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PL
Fibrobeton, czyli beton zbrojony włóknami, otrzymywany jest przez dodanie do mieszanki betonowej włókien metalicznych lub niemetalicznych. Przeprowadzone badania miały na celu sprawdzenie, czy norma PN-EN 14651, przeznaczona do trzypunktowego testu zginania betonowych próbek zbrojonych włóknami metalicznymi, może być również zastosowana do badań betonu z włóknami syntetycznymi. Zbadano ponadto urabialność i wytrzymałość na ściskanie betonu z włóknami i bez nich. Sprawdzono również, czy dana objętość i rodzaj zastosowanej fibry mógłby zastąpić tradycyjne zbrojenie prętami stalowymi, a więc czy badany kompozyt może pełnić funkcję konstrukcyjną. W ramach badań została przygotowana betonowa mieszanka bez włókien oraz mieszanka z dodatkiem 0,22% (2 kg/m3) włókien syntetycznych. Dla obu mieszanek ilość cementu, kruszywa, wody i superplastifikatora była identyczna. W artykule omówiono podstawy prowadzenia badań, zastosowane materiały, sposób przygotowania próbek oraz technikę badań i wyniki badań wytrzymałości na ściskanie.
EN
Fiber-reinforced concrete is obtained by adding metallic or nonmetallic fibers to the concrete mixture. The tests were carried out to check whether the PN-EN 14651 standard, intended for three-point bending test the concrete samples reinforced with metallic fibers, can also be used for testing the concrete samples reinforced with synthetic fibers. In addition, the workability and compressive strength of concrete with and without fibers were tested. It was also checked whether used volume and type of fiber could replace traditional reinforcement with steel bars, and thus whether the tested composite can function as a structure. As part of the research, concrete mixture without fibers and with the addition of 0,22% (2 kg/m3) of synthetic fibers were prepared. For both mixtures, the amount of cement, aggregate, water and superplasticizer was identical. The article presents the basics of testing, materials used, method of sample preparation as well as the test technique, and the results of the compressive strength tests.
EN
The main issue of the article is the corrosion of the reinforced concrete elements by the co-influence of the aggressive and power factors. The problem of corrosion is extremely actual one. Therefore the tests were carried out upon the specimens considering the corrosion in the acid environment, namely 10 % H2SO4. The acid environment H2SO4 was taken as a model of the aggressive environment. Conclusions concerning the corrosion model of the cross section and investigation of stress-strain state have been made. That material concerns the problem of the reinforced concrete corrosion as a whole construction. Reinforced concrete beams were tested with and without the co-action of the aggressive environment and power factor.
EN
The paper deals with the working peculiarities of the support zones of reinforced concrete elements subject to bending with due account of the eccentric compression and tension. The authors performed simulation of the stress-strain behaviour of the indicated structures with the aid of “Lira” software which results are shown in the graphical and tabulated form. The performed simulation allowed of tracing the work of the studied sample beams till collapse. Such approach made it possible to single out and generalize the main collapse patterns of the inclined cross-sections of the reinforced concrete elements subject to bending on which basis the authors developed the improved method to calculate their strength (Karpiuk et al., 2019).
EN
In this work on the basis of the developed and tested mathematical model, the numerical experiment is conducted in order to study in more detail the specifics of performance of concrete beams` with combined reinforcement. For this purpose nine series of reinforced concrete beams with different combination of steel bars (A400C, At800, A1000) and ribbon reinforcement (C275) were modeled. In the developed series two classes of concrete were used: C50/60, C35/45. The functions derived on the basis of mathematical modeling allow us to determine the recommended percentage of high-strength reinforcement of common reinforced concrete structures with single reinforcement. Therefore, the possibility is obtained to reduce the total structures` reinforcement percentage, increasing their deformability by the specified value without affecting the bearing capacity.
