be introduced in 2018, adding reductions in the form of toxic exhaust emissions limits. In addition, retrofitting continues to gain popularity, which means retrofitting older engine designs with more modern exhaust gas after treatment systems. This article reviews also the use of PEMS analyzers to measure the real operation emission.
PL
Pojazdy o zastosowaniu pozadrogowym to szeroka grupa maszyn, w których wykorzystywane są głównie silniki o zapłonie samoczynnym. Należą do niej maszyny rolnicze, budowlane, silniki stacjonarne itp. W porównaniu do pojazdów ciężkich, w których używane są zbliżone konstrukcyjnie silniki spalinowe, przepisy dotyczące ich emisyjności są mniej restrykcyjne. Norma Stage V, która wejdzie w życie z rokiem 2018 ma zmniejszyć ta dysproporcję zmniejszając obowiązujące limity, a także wprowadzając ograniczenie liczby cząstek stałych. Dodatkowo, coraz większą rolę odgrywa retrofitting, czyli doposażanie starszych silników w nowoczesne układy oczyszczania gazów wylotowych, a także badania w rzeczywistych warunkach eksploatacji przy użyciu aparatury z grupy PEMS.
first rewind previous Strona / 11 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.