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EN
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones are increasingly being used for three dimensional (3D) mapping of the environment. This study utilised UAV technology to produce a revised 3D map of the University of Lagos as well as land cover change detection analysis. A DJI Phantom 4 UAV was used to collect digital images at a flying height of 90 m, and 75% fore and 65% side overlaps. Ground control points (GCPs) for orthophoto rectification were coordinated with a Trimble R8 Global Navigation Satellite System. Pix4D Mapper was used to produce a digital terrain model and an orthophoto at a ground sampling distance of 4.36 cm. The change detection analysis, using the 2015 base map as reference, revealed a significant change in the land cover such as an increase of 16,306.7 m2 in buildings between 2015 and 2019. The root mean square error analysis performed using 7 GCPs showed a horizontal and vertical accuracy of 0.183 m and 0.157 m respectively. This suggests a high level of accuracy, which is adequate for 3D mapping and change detection analysis at a sustainable cost.
EN
Timely and accurate detection of land use/land cover (LULC) change is important for the macro and micro level sustainable development of any region. For this purpose, geospatial techniques are the best tool for change analysis as they supply timely, cheaper, precise and up to date information. This paper examines the spatial temporal change trend in LULC in the case of Central Haryana. Landsat 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 images for the years 1975–2020 for pre and post monsoon periods were analyzed for the study. Radiometric correction was performed to derive better information. ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.3 are used for thematic layout and thematic change preparation. An unsupervised classification using ERDAS IMAGINE 2015 has also been done to classify study area in eight classes. The year 1975 is considered as the base year for change detection analysis. Results showed an increasing trend for the land use classes of built up, water body, and agricultural land without waterlogging in the pre and post monsoon periods between 1975 and 2020. Remaining land use classes of agriculture with waterlogging, open waterlogged area, vegetation and fallow land/sand dunes decreased during the same period. Increased human activities have changed the LULC in the region and have had a great impact on its sustainable regional development.
EN
The real estate cadastre is the primary source of information on land use. It re cords information related to the division of land into types based on the actual way of land use or development. The distinguished types of land use depend on many geographical factors, as well as historical and economic conditions. The study presents a comparison of the detail of land use classification registered in the real estate cadastre in areas functionally related to the urban areas of 9 European countries: Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Spain, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Germany and Poland. The research concerned the determination of the degree to which the classification of land use in urbanized areas is detailed, whether the studied European countries are characterized by the same number of distinguished classes of ob jects at different levels of detail, and what percentage are the distinguished classes of land use objects in urbanized areas in relation to all of the distinguished classes of objects land use at different levels of detail of classification. The study used legal acts regulating land use issues which have been made available in national languages by government institutions.
PL
Celem badań jest ocena możliwości realizacji klasyfikacji nadzorowanej z wykorzystaniem obrazów (komponentów) uzyskiwanych w wyniku przetworzenia oryginalnych obrazów Sentinel-2A za pomocą metody głównych składowych (PCA). Klasyfikację wykonano w ośmiu wariantach, z wykorzystaniem algorytmów najmniejszej odległości (MD, Minimum Distance) oraz największego prawdopodobieństwa (ML, Maximum Likelihood), przy czym zastosowano oryginalne kanały 2, 3, 4, 8 Sentinel-2A oraz różną liczbę komponentów. Wyniki klasyfikacji oceniono poprzez porównanie z danymi o pokryciu terenu według Ewidencji Gruntów i Budynków (EGiB). Przeprowadzenie klasyfikacji na ograniczonej do dwóch liczbie komponentów uzyskanych w procedurze PCA tylko nieznacznie zmieniło wyniki w porównaniu do klasyfikacji na oryginalnych, nieprzetworzonych kanałach Sentinel-2A. Najbardziej zbliżone do danych EGiB rezultaty uzyskano stosując klasyfikację ML kanałów oryginalnych, nieprzetworzonych lub używając wszystkich komponentów PCA. Podjęta próba porównania pokrycia terenu ustalonego za pomocą klasyfikacji obrazów satelitarnych z klasami pokrycia, które zostały wyodrębnione z mapy EGiB wykazała, że przetworzenie mapy z postaci wektorowej na rastrową wpływa istotnie na uzyskiwane wyniki.