EN
The article presents the problems of building and maintaining urban transport infrastructure in Warsaw at the turn of the 20th century. The text concerns Kajetan Mościcki (1855-1933), engineer, who was appointed by the acting Mayor of Warsaw, General Sokrates Starynkiewicz, to the position of senior city engineer and head of the municipal construction department, where he worked from 1889 to 1909. During this period, he paved the streets which were worn or damaged by sewerage works with wooden blocks and covered the sidewalks with concrete slabs. He designed the first slip road in the Kingdom of Poland in the form of a spiral, and he also participated in the construction of the oldest road engineering structures made of reinforced concrete, located in Ujazdowski Park and on Karowa street in Warsaw, the first Warsaw power plant and the second city bridge across the Vistula. In addition to his professional activity, Kajetan Mościcki was an inventor in the fields of mechanics and electrical engineering. At the end of his life, he founded an award that the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences was to grant to Polish scientists for outstanding achievements.
EN
Alfa fiber reinforced concretes are not used to their full potential due to the limited information on their properties, especially in more severe environments. In this study, the effects of elevated temperature on the properties of concretes reinforced with Alfa fiber were analyzed. The influence of fiber length on reinforced concretes is mainly investigated. For this purpose, five types of structural concretes were formulated; two types of concrete reinforced with 1% Alfa fiber volume using two different fiber lengths of 20 mm and 30 mm (AC-20, and AC-30), and three control concretes, two polypropylene fiber reinforced concretes (PC) using the same fiber length (PC-20, PC-30), and one ordinary concrete (OC). The results showed that with the increase of temperature, the mechanical performance decreased and the porosity rose continually for all mixtures. However, the use of Alfa fiber with a length of 20 mm showed the optimal results in terms of compressive and tensile strength, even at temperatures of 600°C. This finding suggests that Alfa vegetable fiber can be used to produce more sustainable concretes with acceptable mechanical properties compared to the use of polypropylene fiber, even under severe conditions of elevated temperature
EN
The purpose of this paper is to study the durability of concrete reinforced with hemp fibers in the face of external Sulfatic attack. For this purpose, five types of concrete were formulated; three types of concrete reinforced with hemp fibers (HC-0.25, HC-0.5, and HC-1) at 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1 % of hemp fibers in volume, respectively. And two control concretes, being ordinary concrete (OC) and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PC). To assess the sulfatic attacks, the described concrete types underwent two aging protocols: 1) a complete immersion in 12.5 % Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) solution, and 2) an accelerated aging protocol consisting of immersion/drying in the same sulfate solution at a temperature of 60°C. The results show that concrete reinforced with 0.25 % of hemp fibers is the optimal amount compared to control concretes in terms of physico-mechanical performance and durability under sulfate attack. This number of fibers could enable the production of green and durable structural concretes based on untreated hemp fibers.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono badania zawartości chloru w betonie i proces korozji, w oparciu o pomiary oporu przewodnictwa elektrycznego i potencjału półogniwa próbek betonowych. Te analizy opierały się na doświadczalnych pomiarach próbek w funkcji czasu zanurzenia w 3,5% roztworze NaCl w wodzie, w temperaturze pokojowej, przez 18 miesięcy, zgodnie z europejskimi normami. Przygotowano mieszanki betonowe o różnym składzie, do których dodawano inhibitor, jakim był azotan wapnia i dwa rodzaje superplastyfikatorów. Wyniki doświadczeń pokazały, że po sześciu miesiącach zanurzenia próbki miały dużą zawartość jonów chlorkowych. Próbki C4 z dodatkiem 3% inhibitora i superplastyfikatora w formie Oxydtronu, jak również C3 z tym samym dodatkiem inhibitora i superplastyfikatora MAPEI Dynamon SR 31, wykazały dobrą odporność na korozję, w stosowanym roztworze NaCl. Znalazło to również potwierdzenie w serii pomiarów przewodnictwa elektrycznego i potencjału półogniwa, przeprowadzonych po doświadczalnym okresie 18 miesięcy.
EN
This work presents a study of the total chloride contents in concrete and the corrosion process by testing electrical resistivity and half-cell potential of concrete samples. The analysis was based on an experimental investigation of the samples with the time of immersion in 3.5% mass NaCl aqueous solution at room temperature for 18 months, according to European Standards. For this study, different mixtures of concrete were prepared by adding two types of superplasticizers and calcium nitrate inhibitor, in different concentrations. The results of the Cl- ions test showed that all the samples, after an immersion testing period of six months, contained high concentrations of Cl- ions. Samples C4 with 3% calcium nitrate inhibitor and Oxydtron superplasticizer as well as C3 with 3% calcium nitrate inhibitor and Mapei Dynamon SR 31 superplasticizer, showed good resistance to corrosion, in the tested environment. It was also proved by the results of several sets of measurements of the electrical resistivity and half-cell potentials carried on the concrete test samples, to the end of the 18 months testing period.
