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The northern part of Lubusz Lakeland is the area of a various relief, where are clearly marked morphological by varied Ośno-Sulechów Hills and a flat Torzym Plain, situated farther south. Both units are cut by deep valleys used by rivers and lakes. The relief generally arose at the end of South-Polish Glaciations. In the first stage, push moraine[Ośno-Sulechów Hills] formed of folded Paleogene and Neogene and Quaternary sediments. The extent of the vertical Cenozoic sediment movements presumably exceeds 250 m. On the Torzym Plain, there were much less disturbed Paleogene and Neogene sediments in the form of a big beaming folding structures. In spite of the lack of Paleogene and Neogene convincing evidence, it’s not possible to reject tectonic movements during formation Ooeno-Sulechów Hills and Torzym Plain. The younger glaciations modified earlier elements of this relief to a small extent. During the next stage of the South-Polish Glaciations [Sanian] very deep subglacial valleys were eroded, which probably were connected with the drainage system of central and northern Germany. The valleys cut out the subglacial zone of Ośno-Sulechów Hills and Torzym Plain to the depth of over 160 m b.s.l. Those valleys still existed during the next glaciations and interglacials, as indicated by fluvial and lacustrine sediments of Mazovian Interglacial age, as well as valley sandurs of Pliszka and Ilanka rivers originated during the Weichselian.
Ice sheet movement in northeastern Poland is reconstructed from analysis of the spatial orientation of glacial landforms and glaciotectonic deformations. The orientations of both positive and negative glacial landforms (morpholineaments) of the Vistulian Glaciation were analysed. These landforms form 4 sets and follow an original crevasse system (joint net) within the ice sheet, probably resulting from horizontal stress exerted as the ice advanced from the north. Esker deposits have been glaciotectonically deformed to form a compressional fan fold, due to limited movement of the ice sheet prior to deglaciation. This movement caused the ice crevasses to be tightened and cut by strike-slip faults. Movement here was from the NNW, as determined from the orientation of deformations. Thus, the ice-flow direction changed at least by 10° during the last phase of the Vistulian Glaciation. If the ice rotated the northeastern portion of the esker, this change may have amounted to 30°.
Content available Glaciotectonics of Belar
Different glaciotectonic structures and landforms occur in the territory of Belarus: folded dislocations, glacial depressions, rafts and injective features. The largest folded glaciodislocation is 30 km long and 8-11 km wide, and glacial rafts are up to 1.5 km long and 20-25 m thick. Many glaciotectonic structures are clearly expressed in landscape. Most large folded glaciodislocations were formed during the Sozh (Warthe) Stage of the Dnieper Glaciation.
Content available Glaciotectonic features in Lithuania
Systematic investigations of glaciotectonic features in Lithuania started in 1994. The first glaciotectonic review map of Lithuania has been carried out as a constituent part of the glaciotectonic map of central Europe. Two groups of landforms linked with glaciotectonic structures (composite ridges and massifs, drumlins and flutings) have been distinguished. Distribution of the pre-Quaternary megablocks in the Quaternary deposits is presented also, and the number of megablocks composed of rocks of different age and lithology is directly proportional to their extension in the sub-Quaternary surface. The other more detailed investigations of glaciotectonic features in Lithuania are connected with regular geological mapping in scale of 1:50 000. Results of the first detailed studies of glaciotectonic features (folds, thrust faults, diapirs) investigated in two outcrops in southeastern Lithuania and in the Lithuanian maritime region are presented in the paper.
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