EN
The aim of the research is to assess the feasibility of supervised classification using images (components) obtained through processing the original Sentinel-2A images by means of the principal component method (PCA). The classification was performed in eight variants, using the algorithms of the minimum distance (MD) and the maximum likelihood (ML), with the original channels 2, 3, 4, 8 of Sentinel-2A and a various number of components. The results of the classification were assessed by comparing them to the land coverage data of Land and Buildings Register (Ewidencja Gruntów i Budynków – EGiB). Performing the classification on a number of PCA components limited to two only slightly altered the results compared to the classification on the original, raw Sentinel-2A channels. The results most similar to the EGiB data were obtained using the ML classification of the original channels, i.e. raw channels or using all PCA components. The attempt to compare the land coverage established by the classification of satellite images to the coverage classes that were extracted from the EGiB map revealed that processing the map from vector to raster form significantly influences the obtained results.
EN
Human disturbance and nutrient runoff lead to water pollution, particularly in downstream waters and reservoirs. We hypothesized that increased human activity in summer would affect the trophic state of downstream reservoirs, affecting the interannual species composition of rotifers. We used long-term data for the Unmun Reservoir in South Korea (2009–2015), which is increasingly affected by human activity. The interannual variation of nitrogen and phosphorus levels was higher in summer and autumn, resulting in eutrophication. This led to a change in species composition of rotifers. Anuraeopsis fissa, Brachionus calyciflorus and Trichocerca gracilis were abundant in the most eutrophic state, while high densities of Ascomorpha ovalis and Ploesoma hudsoni were observed when nutrient concentrations were lower. The trophic state changes in the Unmun Reservoir were largely attributed to summer human activity in tributary streams. Our study location is typical of the stream network in South Korea and we assume that similar trophic state changes in reservoirs will be common. Changes in the density and species diversity of rotifers due to eutrophication indicate the need for active management and conservation, including the restriction of human activity around streams.
EN
Light pollution is one of the types of environmental pollution. The sky illuminated by the excessive light emission is an inherent element of the modern world. This phenomenon has been known for over a century, but research has been carried out only for several decades. Analysis of the brightness of the sky was made for Toruń (Poland) and neighboring areas. The main aim of the study was to study the distribution of brightness of the sky over a medium-sized city. The basic research method was a direct measurement of brightness made with the SQM photometer. The conducted research was carried out throughout the calendar year on 24 measurement stations located in Toruń. Measurement stations represented various types of buildings occurring in every city. On the basis of the obtained data, a map was made showing the extent of light pollution and its intensity, as well as the spatial distribution of this phenomenon. The brightness of the sky was also examined in terms of astronomical and weather conditions. Each aspect is documented in tabular and visual form.
PL
Ostatnie 25 lat w Polsce cechują duże zmiany społeczno-gospodarcze, wyraźnie widoczne także w pokryciu i użytkowaniu terenu. W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę ilościową, jakościową oraz przestrzenną zmian w pokryciu terenu, jakie zaszły w Polsce w latach 1990-2012, ze szczególnym zwróceniem uwagi na okresy: 1990-2000, 2000-2006 oraz 2006-2012. Analizy zostały wykonane na podstawie danych zgromadzonych w bazach CORINE Land Cover. Podstawowym celem badań była ocena zmian pokrycia terenu, które są następstwem zmian sposobu użytkowania ziemi w Polsce w okresie transformacji systemowej na przełomie XX i XXI wieku. Szczegółowo przeanalizowano przejmowanie gruntów rolnych i leśnych na budowę dróg oraz powiększanie terenów zabudowanych. Otrzymane wyniki pokazują, że powierzchnia zmian była stosunkowo niewielka i w żadnym z analizowanych okresów nie przekroczyła 1% powierzchni kraju. Zaobserwowano, że od 1990 roku następuje systematyczne zwiększanie terenów antropogenicznych głównie kosztem terenów rolniczych (gruntów ornych, sadów i plantacji oraz łąk i pastwisk) i zalesionych.