EN
The main objective of this study is to highlight the performance of beams composed of lightweight concrete-filled steel tubes (square and circle sections) composite with reinforced concrete deck slab. A total of nine composite beams were tested included two circular and seven square concrete-filled steel tubes. Among the nine composite beams, one beam, S20-0-2000, was prepared without a deck slab to act as a reference specimen. The chief parameters investigated were the length of the specimen, the compressive strength of the concrete slab, and the effect of the steel tube section type. All beams were tested using the three-point bending test with a concentrated central point load and simple supports. The test results showed that the first crack in the concrete deck slab was recorded at load levels ranging from 50.9% to 77.2% of the ultimate load for composite beams with square steel tubes. The ultimate load increased with increasing the compressive strength of the concrete slab. Shorter specimens were more stiffness than the other specimens but were less ductile. The slip values were equal to zero until the loads reached their final stages, while the specimen S20-55-1100 (short specimen) exhibited zero slip at all stages of the load. The ultimate load of the hollow steel tube composite beam was 13.2% lower than that of the reference beam. Moreover, the ductility and stiffness of the beam were also higher for beams with composite-filled steel tubes.
EN
In this research, nonlinear analysis of composite shear walls (CSWs) with a gap between reinforced concrete wall and steel frame is investigated under cyclic loading by the use of the finite element method (FEM) software ABAQUS. For the purpose of the verification, an experimental test is modelled and comparison of its obtained result with that of the experimental test demonstrates an inconsiderable difference between them; therefore, the reasonable accuracy of the modelling is revealed. Then, effects of different parameters on the behaviour of the CSWs are examined. Gap size between reinforced concrete wall and steel frame, reinforcement percentage, steel sections of beams and columns, and existence of reinforced concrete wall are considered as parameters. It is concluded that change of the parameters affects the ultimate strength, ductility, and energy dissipation of the system. A steel shear wall (SSW) is also modelled and compared with the CSWs. Buckling of the walls is presented as well.
EN
This paper examines the experimental performance of ultra-high-performance steel fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPSFRC) beams subjected to loads at relatively low shear span-to-depth ratios. The results and observations from six tests provide a detailed insight into the ultimate response including shear strength and failure mode of structural elements incorporating various fibre contents. The test results showed that a higher fibre content results in an increase in ultimate capacity and some enhancement in terms of ductility. Detailed nonlinear numerical validations and sensitivity studies were also undertaken in order to obtain further insights into the response of UHPSFRC beams, with particular focus on the influence of the shear span-to-depth ratio, fibre content and flexural reinforcement ratio. The parametric investigations showed that a reduction in shear span-to-depth ratio results in an increase in the member capacity, whilst a reduction in the flexural reinforcement ratio produces a lower ultimate capacity and a relatively more flexible response. The test results combined with those from numerical simulations enabled the development of a series of design expressions to estimate the shear strength of such members. Validations were performed against the results in this paper, as well as against a collated database from previous experimental studies.
EN
The effects of carbon fiber and its surface treatment through chemical solutions on the mechanical properties and electromagnetic (EM) shielding of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) were analyzed. Three types of carbon fibers chemically treated with sodium hydroxide, nitric acid, and ammonia solutions were evaluated, along with a plain carbon fiber control sample, at two different concentrations of 0.1% and 0.3% by weight. The surface of carbon fiber was oxidized by chemical solutions. The conductivity of UHPFRC increased with increasing the carbon fiber content, and slightly better conductivity was obtained using the chemically treated carbon fibers than plain fibers at the lower content of 0.1 wt%. Both steel and carbon fibers were effective at improving the shielding effectiveness of ultra-high-performance concrete, and a higher shielding effectiveness was achieved for higher carbon fiber content. Surface treatment using the nitric acid solution was the most effective at enhancing the tensile performance and EM shielding effectiveness, and the best shielding effectiveness (49.0 dB at 1 GHz) was achieved for UHPFRC with 0.1 wt% nitric acid treated carbon fibers. The shielding effectiveness was found to be generally proportional to the electrical conductivity, although its increase was minor relative to that of the conductivity.