EN
The last 25 years in Poland are characterized by large socio-economic changes, clearly visible in the land cover. The article presents quantitative, qualitative and spatial characteristics of land cover changes in Poland in the years 1990-2012, with special attention paid to the periods 1990-2000, 2000-2006 and 2006-2012. The analyses base on CORINE land Cover data. The main objective of the study was to analyze the urbanization and accompanying land take of agricultural lands and forest for the construction of roads and the spread of built-up areas. The results show that the area of land cover changes was relatively small and it does not exceeded 1% of the country's territory. Since 1990 a systematic increase in anthropogenic areas is observed which is accompanying with afforestation, and decrease of arable lands.
EN
Land cover change is the result of complex interactions between social and environmental systems which change over time. While climatic and biophysics phenomena were for a long time the principal factor of land transformations, human activities are today the origin of the major part of land transformation which affects natural ecosystems. Quantification of natural and anthropogenic impacts on vegetation cover is often hampered by logistical issues, including (1) the difficulty of systematically monitoring the effects over large areas and (2) the lack of comparison sites needed to evaluate the effect of the factors. The effective procedure for measuring the degree of environmental change due to natural factors and human activities is the multitemporal study of vegetation cover. For this purpose, the aim of this work is the analysis of the evolution of land cover using remote sensing techniques, in order to better understand the respective role of natural and anthropogenic factors controlling this evolution. A spatio-temporal land cover dynamics study on a regional scale in Oranie, using Landsat data for two periods (1984–2000) and (2000–2011) was conducted. The images of the vegetation index were classified into three classes based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values and analysed using image difference approach. The result shows that the vegetation cover was changed. An intensive regression of the woody vegetation and forest land resulted in -22.5% of the area being lost between 1984 and 2000, 1,271 km2 was converted into scrub formations and 306 km2 into bare soil. On the other hand, this class increased by around 45% between 2000 and 2011, these evolutions resulting from the development of scrub groups with an area of 1,875.7 km2.
EN
Over the years, Cameron Highlands have witnessed extensive land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes due to the massive agricultural and urbanization activities. This significantly contributed to the erosion problems in the area. Rainfall erosivity that measures the aggressiveness of raindrop in triggering soil erosion is one of its major components that could be influenced by the LULC changes in watersheds. However, the research relating to the LULC changes with the erosivity especially in the complex landscape is scarce. Hence, this study applies geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to assess the LULC changes and their influence on the rainfall erosivity distribution in mountainous watershed of Cameron Highlands. Four Landsat images and the rainfall data from the period of thirty years were analysed for the development of LULC and erosivity maps respectively in ArcGIS environment. The study showed that the study area experienced immense land-use changes especially in agriculture and urbanization which affected the erosivity distribution. The LULC change for agriculture increased linearly in the last 30 years from 7.9% in 1986 to almost 16.4% in 2016. The results showed that urban development increased from 5.1% in 1986 to 11.4% in 2016. The increasing urbanization trend was targeted to meet up with tourism requirement in Cameron Highlands. However, forest class declined tremendously due to the exploration of land for agriculture practice and other various types of development. Watershed managers and other stakeholders should find this study beneficial in tackling erosion and its associated ecological challenges.
EN
The objective of this paper is the assessment of the share of individual land cover categories in centric and ring-shaped evaluation polygons. In the analyses the data from the Corine Land Cover project for 2006 and 2012 were used. These data are available through the Urban Atlas. The basic spatial statistics concerning the land cover categories were determined. As a result of the analyses, information about land cover changes that took place over a period of 6 years was obtained, observed with increasing distance from the assumed reference point. An inference was also made regarding the possibility of determining the changes taking place in selected units in the period of 2006–2012.
PL
W ramach badań przeprowadzona została ocena stopnia udziału poszczególnych kategorii pokrycia w centrycznych poligonach oceny o kształcie pierścieni. Określono podstawowe statystyki przestrzenne dotyczące kategorii pokrycia terenu. Wykorzystano dane opracowane w ramach projektu Corine Land Cover dla roku 2006 i 2012, udostępnione poprzez Urban Atlas. W wyniku przeprowadzonych analizy otrzymano informacje o zmianach w pokryciu terenu, jakie zaszły w okresie 6 lat, w raz z oddalaniem się od przyjętego punktu odniesienia. Przeprowadzono także wnioskowanie dotyczące badania możliwości określenia zmian zachodzących w wybranych jednostkach w okresie od 2006 do 2012 roku.