EN
Theoretical and experimental studies of new technology and equipment on the fulfilled cables and ropes of handling equipment are provided for diagnosis of main process. The result of the safe processing is steel fiber which is used further for production of a steel-fiber reinforced concrete. The research offered a number of essentially new diagnose methods which considerably increases engineering procedures of fiber production from waste.
EN
The article lists the fi rst applications of the Joseph Monier patent for the construction of reinforced concrete bridges that took place on the Polish lands. The history of the construction of Monier reinforced concrete arch bridges by Biuro Techniczne Arnold Bronikowski & S-ka Inżynierowie in the Kingdom of Poland was described on the basis of written sources, iconography, literature and current records. In particular, these included the bridge on the pond in the Ujazdów Park in Warsaw, the Reformacki Bridge on the Rypinowski Canal in Kalisz, the bridge over the Czechówka River in Lublin and the viaduct along the Karowa Street in Warsaw. The basic technical parameters of these constructions, dates of implementation and current status were specifi ed. The life and professional achievements of engineer Arnold Bronikowski were presented in the context of his constructions, both beautiful and innovative at the time. Three of the engineering objects described in the article survived the ravages of war and remain in use today.
EN
Image-based damage detection methods using guided waves are well known and widely applied approaches in structural diagnostics. They are usually utilized in detection of surface damages or defects of plate-like structures. The article presents results of the study of applicability of imaging wave-based methods in detection in miniscule internal damage in the form of debonding. The investigations were carried out on numerical models of reinforced concrete beams with varying size of circumferentially oriented debonding between steel rod and concrete block. Maps created using root mean square of measured signals are presented. Moreover, the results were collected for two different excitation frequencies.
PL
Metody obrazowania uszkodzeń wykorzystujące propagację fal prowadzonych są dobrze znanym i powszechnie stosowanym narzędziem w diagnostyce konstrukcji. Zwykle są one wykorzystywane do wykrywania uszkodzeń powierzchniowych lub uszkodzeń obiektów płytowych. W artykule przedstawiono analizę możliwości wykorzystania metod obrazowania bazujących na propagacji fal prowadzonych w wykrywaniu niewielkich, wewnętrznych uszkodzeń w postaci rozwarstwienia. Analiza została przeprowadzona z użyciem modeli numerycznych belek żelbetowych z obwodowym rozwarstwieniem pomiędzy zbrojeniem a otuliną betonową charakteryzującym się różnymi rozmiarami. Po obliczeniu średniej kwadratowej dla zarejestrowanych sygnałów, wykonane zostały mapy. Ponadto, przedstawiono wyniki dla dwóch różnych częstotliwości wzbudzenia.
EN
Embedded ultrasonic transmission measurements can be a cost effective and more user-friendly alternative in comparison to commonly used structural health monitoring systems used in civil engineering to detect operational or environmental changes in structure. They can be used to detect small structural changes in large concrete structures without necessity of placing a sensor on the spot where the changing is taking place. This paper presents the investigations on the possibility of utilising autoregressive model, where the velocity of ultrasonic wave in a medium is dependent on the operational state. The goal is to use the model for localization of operational changes in the large concrete structure by means of embedded ultrasonic transducer networks. In this study, several static load tests and dynamic test on large reinforced concrete beams have been performed using embedded ultrasonic sensors. Using the autoregressive model it is possible to localize operational changes in the concrete structure. The proposed approach of diagnostic signal processing allows for precise evaluation of structural changes in concrete.
PL
Zintegrowane ultradźwiękowe pomiary transmisyjne mogą być efektywną pod względem kosztów i bardziej przyjazną dla użytkownika alternatywą w odniesieniu do często stosowanych systemów monitorowania stanu struktur w budownictwie w celu detekcji eksploatacyjnych lub środowiskowych zmian strukturalnych. Mogą one być wykorzystane przy detekcji minimalnych zmian w dużych strukturach betonowych bez konieczności umieszczenia czujnika w lokalizacji występującej zmian. Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań w zakresie możliwości zastosowania modelu autoregresyjnego, gdzie prędkość fali ultradźwiękowej w medium jest zależny od stanu eksploatacyjnego. Celem jest zastosowanie modelu do lokalizacji zmian eksploatacyjnych w dużej betonowej strukturze, wykorzystując sieci zintegrowanych przetworników ultradźwiękowych. W niniejszej pracy monitorowano statyczne i dynamiczne testy dużych zbrojonych betonowych belek z wykorzystaniem wbudowanych czujników. Stosując model autoregresyjny, możliwe było zlokalizowanie zmian eksploatacyjnych w betonowej strukturze. Zaproponowane podejście diagnostycznego przetwarzania sygnałów pozwala na dokładną oceną zmian strukturalnych w betonie.
PL
Posadzki przemysłowe stanowią jeden z najważniejszych niekonstrukcyjnych elementów hal magazynowych, produkcyjnych czy innych zakładów przemysłowych. Dobór odpowiedniego rozwiązania, dbałość o jakość wykonania oraz późniejszą eksploatację mają ogromny wpływ na transport wewnętrzny składowanych materiałów, możliwości składowania, produkcyjne oraz ogólnoużytkowe. Ponadto muszą spełniać wymagania, stawiane na etapie projektu przez inwestora, odnośnie trwałości, nośności, płaskości (równości powierzchni) oraz odporności fizykochemicznej. Jest to bardzo ważne założenie, ze względu na fakt, iż każde uszkodzenie płyty posadzki powoduje przestoje w zakładach – co pociąga za sobą zwykle bardzo duże koszty ponoszone przez inwestora.
EN
Industrial floors are one of the most important non-structural elements of warehouses, production halls and other industrial plants. Choosing right solution, care for the quality of workmanship and subsequent operation have a huge impact on the internal transport of stored materials, storage capacity, production and general use. In addition, they must meet the requirements set at the design stage by the Investor regarding durability, load-bearing capacity, flatness (surface equality) and physico-chemical resistance. This is a very important assumption, due to the fact that any damage to the floor slab causes downtime in the plants resulting in additional costs incurred by the investor.
18
Content available remote Zakotwienie siatek kompozytowych PBO-FRCM
PL
W artykule przedstawiono kompozyty PBO-FRCM jako skuteczną metodę wzmacniania konstrukcji żelbetowych. Dokonano przeglądu aktualnych badań dotyczących mechanizmów zniszczenia wzmocnień. Dodatkowo przeanalizowano możliwość zastosowania zakotwień siatek PBO, które mogą zwiększyć efektywność wzmocnienia. Przedstawiono również dalsze perspektywy rozwoju badań nad zakotwieniami siatek w kompozytach PBO-FRCM.
EN
In the paper the PBO-FRCM composites used as a successful method of reinforced concrete structures strengthening are presented. Current research concerning strengthening failure modes are shown. Additionally, the possibility of applying PBO fabric anchoring leading to strengthening efficiency increase is discussed. Finally, the prospects for future research on PBO-FRCM fabric anchoring are given.
PL
Przedstawiono wybrane przykłady wad i uszkodzeń wielkopowierzchniowych podłóg o konstrukcji betonowej. Wprowadzono podstawową klasyfikację przyczyn uszkodzeń, dzieląc je z uwagi na usytuowanie w konstrukcji oraz umiejscowienie w procesie inwestycyjnym.
EN
The article presents selected examples of defects and damages of large-area concrete floors. A basic classification of the causes of damages was proposed, divided according to the location of the damage in the structure and stage of the investment process.
PL
Przedstawiono problem wtórnego wykorzystania włókien stalowych z recyklingu opon samochodowych do zbrojenia betonu. Obawa przed stosowaniem kordu stalowego jest związana z jego charakterystyką geometryczną. Podano wyniki badań, które dowodzą, że ten rodzaj włókien może być zastosowany w celu poprawy posprężystych właściwości.
EN
The paper deals with the problem of the secondary management of steel fibers from end-of-life tires as a reinforcement of concrete. Fear of using steel cord is mainly connected with their geometrical characteristics. The presented research proved that this kind of fibers can be used for improving post-peak mechanical parameters of concrete.
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