EN
The aim of the study was to diagnose the main trends of the changes in land cover around the urban agglomerations, as illustrated with the example of Lublin, over the last twenty years (1998–2016), as well as their statistical and graphical presentation in the form of digital maps compilation. The project was conducted on the basis of the remote sensing data: RapidEye and LANDSAT 5 TM satellite imagery from three temporal records (1998, 2009–11, 2016–17). Detailed research was carried out in purposefully selected municipalities. The performed analyses showed that in the studied municipalities some changes in the use of arable land and grassland occurred. The largest loss in terms of area share was recorded mainly in the arable land. At the core of the metropolitan area, i.e. in the city of Lublin, over the last 20 years the share of arable land in the total area decreased by almost 11 percentage points (p.p.). In the municipalities located directly at the border with Lublin, this loss was much lower, and was equal 4–5 p.p. Slightly larger changes occurred in municipalities located further from the core, where both in the category of very good and slightly weaker natural conditions, losses of arable land were greater than in municipalities located directly at the core’s border of the metropolitan area (MA).
EN
The study discusses the changes in the land cover in the western part of the Zduńska Wola city. The study was based on the analysis of land cover data obtained from aerial photographs taken in years 1933 and 2015. For 82 years, significant changes took place in the city and they were reflected in land cover changes. The study area was covering 3.7 km2 and in the analysed period, the land cover changes took an area of 2.8 km², that is 75,7% of its surface. Changes mainly occurred on the grassy and agricultural areas, which were changed in to artificial surfaces, mainly into builtup areas.
PL
Celem artykułu jest analiz zmian pokrycia terenu wokół wybranych miast pofortecznych Śląska, na podstawie historycznych oraz współczesnych materiałów kartograficznych z użyciem oprogramowania GIS. Obszar badań obejmuje Nysę i Świdnicę, miasta na terenie których znajdują się nowożytne fortyfikacje oraz Oleśnicę, miasto nieposiadające w którym nigdy takich obwarowań nie było. Przeprowadzone badania pozwoliły określić wpływ fortyfikacji nowożytnych na rodzaj pokrycia otaczającego je terenu w okresie ponad 250 lat. Badania wykazały, że największe zmiany w formach pokrycia terenu wokół miasta związane były z likwidacją twierdzy i polegały głównie na wzroście powierzchni zabudowy miejskiej, rozwoju przemysłu i infrastruktury komunikacyjnej. Wyraźnie zmalała wówczas powierzchnia zieleni wysokiej i użytków zielonych. Wokół Oleśnicy nie zaobserwowano gwałtownych zmian w żadnym z badanych przedziałów czasowych, poza znacznym wzrostem powierzchni zabudowy miejskiej w pierwszej połowie XX w. We wszystkich badanych miastach na przełomie XX i XXI w. nastąpił duży wzrost powierzchni zabudowy miejskiej, infrastruktury i przemysłu, głównie kosztem powierzchni zieleni wysokiej oraz użytków zielonych.
EN
The aim of this study is the presentation of land cover changes around selected post-fortress cities located in Lower Silesia. The study is based on the historical and contemporary areas with the use of GIS. The area of the study includes the cities of Nysa and Świdnica, which have modern fortifications, and Oleśnica, a city which HAS never had this type of fortification.The study allowed the impact of modern fortifications on the type of land cover of surrounding areas and their changes, during over 250 years, to be determined. The study shows that the biggest changes in land use in all of the cities selected were connected with the liquidation of fortresses, and these were concerned mainly with the increase of urban areas, industrial areas, and transport areas. We can observe a decrease in forestry and grasslands. Around Oleśnica, we did not notice many changes, besides the increase of urban areas in the first half of the twentieth century. All cities at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries saw a large increase in urban development, infrastructure, and industry, mainly at the expense of forestry and grasslands.
EN
The suburban areas are lands under strong anthropogenic pressure which results in their significant transformation. Identifying the direction of changes and their intensity is the basis of research based on the analysis of land use and land cover. The study involved the analysis of land cover in the area of suburban zone of the city of Krakow based on the vector geodata available in the European Environment Agency database (Urban Atlas download service). Geographic data were classified according to various categories of coverage. The area was divided into evaluation clusters that included covering buffer zones with the given parameters according to the distance from the city: zones 0–5 km, 5–10 km, 10–15 km and 15–20 km. All analyzes were performed by means of the QGIS software using geoprocessing tools and additional ones of spatial statistics (among other things Group Stats). The percentage of each category of coverage in relation to the total area was made for each of the separate buffer zones’ statements. The theory of changing the structure of coverage categories along with diverging from the city according to the diagram of reducing participation of heavily anthropogenic areas to those less exposed to it was confirmed on the basis of this analysis.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wpływ zmian w pokryciu terenu na stosunki wodne w zlewni cieku Bogdanki o powierzchni 51,9 km2. Przeprowadzone badania i analizy dostępnych materiałów kartograficznych wykazały, że w latach 1940–2012 na wskutek procesów urbanizacyjnych nastąpił znaczny wzrost terenów przekształconych antropogenicznie (z prawie 8% w roku 1940 do ponad 42% w 2012). Obszary zurbanizowane (zabudowa i szlaki komunikacyjne) przyczyniły się do uszczelnienia terenu a co za tym idzie do obniżenia zdolności retencyjnych zlewni o 0,25 mln m3. Zmniejszenie zdolności retencyjnych zlewni przyczyniło się do wzrostu wielkości opadu efektywnego P10% o 0,4 mm i P1% o 0,8 mm, co skutkowało wzrostem przepływów maksymalnych o prawdopodobieństwie przewyższenia 10% i 1% w cieku o ponad 20%.
EN
This work presents the impact of land cover on water relations in the catchment of the Bogdanka watercourse which is 51.9 km2. The research and analysis of available cartographic materials have shown a significant increase in the anthropogenically transformed areas due to urbanization from almost 8% in 1940 to over 42% in 2012. Urbanized areas (buildings and communication routes) have contributed to sealing the area and thus reduced retention capacity by 0.25 million m3. Therefore, the effective rainfall P10% and P1% have increased respectively by 0.4 mm and 0.8 mm. As a result the maximum flow of exceedance probability of 10% and 1% have reached over 20% in the Bogdanka watercourse.
EN
The aim of the study was to characterise and analyse the changes in the structure of the natural environment in the municipality of Pelplin, located in the Pomeranian province in northern Poland, in the years 1972-2014. The study is based on the analysis aerial photographs and cartographic materials. The specific objectives of the work was to re-create the land cover status in 1972 and 2014 and provide a graphical representation of changes in the land cover at the beginning and end of the analysed period. In effect, a differential map was produced. To sum up, the range of surface changes in the various categories of land use / land cover in relation to the space they occupied in 1972 should be ranked in the following order: grassland, areas with a transport function and roads, watercourses and reservoirs, built-up areas, plantings and bushes , forests , arable land. The only category which reduced its surface area included arable land, whereas other categories recorded an increase. Overall, the changes included 11.5 km2, i.e. 8.3 % of the municipality.
EN
Land development and consumption have spun out of control in major cities in Ghana. Kumasi as the second main and fastest growing city with an annual population growth rate of 5.4% in Ghana is experiencing this phenomenon. Land use/cover change in rural–urban peripheral is foremost to these dynamic changes. This study is premised on remote sensing and GIS methods to explore urbanization in Kumasi rural–urban fringe. Satellite data (Landsat multi-temporal images and Disaster Monitoring Constellation-DMC) and GIS techniques were used to analyze and compute the land cover changes (amount, trend and location) that had transpired for the period of 1986 to 2011. This study assesses the nature, extent and impact of urban growth (compact and sprawl) on Kumasi and surrounding districts. The study showed that, forest loss is massive, agricultural activities in Kumasi is receding as the years go but intensifying in the fringe districts. Settlements are expanding in all directions at the expense of farmland but firstly along the roads.
EN
One of the elements of the mineral deposit prospectivity analysis is the evaluation of land surface in terms of the conditions and possible restrictions on the potential exploitation of ores, which are connected with diverse forms of land use and protecting valuable nature areas. In the article the quantitative method of cartographic environmental analysis of the accessibility of mineral deposit areas is presented, based on the evaluation of land cover (CORINE Land Cover) and legal protected areas by the GIS system application. The core of the method is the point bonitation made in the specially calculated grid of elementary fields. The method was used to show and evaluate both the spatial planning and nature protection conditions for the potential exploitation in prospective areas of selected raw materials, such as: metal ores and gypsum, rock salt, K–Mg salts and native sulphur in Poland. The prospective areas with estimated resources were presented on maps at scale 1 : 200 000. The results are presented in the cartographic form, allowing appointing locations for mine investments.
19
Content available remote Próba budowy katastru słonecznego na obszarze miasta Zielona Góra
PL
W artykule przedstawiono możliwości wykorzystania danych pozyskanych metodą skaningu laserowego do budowy katastru słonecznego, umożliwiającego dostarczenie szczegółowych informacji na temat przydatności dachów budynków do montażu ogniw fotowoltaicznych. W artykule przybliżono funkcjonowanie wybranych, istniejących w Europie i na świecie, portali geoinformacyjnych zawierających dane dotyczące katastru słonecznego oraz podjęto próbę budowy katastru (mapy nasłonecznienia) dla fragmentu obszaru miasta Zielona Góra. W tym celu został wykorzystany numeryczny model pokrycia terenu zapisany w postaci rastrowej, uzupełniony o dane metrologiczne pozyskane dla omawianego obszaru oraz obrysy przyziemia budynków stanowiące element bazy danych obiektów topograficznych.
EN
The article presents possibilities of using data obtained by aerial laser scanning to make a portal containing detailed geographical information about building roofs on which photovoltaic cells could be installed. The article explains how selected geoportals containing data about solar cadastres work in Europe and in the other parts of the world. It also presents an attempt to prepare a solar cadastre (an insolation map) for a part of the town of Zielona Góra. For this purpose a numerical land cover model was used, presented in raster graphics, complemented with meteorological data obtained for the area under analysis as well as outlines of the ground levels of buildings as a component of the database of topographical objects.
20
Content available remote CORINE Land Cover 2012 - 4th CLC inventory completed in Poland
EN
The first European and Polish CORINE Land Cover map was created for the reference year 1990, then subsequently for 2000 and 2006. The long heritage of CLC inventories allows researchers to perform a long-term analysis of land cover dynamics at national and European scale. This article focuses on the results of the CLC2012 inventory and analysis of land cover changes which occured between 2006 and 2012. The 4th CORINE Land Cover inventory was carried out by the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography (IGiK). After an effort of one and a half year of mapping using visual satellite image interpretation, the CORINE Land Cover 2012 and land cover changes 2006-2012 for the entire coutry have been completed. The total area of land cover changes between 2006 and 2012 reached about 1% of the terrority of Poland (309 741 ha). More than 75% of land cover changes occured in forest and semi-natural class, almost 19% in the artificial class, 5% in agriculture land and the remaining 1% in wetlands and water bodies.
PL
Pierwsza mapa i baza danych CORINE Land Cover zawierająca informacje o pokryciu terenu została opracowana dla krajów Europy Zachodniej i Środkowej, w tym Polski, dla roku 1990, następnie dla lat 2000, 2006 i 2012. Porównanie baz danych pozwala na analizę dynamiki pokrycia terenu w okresie ostatnich 22 lat. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono wyniki czwartej inwentaryzacji pokrycia terenu - CORINE 2012 dla Polski. Projekt CORINE Land Cover 2012 był realizowany przez Instytut Geodezji i Kartografii (IGiK) w Warszawie. W wyniku trwającej prawie półtora roku wizualnej interpretacji zobrazowań satelitarnych została opracowana baza danych, która obejmowała zmiany pokrycia terenu w latach 2006-2012 oraz baza danych pokrycia terenu CLC2012. Całkowita powierzchnia zmian pokrycia terenu w latach 2006-2012 stanowiła niemal 1% powierzchni kraju (309 741 ha). Ponad 75% wszystkich zmian pokrycia terenu miało miejsce na obszarach leśnych i w ekosystemach seminaturalnych, 19% na terenach antropogenicznych, 5% na obszarach rolnych i pozostałe 1% objęło obszary podmokłe i wodne.
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